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Lecture 5--Research Questions II


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Lecture 5--Research Questions II

  1. 1. #5 Location In The Research Process Formulating Research Questions Previous Research Craft Knowledge Appropriate Design Appropriate Sampling Decisions Ensure Research Ethics Data Collection & Management Data Analysis Interpretation Dissemination Ongoing Research
  2. 2. Concept to variable <ul><li>In order for a concept (a mental image that symbolizes an idea) to be a variable it must meet three conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is comprised of more than one value (attribute), so it is capable of varying </li></ul><ul><li>It is chosen for investigation in a research study </li></ul><ul><li>It must be translated into observable terms </li></ul>
  3. 3. Operational Definitions <ul><li>Describe your variables </li></ul><ul><li>Must be sufficiently clear to allow other researchers to replicate your study </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly describe the procedures that you used </li></ul><ul><li>**Clear operational definitions are essential to building a useful body of knowledge </li></ul>
  4. 4. Independent Variables <ul><li>Believed to influence the outcome of a study </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by the researcher through random assignment </li></ul><ul><li>Compared by the researcher through contrasted existing groups </li></ul><ul><li>An important predictor of an outcome in a correlational study </li></ul>
  5. 5. Dependent Variables <ul><li>Influenced by changes in the independent variable </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome variables </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Affect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in Cognition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes in the dependent variable depend on changes in the independent variable </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hypothesis and Variable Relationships <ul><li>A hypothesis predicts the relationship between variables . </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Relationship- both independent and dependent variables move in the same direction as the independent variable is changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Relationship (inverse)- The independent and dependent variables move in opposite directions. As the independent variable increases, the dependent variable decreases (and vice-versa). </li></ul><ul><li>Curvilinear Relationship-The nature of the relationship changes at certain levels of the variables (goes from positive to negative or negative to positive.) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Spurious Relationships <ul><li>A relationship between variables that disappears when a third variable is controlled for, is said to be a Spurious Relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>We must be careful in our reporting of relationships we find in research. </li></ul><ul><li>eg. Ice Cream Sales Incidents of Sexual Assault </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship goes away when weather is controlled for. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Question 1 <ul><li>The local substance abuse agency wants to know if alcoholic clients are more likely to be clinically depressed than people in the general population. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the independent variables that might be used in this study? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the dependent variables that might be used in this study? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethical Questions <ul><li>Are the benefits from the research to participants and society greater than the risks that the participants are exposed to? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the intended participants members of a vulnerable population? </li></ul><ul><li>What will I do to ensure that the participants rights are protected? </li></ul>