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Lecture 2--Philosophy of Science


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Lecture 2--Philosophy of Science

  1. 1. #2 Location In The Research Process<br />Formulating<br />Research<br />Questions<br />Appropriate<br />Design<br />Craft<br />Knowledge<br />Appropriate<br />Sampling<br />Decisions<br />Previous<br />Research<br />Ensure<br />Research<br />Ethics<br />Data<br />Collection<br />&<br />Management<br />Data<br />Analysis<br />Ongoing<br />Research<br />Interpretation<br />Dissemination<br />
  2. 2. Philosophy of Science<br />Not everyone agrees how to do science. One key issue concerns the pursuit of objectivity.<br />The Scientific Method<br />Open to the data<br />Provisional knowledge and refutation<br />Evidence is basis for knowledge<br />Evidence is based on observation<br />Replication is important<br />Assumes an objective reality<br />Precise and generalizable findings<br />Scientific Observation<br />Systematic<br />Comprehensive<br />Objective<br />Operationally specified<br />
  3. 3. Philosophy of Science<br />Scientific Methods<br />Nomothetic<br />Partially understand a general phenomenon<br />Many subjects, few variables<br />Empirical generalities<br />Quantitative<br />Ideographic<br />Understand many factors underlying a specific action<br />Few subjects, many variables and data collected<br />Quantitative and qualitative<br />Explanatory<br />Assumes cause and effect<br />Implies determinism (behavior is influenced by factors external to the individual)<br />Probability statements – influence as causality<br />Attempts to answer why a phenomenon is seen<br />
  4. 4. Paradigms<br />Paradigms- Assumptions that organize our observations and make sense of them.<br />Based on ontology (study of existence) and epistemology (study of the nature of knowledge)<br />Ones fundamental model, scheme, world view<br />Methodology (organizing principles) stems from paradigm<br />Postmodernism- Rejects notion of objective reality and standards of truth and logical reasoning that are the core of the scientific method; Everything is subjective.<br />Positivism and post-positivism<br />Objectivity<br />Precision<br />Generalizability<br />Post-positivism accepts subjectivity<br />Reality is objective, but observation and measurement are not purely objective.<br />Post-positivism attempts to account for and/or minimize subjectivity<br />By design<br />Statistical control<br />Quantitative Social Work research assumes a post-positivist paradigm<br />
  5. 5. Paradigms<br />Interpretivism- Reality is multiple, subjective, and socially constructed.<br />Empathic understanding<br />Understand internal states<br />Modeling idiosyncrasy<br />Critical Social Science- Interpret findings through the filter of their empowerment or advocacy goals.<br />Oppression<br />Empowerment<br />Institutions<br />Qualitative Methodology<br />Subjective meanings<br />Depth of understanding<br />Experiential<br />
  6. 6. Components of Theory<br />Theory- A systematic set of interrelated statements intended to explain some aspect of social life or enrich our sense of how people conduct and find meaning in their daily lives.<br />The statements are referred to as Hypotheses (predict something that should be observed in real world if Theory is true<br />The things the hypotheses predict are called variables.<br />Attributes are the characteristics or quantities that make up a variable<br />
  7. 7. Logical Systems<br />Deductive Method<br />Theory<br />Hypothesis<br />Defines variables<br />Observe/measure<br />Inductive Method<br />Observe<br />Recognize a Pattern<br />Develop a logical explanation for the Pattern<br />