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3D printing: new governance of IPRs for a
new era
Ludmila Striukova, University College London
Innovation and Technology Management

Start-up mentor
Editor of International...
Current 3D printing landscape
Hard side (printers)

Soft side (processes and products)

FDM (Fused Deposition
Modelling) p...
Business method patent
Made-to-order direct digital manufacturing enterprise (US
8515826 B2, Kraftwurx)
online customizati...
Current 3D printing landscape
•

Purely personal use of 3D printing to make copies of household
objects and spare parts do...
Current 3D landscape
Willing or unwilling infringement
Current 3D landscape
Willing or unwilling infringement
Increasing contribution via co-creation and crowdsourcing
New ways ...
Current IP strategies
Strong regime
Weak regime
Strong regime (incentives)
•

creators are only likely to continue contributing in the future if
they can capture a suffic...
Weak regime (openness)
•

weaker IPR regimes stimulate creativity and innovation
•

•

artistic creators

open source stra...
Value capture vs value creation
Greater adoption of 3D printers can develop further opportunities
of crowdsourcing and mas...
Value capture vs value creation
Strong regime
Easy to capture value, but
difficult to create it

Weak regime
Easy to creat...
New Landscape
Open innovation
Associated with
Open source
code development in the software industry
RepRap

Creative Commons Project
acc...
Open innovation:
3D printing co-creation
Design co-creation
Customisation (Cubify Cloud, i.Materialise, Sculpteo)
Co-creat...
Open innovation:
3D printing co-creation
Co-ownership
No common legal concept of co-ownership
IP laws regulate the concept of joint inventor, co-creator, and coown...
Co-creating with consumers
Consumers are happy to give up their rights as long
as there is something for them
•

3D printing design and production open innovation quests
• redesign the aircraft engine bracket

•

entries from any in...
Open innovation:
inside out approach
Willing or not
Users/customers with original ideas
Game of thrones iPhone charger
New business model
Recent trends
Transaction and enforcement cost
People print on demand
New business model:
contractual sharing
Allow use via standardized licensing terms
Standard and affordable fee
Easy verifi...
Questions?
London 3D printing show - Intellectual property rights
London 3D printing show - Intellectual property rights
London 3D printing show - Intellectual property rights
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London 3D printing show - Intellectual property rights

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When it comes to IPRs, 3D printing technologies are a double-edged sword. The ability, for everyone, to manufacture at the touch of a button creates both unlimited potential and significant challenges. Indeed, 3D printing not only brings the opportunities of the digital world to the physical world, but also its challenges, one of which is consumer piracy.
Will consumers tomorrow pirate as many physical goods as they do today with digital goods? If so, what can firms do about it? The IP related issues brought about by 3D printing actually go far beyond that. As consumers become prosumers, key intellectual assets are built upon the wisdom of crowds and the inventiveness of individual customers. Likewise, corporate innovations are often built upon the contributions of several organisations.
In such a context, the questions raised are: ‘what is a good use of IPRs? What is the adequate governance structure? What is the balance between creating value and capturing value?’
The topics discussed in this session are: How businesses can rethink their business models to tackle IP issues; How companies can control information and rights when co-designing products with external parties; How customers’ contributions can be assessed and rewarded within an IP framework.

Published in: Business
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London 3D printing show - Intellectual property rights

  1. 1. 3D printing: new governance of IPRs for a new era
  2. 2. Ludmila Striukova, University College London Innovation and Technology Management Start-up mentor Editor of International Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Management
  3. 3. Current 3D printing landscape Hard side (printers) Soft side (processes and products) FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) patents expired in 2009 Design rights (registered and unregistered) to protect the shape and configuration of products Copyright Laser-sintering patents to expire in 2014) protects literary, artistic, musical and dramatic work in 2D (images/designs which someone might want to print ) Underlying software to create CAD Trade marks to protect a recognisable manufacturer’s brand (words, symbols, distinctive shapes, etc.) Business method patents
  4. 4. Business method patent Made-to-order direct digital manufacturing enterprise (US 8515826 B2, Kraftwurx) online customization services for 3D-printed objects
  5. 5. Current 3D printing landscape • Purely personal use of 3D printing to make copies of household objects and spare parts does not infringe design rights, patents or trade marks • • manufacturers, may be unable to enforce design protection against private users of 3D printing With the reproduction of artistic works copyright may be infringed • infringement of works previously difficult to copy
  6. 6. Current 3D landscape Willing or unwilling infringement
  7. 7. Current 3D landscape Willing or unwilling infringement Increasing contribution via co-creation and crowdsourcing New ways to manage IP are needed
  8. 8. Current IP strategies Strong regime Weak regime
  9. 9. Strong regime (incentives) • creators are only likely to continue contributing in the future if they can capture a sufficient value • • a strong IPR protection is necessary a project can be divided into several parts to enable contributors to participate in one portion of the project only • different parts of the project will be protected by different IPRs Divide et empera (paste and gaze)
  10. 10. Weak regime (openness) • weaker IPR regimes stimulate creativity and innovation • • artistic creators open source strategy or open design strategy • a centralised design repository (such as Thingiverse)
  11. 11. Value capture vs value creation Greater adoption of 3D printers can develop further opportunities of crowdsourcing and mass-customisation and increase value creation. 3D printing can also allow value capture through cost reduction manufactured on demand, transportation and storage costs are decreased cost of manufacturing is borne by consumers
  12. 12. Value capture vs value creation Strong regime Easy to capture value, but difficult to create it Weak regime Easy to create value, but difficult to capture it
  13. 13. New Landscape
  14. 14. Open innovation Associated with Open source code development in the software industry RepRap Creative Commons Project access to contents with less limitation/ standardized licensing terms. Co-creation User innovation/crowdsourcing
  15. 15. Open innovation: 3D printing co-creation Design co-creation Customisation (Cubify Cloud, i.Materialise, Sculpteo) Co-creation (i.Materialise, Shapeways, iMakr) Crowdsourcing (Kraftwurx, Additor) Printing co-creation Printing services (Shapeways, Sculpteo, i.Materialise, Cubify Cloud) Printing marketplace (3DHub, MakeXYZ) Printing at home
  16. 16. Open innovation: 3D printing co-creation
  17. 17. Co-ownership No common legal concept of co-ownership IP laws regulate the concept of joint inventor, co-creator, and coowner, do not regulate how these rights may be coordinated or managed The administration and governance of co-ownership agreements is complex
  18. 18. Co-creating with consumers Consumers are happy to give up their rights as long as there is something for them
  19. 19. • 3D printing design and production open innovation quests • redesign the aircraft engine bracket • entries from any interested party • chose ten finalists who received a $1,000 reward • designs will be 3D printed and subjected to load testing • The top eight will receive awards from a prize pool of $20,000.
  20. 20. Open innovation: inside out approach Willing or not Users/customers with original ideas Game of thrones iPhone charger
  21. 21. New business model Recent trends Transaction and enforcement cost People print on demand
  22. 22. New business model: contractual sharing Allow use via standardized licensing terms Standard and affordable fee Easy verification/payment method Hardware/software manufactures could offer a license Usage is verified License can be revoked
  23. 23. Questions?

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