J U L Y 1 5 2 0 1 3
A C A D E M I C W R I T I N G W 9
P L E A S E R E A D A N D L I S T E N A L O N G T O T H E A U D I O
D U R I N G T H I S P R E S E N T A T I O N . N O T E T H A T N O T
A L L S L I D E S H A V E A U D I O . T H E O N E S W I T H A U D I O
H A V E A S M A L L Y E L L O W S P E A K E R O N T H E B O T T O M
R I G H T C O R N E R . Y O U C A N C L I C K O N T H E I C O N T O
H E A R M Y R E C O R D I N G , B U T I T S H O U L D
A U T O M A T I C A L L Y S T A R T I N A P R E S E N T A T I O N
Active reading, summarizing,
paraphrasing, and Paper 1
Before summary & analysis: Active Reading
Reading is not a passive activity- it requires
everyone to think, make connections, infer, and
Some texts require more time and energy from us
It takes a while to digest them!
It is not always the goal to understand a text 100%
Sometimes understanding the main idea, specific
examples, and implications is enough
Guidelines for active reading
Break down the reading process into four steps:
1. Get the basics: features and structure
2. Mark details that surprise, confuse or interest you
3. Read everything, again
4. Dissect the visual aides. They are there for a reason
1. Getting the basics
What kind of text am I reading?
Essay, fiction, editorial
Argumentative essay, expository essay
Why did the author write this?
To inform me or persuade me?
Who is this intended for?
Is this for a college student or a employee?
What is the author’s thesis?
What is this text going to explain?
What evidence does the author give me to support
Is s/he giving me numbers, facts, or anecdotes?
2. Mark details: Engage the text
Write in the margins, highlight, underline, take a
screen shot, or star:
Sentences that are confusing, interesting, or
Parts of the reading you don’t understand and need to
Make note of any contradictory evidence or ideas
the author gives
Always refer the ideas, examples and statements to
your own life. Do you agree or disagree?
3. Read and re-read
It may sound tedious, but often in order to
understand dense material you MUST re-read it
Often when we re-read a text, we notice a
sentence or idea that we had not noticed before
There are also techniques on how to skim
through a text, looking for key words and ideas
4. Dissect the visual aides
Photos, graphs, and diagrams are all intentionally
put next to a text
Use the visuals to your advantage: Find out how they help
your understanding of the text
Try to think about what first strikes you when you
see the image
Characteristic of Paraphrasing or Summarizing?
Or both? Or neither?
Typically uses present tense
Includes own opinion
Has a citation
Same length as original reading
Portion of reading
Includes main idea
May use a variety of tenses
Includes only a portion of information
Is put in own words
Much shorter than original reading
Discusses how the author supported their ideas
Entire reading - summary
Typically uses present tense - summary
Includes own opinion - neither
Has a citation - both
Same length as original reading - paraphrase
Portion of reading - paraphrase
Includes main idea - summary
Includes quotes - neither
May use a variety of tenses - paraphrase
Includes only a portion of information - paraphrase
Is put in own words - both
Much shorter than original reading - summary
Discusses how the author supported their ideas - summary
Summaries and summarizing
What is a summary?
Generally speaking, it is brief an account that explains
a speech, a report, or an article
Specifically, it is a brief, clear statement of a work’s
main ideas and key points
Why do we write summaries?
For others: Teachers, bosses, peers, friends
To check our own comprehension
To prove our understanding of a text
Components of a good summary
Title and author of the summarized text
Usually 1 paragraph or 7-10 sentences
The longer the text, the longer the summary
First, mention the title and author of the text you are
Second, state their main idea(s)
Third, state their points and examples
Ex: “It is said” vs “I think” or “you should”
Ex: “She explains that the best time to take a nap is…: vs “She
explained that the best..”
Remember to use your own words
No copying or unintentional plagiarizing
Example Summary of “Bingo in Swansea” by
In his article titled “Bingo in Swansea,” Sasha Frere-
Jones introduces the American public to the music and
background of British-Sri Lankan artist M.I.A.
Describing her music as raw and unpolished, Frere-Jones
believes that M.I.A.’s music represents real “world
music.” He explains this not only in terms of the sounds
and beats, but also in terms of the politically charged
lyrics and dangerous themes, such as teenage
prostitution. In addition to her music, Frere-Jones
describes M.I.A.’s rough childhood and Tamil roots. He
ends the article by giving a detailed account of M.I.A.’s
first performance, held inEngland.
Sample summary of Wikipedia article
Jean Paul Sartre is a well- known French existentialist
philosopher. He was born on June 21, 1905 in Paris, France.
He was the only child of Jean Baptiste Satre and
Anna- Marie Schweitzer. Since Sartre was a little kid, he
had a big interest in philosophy. He earned a doctorate
degree in philosophy at Ecole Normale Superieure, a well
known school for French intellectuals. After that, he was
drafted to go to World War II and that was when he started
questioning the cultural and social assumptions and
expectations of an individual. In 1943, Sartre published
his first book, Being and Nothingness. After that he
published, The Flies and No Exit. Sartre was very involved in
society, he contributed to news articles such as Combat and
The Rebel. In October 1964, Sartre was given the Noble
Prize of Literature but he declined it. Sartre died April
15, 1980 because of his health was deteriorated.
What is an analysis?
“Whereas a summary most often answers the question of
what a text says, an analysis looks at how a text makes its
point” (Hacker, 2007, p. 63)
Think of a written analysis as writing your
understanding and interpretation of a text
A summary requires you to be objective, whereas
an analysis require you to take a stance and form
An analysis involves you stating a point (in the
form of a thesis or topic sentence) and arguing it
(in the form of examples)
Some questions to ask when analyzing a text
What is the author’s thesis?
Who is the audience?
How does the author structure the text?
What evidence does the author use to support the
Is the evidence credible?
Where are his/her sources from?
Does the author give faulty reasoning?
Are the ideas plausible?
Did that sound familiar?
Reading and analyzing go hand in hand
In fact, these two actions often blend one into the
You can’t really do one without the other
Quick Quiz: Main Ideas of .ppt
What were the three main concepts of this
How do they relate to one another?
What are the characteristics of each?
How will you apply this to your writing?
Paper 1 will be a summary and analysis of the main
ideas and concepts in the article on Desirable
Follow guidelines from this .ppt and Writer’s Help
Write a paragraph or two in which you summarize
Write a paragraph or two in which you offer up your
analysis of the ideas of Desirable Difficulties and
your opinion on how credible they sound based on
the evidence given by the author
1.5-2 pages in length
About 1/3 summary and 2/3 analysis
Times New Roman
12 point font
One inch margins
Informative, descriptive title
Clear distinction between summary and analysis/opinion
Detailed examples to support claims in analysis
Smooth transition from summary to analysis
Paper 1 Continue
Go to bspace.berkeley,edu and click on the
Find the assignment for Paper 1 and read more
directions there carefully
If you have questions, post them on the Forum
rather than email me
When you have completed a draft, upload it under
Needs to be a .doc or .docx