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Latest Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers 2015 - H2kinfosys


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Latest Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers 2015 - H2kinfosys

  1. 1. Job Oriented– Instructor Led – Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide|| H2kInfosys H2K Infosysprovidesonline IT training and placementservices worldwide. USA- +1-(770)-777-1269, UK – (020) 3371 7615 / DISCLAIMER H2K Infosys, LLC (hereinafter “H2K”) acknowledges the proprietary rights of the trademarks and products names of other companies mentioned in any of the training material including but not limited to the handouts, written material, videos, power point presentations, etc. All such training materials are provided to H2K students for learning purposes only. H2K students shall not use such materials for their private gain nor can they sell any such materials to a third party. Some of the examples provided in any such training materials may not be owned by H2K and as such H2K does not claim any proprietary rights for the same. H2K does not guarantee nor is it responsible for such products and projects. H2K acknowledges that any such information or product that has been lawfully received from third party source isfree fromrestrictionandwithoutanybreachorviolationof law whatsoever. Manual Testing Interview Questions and Answers
  2. 2. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 1. During testing, youfinda bug and assignedit to developer. But developer rejects the bug saying that it is not a defect. Howyou will handle this situation? Ans: First of all bugs should be logged with proper reproducible steps, screen shots etc… If developer rejects the bug, then first thing to look out for is the reason or justification on why the bug was rejected. If the justification is valid I would agree for the rejection. However, if the reason is not justified then, I will go back and try to reproduce the bug with the steps I had provided earlier. If it is still reproducible, I shall reopen the bug with valid comments and will provide additional information if I found any. Then I would go back to the developer asking for justification on the rejection. At this point I shall include BA and technical lead also is to take confirmation on the defects 2. If there is no enough time for test execution, howwill youapproach? Ans: If there is no enough time for testing, my first focus will be on the priority of the requirements. The functionality which is the most important for the release would be the first tested. Next I would focus on the areas where the probability of finding defects is high. I would also analyze by test cases and execute the high priority test cases first followed by medium and low if time permits. If I know the application well and have previously worked on it, then exploratory testing is a good approach when there is no much time. All these should be approved by the Test Manager and should be documented in the test strategy. 3. What is QA role in each phase of SDLC? Ans: It is always a good approach to include QA from the first phase of SDLC. In requirement planning and analysis phase QA gets involved in document review of requirements (SRS). This will help in understanding the requirement right from the early stages. In Design phase, the main task is to prepare the Test Plan, Test Strategy. We can also come up with test scenarios in this phase. During development phase QA will break the test scenarios into test cases. Test data, test scripts, test environment setup etc… is done in this phase. Various kinds of testing is performed during the test execution phase and defects are logged. Defects summary reports and generated and sent to the team. We closely work with the development team in closing the bug. During the maintenance phase test summary report is sent to all the stakeholders and we also participate in the lessons learnt sessions
  3. 3. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 4. What is exit criteriaof testing? /Whento stoptesting? Ans: It is not possible to ensure that an application is 100% free of defects. At some point the testing should be stopped and we have to give a sign off so that the application can be released. The exit criteria of testing will be mentioned in the Test Plan before testing itself. We consider a lot of criteria to decide when to stop the testing. For example the project timelines (we cannot test endlessly, testing cycle should be estimated by keeping the project release dates), All the defects have been addressed and closed, all the test cases have been executed, traceability metrics is done (which means test cases have been executed for each of the requirements). These are some of the factors which are considered for stopping the testing. 5. Whendo we start testing? Ans: It is always better to start the application right from the beginning of SDLC rather than waiting for the testing phase. Because the cost of defect fix increases based on the time it was found. Start of testing activities would start from Analysis phase itself. There we will involve ourselves in understanding the requirements. Once test plan, test cases etc… are written, it is always better to get involved in the unit testing itself. In addition to in during testing phase testers will not simply start testing. Testing would began when the testing entry criteria are met. For example developers should stop the coding and code freeze should be done. We cannot test if developers are working on the application and have not finished their coding. Also they need to deploy the code in a separate environment and proper release notes should be sent. 6. Have you writtenany test plan? What are the contents of test plan? Ans:Yes I have been involved in writing test plan. Test plan will contain the scope and all the activities of testing. The main contents of test plan is testing scope, testing approach, resources and testing schedule. In testing scope we will say the testable and non-testable functionalities. In testing approach we would mainly mention the testing environments, different kinds of testing, testing cycles, the test cases which will be executed, testing data and scripts etc…It will also say the test entry and exit criteria. Which means when testing will be started and stopped. The roles and responsibilities of each resources would be mentioned and testing schedule and timelines are also mentioned in the test plan. In addition any risk/assumptions and dependencies are also mentioned in the test plan.
  4. 4. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 7. ExplainSTLC? Ans: Software Testing Life Cycle is a testing process which is executed in a sequential manner to meet the testing goals. There are different phases of the STLC. Each phase will have different activities and deliverables. Different phases of STLC are Test Planning Phase: Here testing objectives are defined and we come up with the test plan. In this phase we will check on automation feasibility, we will prepare the test plan and test effort estimation. Test Analysis and Design Phase: In this phase we will do the test case designing, write test scripts, prepare the test data. We will make the test environment ready Test implementation Phase: Actual testing is done in this phase. Different types are testing is executed, test results are shared and bugs are logged. Re-testing and bug closure is also done in this phase. We will come up with test results and bug report in this phase Test Exit Phase: In this phase we will verify if more testing is required. Testing closure activities are carried out in this phase. Test summary reports and testing metrics are created and shared to the stakeholders in this phase. Test Closure Phase: Once the test exit criteria is reached, in this phase we will archive all the documents that we have prepared from the beginning. So that it can be used later. Lessons learnt sessions are done in this phase so that we can know what went well and what can be improved so that upcoming releases are smoother. 8. Have you done any reviews for QA deliverables? Ans: Yes, I have reviewed QA deliverables mainly test plan and test cases. QA checklist is maintained for each of the deliverables and the reviews will happen against the checklist. First of all for all the deliverables that I prepare, I do a self-review. Then I would give it to my team member who does the peer review. Similarly I have also done peer reviews of my team mates documents. Before the review walkthrough of the document is done so that it becomes easier to read the document. My team maintains a checklist which needs to be given important during the reviews. For example if I am reviewing the test plan, I ensure that areas to be tested and non-testable requirements are properly documented. All the test cases and test data is inserted, risk and dependencies are described etc… During reviewing test cases my focus will
  5. 5. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 be first to check the requirement traceability, which means for each requirements if the test cases are available. Next my focus will be on test coverage. I will check of all the scenarios have been covered etc… 9. What is the difference betweenverificationandvalidation? Ans: Verification means “Are we building the product right?” and validation means “Are we building the right product?” Which means in verification the focus will be are we building the product based on the requirements and design. Where as in validation the focus is on is the product behaving properly (in terms of customer expectation). Verification examples: reviews, meetings Validation example: testing (different types of testing) 10. What is difference betweenregressionandretesting? Ans: Regression testing: Once the application is changed (for example after fixing a defect or some enhancement is done), we need to test and ensure the existing functionalities are working fine. This is called regression testing. For example if a new text box is added to a web page. Then we have to ensure the look and feel is not disturbed after introducing the text box also other fields which were already there in the page is working as expected. This is regression testing Re-testing: after a defect is found by testers and then fixed by developers, it is again tested to confirm that the original defect is actually fixed. Retesting is done to make sure that the test cases which were failed earlier due to some defect is now passing after the defect is fixed. 11. Give me examples for high severity, highpriority andlowseverity, low priority defects inyour current project? Ans: Severity: How the bug impacts the application. How critical defect is and what is the impact of the defect on the whole system’s functionality. The severity is a parameter set by the tester while he opens a defect and is mainly in control of the tester. Priority: It defines the priority in which the defects should be resolved. if there are multiple defects, the priority decides which defect has to be fixed and verified immediately versus which defect can be fixed a bit later. It is usually set by the lead
  6. 6. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 Examples High Priority, Low Severity bug :- If the company name is misspelled in the home page of the website, then the priority is high and severity is low to fix it. High Severity, Low Priority :- Web page not found when user clicks on a link (user's does not visit that page generally) Low Priority, Low Severity :- Any cosmetic or spelling issues which is within a paragraph or in the report High Priority, High Severity :- An error which occurs on the basic functionality of the application and will not allow the user to use the system(E.g. user is not able to login to the application) 12. What are all the testing types youperformedonthe current application? Ans: I have been performing functional, non-functional, confirmation and regression testing Functional Testing: - is the testing of the functionality of the software against the requirements (E.g. black box testing) Non Functional Testing:- is the testing of behavioral characteristics of the software like reliability, usability, efficiency etc…(E.g. performance testing) Confirmation testing:- also known as retesting is done on the new build to verify that the reported defect is fixed in the new build. (E.g. retesting) Regression testing :- is execution of steps that were previously executed. The difference is that the tests that were passed previously are again executed so as to ensure that no new defect is introduced in the process of fixing new defects. 13. What are all the possible test cases for the requirement:username will allow 4-12 alphanumeric characters? Ans:  Testcase with4-12 alphanumericcharacters  Testcase withonly4-12 alphabets  Testcase withonly4-12 numeric  Testcase with4 alphanumericcharacter  Testcase with12 alphanumericcharacter
  7. 7. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615  Testcase withlessthan4 alphanumericcharacters  Testcase withmore than 12 alphanumericcharacters 14. What do you mean by release notes? Ans: Release notes is document which is released to test team at the time of test execution phase or during UAT. Release notes document new features, enhancements to functionality, and bug fixes. It is written by the tech lead. It will contain :-  Information on what functionalities are released for testing  Specific test data if any  Any enhancement  User guide  Defect fixed  Defect which is deferred  Deferred opened 15. Explain the different bug status available inthe defect life cycle? Ans: NEW: When the bug is found by the test and logged, its status will be NEW. ASSIGN: Once the tester logs the bug, the lead validates the bug and assigns it to the development team. Then the status of the bug is set to ASSIGN
  8. 8. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 OPEN: When the bug is assigned to the development, while he is analyze the bug that time he will put the status to OPEN. TEST/READY to RETEST: Once the developer fixes the bug, he changes the status to READY TO RETEST. This means developer has fix the issue and is ready for the test team to retest the defect. VERIFIED: Once the tester retest the bug and is found to be fixed, he changes the bug status to VERIFIED. REOPENED: While retesting if he find the bug still exists, then he changes the bug status to REOPENED. CLOSED: Once the bug is fixed and the status is VERIFIED. Then lead changes the status to CLOSED. REJECTED: When the bug is in OPEN status, and if developer feels the bug is not genuine or found to be DUPLICATE, he can reject the bug and the status of the bug is REJECTED. DEFERRED: Sometimes the developers will accept the bug, but may be due to the priority, severity or due to time he may push the fix to other releases rather than the current release. Then the bug status will be DEFERRED. 16. What do you mean by deferredstatus of abug? Ans: Deferred status of bug means, it is a valid bug and accepted by the development team. However the fix will not be available in the current release. The fix will be made available in the upcoming release. The reason to make the bug to deferred status is due to few factors. Some if the reason is because the priority of the bug may be low, lack of time to fix the bug in this release, or the bug not have a big impact in the application. 17. Which model you are using for the testing? Ans: I have been exposed to both SDLC and Iterative model projects. One of my projects follows waterfall model. In waterfall model each of the SDLC phases (Analysis, design, development, testing and maintenance) is executed sequentially. Which means each phase starts only when the previous phase is completed. No two phases used to run in parallel.
  9. 9. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 But there are also projects which do not fit SDLC, wherein we work on iterative model. In one of the project I work with Agile model. Here we will have small incremental releases and many different iterations. Testing is integrated throughout the cycle.
  10. 10. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 18. What is the difference betweentest case anduse case? Ans: 19. Which documents are requiredtostart writing the test cases? Ans: Most important documents needed to write the test cases are the SRS, BRD and user cases. SRS contains all the software requirements for the release and BRD contains the business requirements. These two is very helpful in writing test cases and ensures that test cases related to system and business is met. User cases gives the requirement flow based on which we can write various scenarios for a particular requirement. Test Scenarios are also very helpful in ensuring all the scenarios are covered in writing the test cases. It is also best practice to visit the test Plan to understand the test data, test scripts, functionalities in scope and out of scope in writing the test cases. 20. What is configurationmanagement and whichtool you usedfor this? Ans: Configuration Management is detailed updating of information. It usually has version control and also base lining is done. It helps in identifying what has changed and who had done the change, I have had the opportunity to use configuration management of test cases, test results and defects through Quality Center, TFS and WinCVS Test Case Use Case Test case is a detailed step by step instruction on how to test a particular functionality of an application. Use case is the flow of the application based on business perspective. Test cases are usually prepared by using the use cases. It is usually embedded in SRS or comes as a separate document. Test cases are prepared by software tester. Use case is prepared by the business analyst. Test cases are derived from use cases and is executed later. Use cases cannot be executed, which means using use cases we arrive at test cases. Test cases are not represented pictorially. It is a step by step instructions. Use cases are pictorial representation of the business flow.
  11. 11. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 21. If one Project is giventoyou for testing andIf you have to performManual testing andAutomationtesting onfewof the modules as per givenSRS. Can we do automation purely on that application!? Ans: If for a project both manual and automation testing is to be given. Then it is not possible to do only automation testing for the application. Automation cannot be performed on the new features or enhancements or changes. In these areas manual testing would be performed. Whereas automation will be used to execute repetitive test cases for e.g. existing functionalities which is regression testing, automation would be in scope. 22. How you will take decisionthat whichtool will fit for your existing project; which factors we needto consider for tool support? Ans: The selection of the automation tool depends on various factors like  Application and its technology on what needs to be tested.  Detailed testing requirements  Skill sets available  License cost of the tool  Tools usage :- We need to determine if the tool satisfies the testing needs. Which means if the tool can be used for web based and desktop application as well as mobile testing  Does the tool support easy interface to create and maintain scripts? For example, QTP can be selected if the application supports many platforms and seleniumcan be considered for web based testing. 23. Explain Equivalence partitioning withexample. Ans: Equivalence partitioning is a black box testing technique. In this technique we will test only one condition for each partition. If the condition is pass, then we consider all conditions within that partition/class to be pass. Similarly if the condition failsthen we assume that none of the conditions in that partition will work For example: Consider a text box which will accept numeric data of 4-10 characters. In this case there will be 4 equivalence partition.
  12. 12. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615  Valid partition of numeric data 4-10  Invalid partition of less than 4 digits  Invalid partition of more than 10 digits  Invalid partition of alphanumeric characters We can take just value from each partition and then do the testing rather than doing all the combinations. 24.Write down the guidelines todevelopgoodGUI test cases: Ans: GUI testing is very important to test application user interface. Following points should be kept in mind while coming up with GUI test cases  How the application handles keyboard and mouse events  How menu bar, buttons, text boxes, list box, combo box, images etc. reacts to user inputs and if it performs its action in the desired manner.  Importance should be given to check the font type, size, colors, spell checks etc…  Focus should be given in created test cases that the user control look and feel is proper.  Test cases should be developed to check the shortcut keys are working 25. Write down the guidelines toderive positiveandnegative test cases Ans: Test cases should be developed for each use case scenarios. Guidelines to arrive at positive and negative test cases are:- Positive Test Case  Main intension of writing positive test cases is to check the application meets the requirement specifications.  When writing positive test cases, we need to validate it against valid input data.  While arriving at positive test cases, focus should be on if the application behaves as expected with its valid inputs.  E.g. of positive test case. If the requirement says a text box can take only numeric value. Then to test the text box with numeric data becomes your positive test case Negative test case  Main intension of writing negative test cases is to check if the how the application behaves with negative inputs.
  13. 13. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615  When writing negative test cases, we need to validate it against invalid data.  Negative test cases should be written keeping negative point of view & only execute the test cases for only invalid set of input data.  E.g. of negative test case. If the requirement says a text box can take only numeric value. Then to test the text box with alphabets becomes your negative test case 26. How risk is relating totesting ;explaintypes of risks. Ans: To save time and money you should be able to prioritize your testing work. Prioritization of testing is done based on the risks. prioritizing the test cases, test techniques like boundary value analysis is part of risk based testing. Some of the different types of risks are  Schedule risk: -Schedule can slip due to wrong estimation, failure in identifying complex requirements, resources not allocated properly.  Budget risk: - This happens due to incorrect budget estimation, incorrect project scope etc...  Operational risk: - Risk due to improper process implementation. This can happen due to not setting the priority of requirements, not distributing the roles and responsibilities propely, no resource planning, no training, miss-communication in the team.  Technical risk: - This can lead to failure in the functionality and performance. This usually happens due to continues changing requirements, complex requirements etc... 27. Explain Performance Testing VS Stress Testing : Ans: Performance Testing Stress Testing Testing to evaluate the performance of the system in a specific situation Testing to evaluate application behavior during peak load conditions. It is basically done to set the benchmark & standard of the application It is basically testing the functionality of the application under high loads E.g. To check the time taken to load the webpage on different internet speed E.g. To check the login page with 100 login attempt at the same time
  14. 14. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 28. ExplainAlpha testing VS BetaTesting Ans: Alpha Testing Beta Testing Alpha testing takes place at developers site It takes place at customer’s site before the release of the application Sometimes it is also performed by Independent Testing Team It is not performed by Independent Testing Team It is always performed in Virtual Environment It is performed in Real Time Environment Minor design changes can still be made as a result of alpha testing The goal of beta testing is to place the application in the hands of real users and check for flaws or issues from user point of view It is always performed within the organization. t is always performed outside the organization. 29. Explain merits anddemerits of Agile methodology Ans: Agile model is a type of incremental model. Unlike the waterfall model in agile model very limited planning is required to get started with the project. Advantage Disadvantage Customer satisfaction The project can easily get taken off track if the customer is not satisfied People and interactions are emphasized rather than process and tools It is difficult to assess the effort required at the beginning of the software development life cycle. Customers, developers and testers constantly interact with each other More management effort is required to monitor and control everyone’s activities. Working software is delivered frequently There is lack of emphasis on necessary designing and documentation Even late changes in requirements are welcomed The final product can be different than what was initially intended.
  15. 15. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 30. Explain Exhaustive Testing inbrief. Ans: It is a type of testing where we try to check the output of the software by entering all the possible inputs. Exhaustive testing is usually done when the programs and the scope of project is small. Exhaustive testing is time consuming and costly ****************************************************************************** ***************************************************************************** 1) If you don't have enough time totest, what you will do? 2) Who wrote test plan? Who we? Testers > team lead? Why lead prepare, can u able to prepare? 3) Can you give examples of SQL queries you wrote? 4) Did you face any issues with any of your team members? Developers? 5) Explain more details about your recent project and related functionality you tested? 6) What kind of issues is found while testing the recent project? 7) How the data is pulled from savings account? How you know the data is correct for the savings account? 8) Give example of query how you pulled the data? 9) Are you familiar with ETL Testing process and data ware house? What you know? 10) Where the requirements are written for ETL? Are you familiar with mapping documents? I am asking about mapping documents? I want to know you are familiar with this? Where the requirements are written? 11) What tools are used for ETL process? Any other tools? 12) Are you familiar with BI reports OR crystal reports? 13) How do you validate the reports?
  16. 16. Job Oriented– Instructor Led– Face2Face – True Live Online I.T. Training for Everyone Worldwide USA: +1-770-777-1269 Email: UK: 020-33717615 14) How many test cases you wrote on the recent project? 15) How to confirm that you covered all the requirements? 16) Do you know when to end the testing? 17) Did you worked on agile development environment? Can you talk about what is agile? 18) What development methodology you worked? Like waterfall? V-Model? Agile? 19) If not necessary to do all testing what you do? 20) What are your strengths and weaknesses? 21) Why you choose QA as your career? 22) Mobile application testing? 23) Are you familiar with Selenium automation? 24) Do you have any experience with JMeter? 25) Do you have any experience with Web Services and Soap UI Tool? 26) How do you identify the regression test cases? 27) Are you familiar with UNIX and Linux commands? 28) Where are you currently located? 29) How is the weather there? Do you like cold?