2.E Protozoa

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  • Phylogenetic Diagram 27 Tentative Phylogeny of the Protozoan-Like Eucaryotes Based on 18S rRNA Sequence Comparisons. Recent molecular phylogeny of the nuclear SSU rRNA indicates that these eucaryotes are highly polyphyletic (protozoan groups are highlighted by different colors). Thus, like the algae, the protozoa do not represent a monophyletic group and the taxon “Protozoa” should not be used in classification schemes that seek to represent true molecular evolutionary histories. The word protozoa can still be used (as it is in this chapter) to denote a nonrelated polyphyletic group of eucaryotic organisms that share some morphological, reproductive, ecological, and biochemical characteristics
  • 2.E Protozoa

    1. 1. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa are a polyphyletic group of organisms </li></ul><ul><li>PENDAHULUAN </li></ul>Phylogenetic Diagram 27 Tentative Phylogeny of the Protozoan-Like Eucaryotes Based on 18S rRNA Sequence Comparisons.
    2. 2. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa are unicellular, eucaryotic protists that are usually motile </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoology is the study of protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>PENDAHULUAN </li></ul>
    3. 3. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Some protozoa are anaerobic (e.g., Trichonympha lives in the gut of termites) </li></ul><ul><li>PENDAHULUAN </li></ul><ul><li>Most anaerobic protozoa (such as Trichonympha, which lives in the gut of termites; see figure 28.26) have no mitochondria, no cytochromes, and an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>However, some do have small, membrane-delimited organelles termed hydrogenosomes. These structures contain a unique electron transfer pathway in which hydrogenase transfers electrons to protons (which act as the terminal electron acceptors), and molecular hydrogen is formed. </li></ul>
    4. 4. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Other protozoa have mitochondria with discoid cristae (trypanosomes), tubular mitochondrial cristae (ciliates, sporozoa), and lamellar cristae (foraminiferans). </li></ul><ul><li>PENDAHULUAN </li></ul>Structure of an apicomplexan sporozoite.
    5. 5. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily in moist habitats (because they lack a cell wall), including freshwater (ponds, streams, lakes) and marine (oceans) </li></ul><ul><li>Some live in moist soil, beach sand, and decaying organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Most are free living, free-living, critical members of plankton drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains </li></ul><ul><li>Some are parasitic in plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>Very few are pathogens </li></ul><ul><li>DISTSRIBUSI </li></ul>
    6. 6. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as an important link in food chains and food webs (zooplankton) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food chain-series of organisms, each feeding on the preceding one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food web-complex interlocking series of food chains </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important in the study of biochemistry and molecular biology because they use the same metabolic pathways as multicellular eucaryotes </li></ul><ul><li>Causative agents of some important diseases in humans and other animals </li></ul><ul><li>NILAI PENTING </li></ul>
    7. 7. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>NILAI PENTING </li></ul>
    8. 8. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa have some unique features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ECTOPLASM is the gelatinous cytoplasm just inside the plasma membrane; it provides some rigidity and shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PELLICLE consists of the plasma membrane and the structures immediately beneath it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ENDOPLASM is the more fluid cytoplasm in the interior of the cell </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some have one nucleus, some have two or more identical nuclei, and some have two distinct types of nuclei </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The MACRONUCLEUS is associated with trophic activities and regenerative processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The MICRONUCLEUS controls reproductive activities by sequestering genetic material for exchange during reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VACUOLES are usually present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CONTRACTILE VACUOLES are osmoregulatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHAGOCYTIC VACUOLES are sites of food digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SECRETORY VACUOLES usually contain enzymes for specific functions, such as excystation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MORFOLOGI </li></ul>
    9. 9. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>In holozoic nutrition, nutrients are acquired by PHAGOCYTOSIS; some ciliates have a specialized structure, called a CYTOSOME, for phagocytosis </li></ul><ul><li>In SAPROZOIC NUTRITION, nutrients are acquired by PINOCYTOSIS, DIFFUSION, or CARRIER-MEDIATED TRANSPORT (facilitated diffusion or active transport) </li></ul><ul><li>NUTRISI </li></ul>
    10. 10. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>ENCYSTATION is the development of a resting stage structure called a cyst </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cyst is a dormant form that has a wall and greatly reduced metabolic activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions of cysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protect against adverse changes in the environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function as sites for nuclear reorganization and cell division </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as a means of transfer from one host to another for parasitic species </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>EXCYSTATION is the escape of vegetative forms, called trophozoites, from the cyst; it is usually triggered by a return to a favorable environment (e.g., such as entry into a new host for parasitic species) </li></ul><ul><li>ENCYSTMENT AND EXCYSTMENT </li></ul>
    11. 11. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>A few protozoa are nonmotile </li></ul><ul><li>Most use one of three major types of locomotory organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pseudopodia-cytoplasmic extensions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CILIA -filamentous extensions (short) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FLAGELLA -filamentous extensions (long) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ORGANEL PERGERAKAN </li></ul>flagellum.swf
    12. 12. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>The most common method of ASEXUAL reproduction is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BINARY FISSION, which involves mitosis followed by cytokinesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The most common type of SEXUAL reproduction is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conjugation, an exchange of gametic nuclei between paired protozoa of complementary mating types </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REPRODUKSI </li></ul>
    13. 13. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>REPRODUKSI </li></ul>Figure 27.2 Conjugation in Paramecium caudatum, Schematic Drawing. Follow the arrows. After the conjugants separate, only one of the exconjugants is followed; however, a total of eight new protozoa result from the conjugation.
    14. 14. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>The most accepted scheme classifies protozoa as a subkingdom of protists, containing SEVEN PHYLA ; </li></ul><ul><li>Classification is based primarily on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>types of nuclei, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mode of reproduction, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanism of locomotion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recently, other schemes have been suggested </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAVALIER-SMITH has proposed elevating the protozoa to the status of a kingdom with 18 phyla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular classification schemes suggest that the protozoa do not exist as an evolutionary taxon, but rather that the protozoa are polyphyletic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>
    15. 15. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>SARCOMASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHOMORPHA </li></ul><ul><li>APICOMPLEXA </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>ACETOSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>MYXOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>PHYLUM:
    16. 16. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul>1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA <ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>This phylum includes protists with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a single type of nucleus and flagella or pseudopodia; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>they reproduce asexually and sexually </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This phylum includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subphylum MASTIGOPHORA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subphylum SARCODINA </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul>1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA (lanjutan) <ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Subphylum MASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains both phytoflagellates (chloroplast-bearing flagellates) and zooflagellates; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ZOOFLAGELLATES have the following characteristics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not have chlorophyll; are holozoic or saprozoic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction occurs by LONGITUDINAL BINARY FISSION ; sexual reproduction is known for a few species, and ENCYSTMENT is common </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul>1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA (lanjutan) <ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>One group, the kinetoplastids, has mitochondrial DNA in a special region called the KINETOPLAST </li></ul><ul><li>Some are free living; some are ENDOSYMBIOTIC (e.g., Trichonympha species in the intestines of termites) </li></ul>
    19. 19. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul>1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA (lanjutan) <ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>Many are important HUMAN PARASITES e.g., </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trichomonas vaginalis , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giardia lamblia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trypanosoma brucei </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>contains amoeboid organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Found in aquatic and terrestrial habitats, where they take up nutrients by PHAGOCYTOSIS and PINOCYTOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction is usually by simple ASEXUAL BINARY FISSION; some form CYSTS </li></ul><ul><li>Some have a loose-fitting shell called a TEST (e.g., foraminiferans and radiolarians, which are primarily marine amoebae; a few occur in fresh or brackish water) </li></ul><ul><li>Some are ENDOSYMBIONTS and can be either commensals or parasites; some are free-living, disease-causing amoebae </li></ul>1) SARCOMASTIGOPHORA (lanjutan) <ul><li>Subphylum SARCODINA </li></ul>
    21. 21. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>SARCOMASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHOMORPHA </li></ul><ul><li>APICOMPLEXA </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>ACETOSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>MYXOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>PHYLUM:
    22. 22. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>2) LABYRINTHOMORPHA <ul><li>PROTISTS with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>spindle-shaped or spherical, nonamoeboid, vegetative cells; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>some move by GLIDING MOTION on mucous tracks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most members are marine organisms and are either SAPROZOIC or PARASITIC on algae </li></ul>
    23. 23. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>SARCOMASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHOMORPHA </li></ul><ul><li>APICOMPLEXA </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>ACETOSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>MYXOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>PHYLUM:
    24. 24. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>3) APICOMPLEXA <ul><li>Often called SPOROZOANS because they have a spore-forming stage in their life cycle; lack locomotory organelles, except the male gametes and the zygotes (ookinetes); </li></ul><ul><li>are either intra- or intercellular parasites having a characteristic structure called the APICAL COMPLEX </li></ul>
    25. 25. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>3) APICOMPLEXA <ul><li>APICAL COMPLEX - a unique arrangement of fibrils, tubules, vacuoles, and other organelles at one end of the cell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One or two polar rings at the apical end </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CONOID-spirally arranged fibers adjacent to the polar rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBPELLICULAR MICROTUBULES radiate from the polar rings and probably serve as support elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RHOPTRIES extend to the plasma membrane and secrete their contents at the cell surface (probably aids in host cell penetration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MICROPORES take in nutrients </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>3) APICOMPLEXA (lanjutan) <ul><li>Have complex life cycles involving two different hosts (usually mammal and often a mosquito) </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle has both asexual and sexual phases and is characterized by an alternation of haploid and diploid generations </li></ul><ul><li>At some point in the life cycle, they undergo schizogony, a rapid series of mitotic events producing a large number of small infective organisms through the formation of uninuclear buds </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction involves the formation of a thick-walled oocyst after fertilization; meiosis within this structure then produces haploid infective spores </li></ul>
    27. 27. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>This group includes some very important pathogens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasmodium-malaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptosporidium-cryptosporidiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxoplasma-toxoplasmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eimeria-coccidiosis </li></ul></ul>3) APICOMPLEXA (lanjutan)
    28. 28. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>SARCOMASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHOMORPHA </li></ul><ul><li>APICOMPLEXA </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>ACETOSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>MYXOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>PHYLUM:
    29. 29. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>4) MICROSPORA <ul><li>Obligately intracellular parasites lacking mitochondria and transmitted by a RESISTANT SPORE </li></ul><ul><li>Several economically important pathogens of insects </li></ul><ul><li>There has been increased interest in their use as BIOLOGICAL PEST CONTROL </li></ul><ul><li>Recently, five genera have been implicated in human diseases in immunosuppressed patients (e.g., AIDS patients) </li></ul>
    30. 30. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>SARCOMASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHOMORPHA </li></ul><ul><li>APICOMPLEXA </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>ACETOSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>MYXOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>PHYLUM:
    31. 31. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>5) ACETOSPORA <ul><li>PARASITIC PROTISTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spores that lack polar caps or polar filaments, parasitic in mollusks </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>SARCOMASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHOMORPHA </li></ul><ul><li>APICOMPLEXA </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>ACETOSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>MYXOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>PHYLUM:
    33. 33. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>6) MYXOZOA <ul><li>parasitic protists with resistant spores having one to six coiled polar filaments; </li></ul><ul><li>parasitic on freshwater and marine fish; </li></ul><ul><li>can cause a major economic problem in cultured salmon </li></ul>
    34. 34. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>SARCOMASTIGOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHOMORPHA </li></ul><ul><li>APICOMPLEXA </li></ul><ul><li>MICROSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>ACETOSPORA </li></ul><ul><li>MYXOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>CILIOPHORA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>PHYLUM:
    35. 35. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>7) CILIOPHORA <ul><li>The largest of the seven phyla; these organisms are distinguished by the use of cilia as locomotory organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cilia arranged in longitudinal rows or spirals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oblique stroke of cilia causes ciliates to rotate as they swim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can move forward or backward </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numerous interesting morphological characteristics are observed: slipper-shaped cells, stalked cells, tentacles, and threadlike darts called toxicysts </li></ul>
    36. 36. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>7) CILIOPHORA <ul><li>Feeding behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food is captured by action of cilia around the buccal cavity; food enters the cytostome and passes to phagocytic vacuoles that fuse with lysosomes, where digestion occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After digestion the vacuoles fuse with a special region of the pellicle, called the cytoproct, which empties the cell's waste material to the outside </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>PENGGOLONGAN PROTOZOA </li></ul>7) CILIOPHORA <ul><li>Most have two types of nuclei </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micronucleus-diploid; functions in mitosis and meiosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macronucleus-polyploid for some genes; maintains routine cellular functions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction is by transverse binary fission; sexual reproduction usually is by conjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Most are free-living; some are harmless commensals; others are disease-causing parasites </li></ul>
    38. 38. sekian ......
    39. 39. 3 2 1 8 7 6 5 4 X. MENGENAL LEBIH DEKAT ANGGOTA DUNIA MIKROBA 02. PENGGOLONGAN MIKROORGANISME <ul><li>PROTOZOA </li></ul><ul><li>MORFOLOGI </li></ul><ul><li>ECTOPLASM </li></ul><ul><li>PELLICLE </li></ul><ul><li>ENDOPLASM </li></ul><ul><li>MACRONUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>MICRONUCLEUS </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRACTILE VACUOLES </li></ul><ul><li>PHAGOCYTIC VACUOLES </li></ul><ul><li>SECRETORY VACUOLES </li></ul>ECTOPLASM is the gelatinous cytoplasm just inside the plasma membrane; it provides some rigidity and shape PELLICLE consists of the plasma membrane and the structures immediately beneath it ENDOPLASM is the more fluid cytoplasm in the interior of the cell The MICRONUCLEUS controls reproductive activities by sequestering genetic material for exchange during reproduction The MACRONUCLEUS is associated with trophic activities and regenerative processes <ul><ul><ul><li>CONTRACTILE VACUOLES are osmoregulatory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PHAGOCYTIC VACUOLES are sites of food digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SECRETORY VACUOLES usually contain enzymes for specific functions, such as excystation </li></ul></ul></ul>9
    40. 40. Nuclear Division
    41. 41. Nuclear Division
    42. 42. Cytokinesis (Cytoplasmic Division) <ul><li>Typically occurs simultaneously with telophase of mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>In some algae and fungi, may be postponed or not occur at all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in multinucleated cells called coenocytes </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Cytokinesis
    44. 44. Schizogony <ul><li>Plasmodium , which causes malaria, reproduces asexually within red blood cells and liver cells by a special type of reproduction called schizogony </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple mitoses form multinucleate schizont </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis occurs releasing numerous daughter cells called merozoites </li></ul><ul><li>Classic fever and chills associated with release </li></ul>
    45. 45. Schizogony
    46. 46. Classification Eukaryotic Organisms <ul><li>Trouble classifying </li></ul><ul><li>For us: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Algea – will skip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others: Parasitic Helminths and Vectors </li></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Protozoa <ul><li>Diverse group defined by three characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack a cell wall </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With exception of apicomplexans , they are also motile by means of cilia, flagella, and/or pseudopodia </li></ul><ul><li>Study is protozoology; protozoologist </li></ul>
    48. 48. Distribution of Protozoa <ul><li>Require moist environments because they lack a cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Most live worldwide in ponds, streams, lakes, and oceans; critical members of plankton – free-living, drifting organisms that form the basis of aquatic food chains </li></ul><ul><li>Some live in moist soil, beach sand, and decaying organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Very few are pathogens </li></ul>
    49. 49. Morphology of Protozoa <ul><li>Characterized by great morphologic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Some have two nuclei ( Paramecium ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Macronucleus (50n) contains many copies of genome – controls metabolism, growth, and sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micronucleus – involved in genetic recombination, sexual reproduction, and regeneration of macronuclei </li></ul></ul>
    50. 50. Morphology of Protozoa
    51. 51. Morphology of Protozoa <ul><li>Variety in number and kinds of mitochondria </li></ul><ul><li>Some have contractile vacuoles </li></ul><ul><li>All produce trophozoites – motile feeding stage; some produce cysts – resting stage </li></ul><ul><li>One trophozoite forms one cyst; to allow intestinal protozoa to pass from one host to another and to survive harsh environments </li></ul>
    52. 52. Protozoan Life Cycle
    53. 53. Nutrition of Protozoa <ul><li>Most are chemoheterotrophic </li></ul><ul><li>Obtain nutrients by phagocytizing bacteria, decaying organic matter, other protozoa, or the tissues of host </li></ul><ul><li>Few absorb nutrients from surrounding water </li></ul><ul><li>Dinoflagellates and euglenoids are photoautrophic </li></ul>
    54. 54. Reproduction in Protozoa <ul><li>Most reproduce asexually only (binary fission or schizogony) </li></ul><ul><li>Few also have sexual reproduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some become gametocytes that fuse to form diploid zygote </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some utilize a process called conjugation </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Conjugation in Paramecium
    56. 56. Ciliates <ul><li>Plasmodium – malaria </li></ul><ul><li>Babesia – anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Toxoplasma - toxoplasmosis </li></ul>
    57. 57. Dinoflagellates <ul><li>Pfiesteria – neurotoxin, most potent; poison when handled can cause memory loss, confusion, headache, respiratory difficulties, skin rash, muscle cramps, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting – possible estuary-associated syndrome (PEAS) </li></ul>
    58. 58. Pfiesteria
    59. 59. Amoebae <ul><li>Pseudopodia for movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naegleria – primary amoebic meningoencephalitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acanthamoeba spp. – amoebic encephalitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entamoeba histolytica – amoebic dysentery </li></ul></ul>

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