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# Lecture 6 measurement i

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### Lecture 6 measurement i

1. 1. #6 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Previous Research Craft Knowledge Appropriate Design Appropriate Sampling Decisions Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Interpretation Dissemination Ongoing Research
2. 2. Levels of Measurement <ul><li>Properties of Measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Properties of measurement are arranged hierarchically: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discreet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equidistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Zero </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A measure must have the preceding property before one can assess if it has any subsequent properties. </li></ul>
3. 3. Levels of Measurement <ul><li>Discreet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No overlapping categories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events must fit into one and only one number or category </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers or categories have a progression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An increase in number corresponds to an increase in the amount of a characteristic being measured </li></ul></ul>
4. 4. Levels of Measurement <ul><li>Equidistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distance between any two points in the continuum measured must correspond to an equal amount of difference for any other two points that are separated by the same numeric magnitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between one apple and two is one apple, the difference between 67 and 68 apples is still one apple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Absolute Zero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the criteria for preceding properties are met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There can be an absolute absence of a characteristic or event being measured </li></ul></ul>
5. 5. Levels of Measurement <ul><li>Levels of measurement are also hierarchical </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of measurement include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nominal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must possess all of the properties of the previous level to be evaluated for being a higher level of measurement </li></ul><ul><li>The hierarchy in levels of measurement imply greater levels of precision </li></ul>
6. 6. Levels of Measurement <ul><li>Nominal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discreet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ordinal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discreet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interval </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discreet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equidistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discreet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equidistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute Zero </li></ul></ul>
7. 7. Levels of Measurement
8. 8. Discussion Question <ul><li>What level of measurement do these variables possess? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A persons gender? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An answer to a single question on a 7 point scale? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A standardized score on the CBCL Aggressive Behavior subscale? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often a client smokes a cigarette during a 24 hour time period? </li></ul></ul>