Designing with Dysprosium Free Permanent Magnets

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Designing with Dysprosium Free Permanent Magnets
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Designing with Dysprosium Free Permanent Magnets

  1. 1. Sintered Neo Replacement:Dysprosium-free Rare Earth Permanent MagnetMotors
  2. 2. Sintered Neo Replacement• Fundamentals in dysprosium (Dy) market will result in significantly higher prices – Increasing demand due to growth in sintered Nd market – Insufficient supply• When possible, magnet users should design applications with magnets without Dy – Magnets using MQPTM grades do not rely on Dy• Application performance is comparable and can be optimized if MQPTM is “designed in”
  3. 3. Rising prices of rare earth metals:Soaring prices of Dy
  4. 4. Escalating Price of Dy:Fundamental supply-demand imbalanceHigh demand Low output in Dy rich sintered neo applications Estimated Production in 2010* Yttrium Dysprosium Erbium 11.7% 2.4% 1.1% Lanthanum Terbium 24.6% Gadolinium 0.6% 1.6% Europium 1.0% Samarium 2.0% Neodymium 20.7% Cerium Praseodymium 29.0% 5.4% *Source:National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Report April 2011
  5. 5. Dy Rich Sintered Applications Technology Assumption Low Penetration High Penetration Wind Onshore Wind Turbine Additional Capacity (GW) 23.6 48.6 Wind Offshore Wind Turbines Additional Capacity (GW) 4.9 17Deployment in Vehicles Sales of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) (millions) 4.2 19.1 2025 Vehicles Sales of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) (millions) 0.002 13.2 Vehicles Sales of All Electric Vehicles (AEVs) (millions) 0.001 4.6 Wind Onshore Wind Turbines using RE Magnets 10% 25%Market Share Wind Offshore Wind Turbines using RE Magnets 10% 75% Vehicles HEVs, PHEVs, and AEVs using RE Magnet Motors 100% 100% Technology Assumption Low Intensity High Intensity Wind Average Weight of Magnets per MW (kgs) 400 600 Vehicles Average Weight of Magnets per vehicle (kgs) 1 2 Materials Wind and % Weight of Magnets that is Neodymium 31% 31% Intensity Vehicles Wind and % Weight of Magnets that is Dysprosium 5.50% 5.50% VehiclesSource: Critical Materials Strategy by U.S Department of Energy (Dec 2010)http://www.energy.psu.edu/oeo/ree/reports/criticalmaterialsstrategy121710.pdf
  6. 6. Current Rare Earth Types and Content Source: Critical Materials Strategy by U.S Department of Energy (Dec 2010) http://www.energy.psu.edu/oeo/ree/reports/criticalmaterialsstrategy121710.pdf
  7. 7. Low levels of Dy occurrence Low levels of Dy present Yttrium Dysprosium Erbium 11.7% 2.4% 1.1% Lanthanum Terbium 24.6% Gadolinium 0.6% 1.6% Europium 1.0% Samarium 2.0% Neodymium 20.7% Cerium Praseodymium 29.0% 5.4% Estimated Production in 2010* *Source:National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) Report April 2011
  8. 8. Possible new sources of Rare Earths:Dy contents are low Assumed Additional Production by 2015 Total Additional Mountain Pass Mt. Weld Nolans Bore Nechalaco Dong Pao Hoidas Lake Dubbo Zirconia Production by (USA) (Australia) (Australia) (Canada) (Vietnam) (Canada) (Australia) 2015Lanthanum 6,640 3,840 2,000 845 1,620 594 585 16,124Cerium 9,820 6,855 4,820 2,070 2,520 1,368 1,101 28,554Praseodymium 860 810 590 240 200 174 120 2,994Neodymium 2,400 2,790 2,150 935 535 657 423 9,890Samarium 160 360 240 175 45 87 75 1,142Europium 20 90 40 20 - 18 3 191Gadolinium 40 150 100 145 - 39 63 537Terbium - 15 10 90 - 3 9 127Dysprosium - 30 30 35 - 12 60 167Yttrium 20 60 - 370 35 39 474 998TOTAL 19,960 15,000 9,980 4,925 4,955 2,991 2,913 60,724Source: Critical Materials Strategy by U.S Department of Energy (Dec 2010)http://www.energy.psu.edu/oeo/ree/reports/criticalmaterialsstrategy121710.pdf
  9. 9. Why does Sintered Neo need Dy?• Sintered neo is much more inclined to have a knee in the second quadrant engineering curve at elevated temperature – Due to high remanence values of sintered neo – Results in irreversible losses in motor• Compensation for this knee, motor companies could – Increase the magnet length – Adding Dy to enhance coercivity
  10. 10. Typical Sintered Neo Alloy compositionType T.R.E NdPr Dy Gd Tb Fe Co B AlN35H 32.4 27.23 3.3 1.9 0 64.4 1 1 1N35SH 33 29.64 3.4 0 0 64.8 0 1.1 1N35UH 32.1 26.92 5 0.2 0 65 1 1 1N38H 32.2 29.04 3.2 0 0 65.1 1 1 0N38SH 31.9 28.29 3.6 0 0 65.4 1 1 1N38UH 31.7 25.62 6.1 0 0 65.8 0.9 1 0N42H 31 29.3 1.8 0 0 66.5 0.7 1 0N42SH 30.4 26.66 3.3 0 0.4 66.9 1 1 0N42UH 31.7 27.24 3.8 0 0.7 65.8 0.9 1 0N45H 31.4 29.45 2 0 0 66.1 0.9 1 0N45SH 30 27.06 0.8 0 2.1 67.4 0.9 1 0N45UH 30.1 26.61 0.8 0 2.7 67.3 0.9 1 0MQP-B 25.4 25.41 0 - - 73.4 - 1 - Typical sintered Nd grades contain up to 6% of Dy
  11. 11. Advantages of Bonded Neo• MQPTM has very good linearity in the second 25C-MQP-B+-20056 125C-MQP-B+-20056 25C-MQP-14-12 125C-MQP-14-12 quadrant engineering curve 8 up to temperatures as high as Load line at stall Load line at no-load 7 150-180oC 6• Able to achieve equivalent 5 B (kG) performance 4 3• No significant increase in 2 motor size 1• All MQPTM grades are Dy 0 free! -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 H (kOe)
  12. 12. CASE STUDY www.mqitechnology.comCopyright © 2011 Magnequench Neo Powders Pte Ltd
  13. 13. Case Study 1:Comparison of the Sintered Neo andBonded Neo based Motors 4-Pole PMDC Motor with 4-Pole PMDC motor with Parameter Sintered Neo Magnets Bonded Neo Magnets 4-Arc Sintered neo Isotropic Bonded Neo Type of Magnet (N35SH) (MQP-14-12) Total motor weight (gm) 107.80 143.34 Length of the motor (mm) 10.00 12.00 Overall diameter (mm) 42.00 46.75 Total copper weight (gm) 12.70 23.80 Total magnet weight (gm) 14.20 24.94 Length of Air gap (mm) 0.80 0.80 Current at 80 mN-m (A) 11.06 10.20 Efficiency at 80 mN-m (%) 73.13 75.27
  14. 14. Case Study 1:Chemical Composition and MagnetCharacteristics for Sintered Neo Magnet ICP Test Result Element Nd Tb La Ce Pr Sm Dy Gd T.R.E % 18.731 0.151 0 0.031 5.862 0.026 2.491 1.680 28.972
  15. 15. Case Study 1:Comparison of Key Physical Dimensions for theSintered Neo and Bonded Neo based Motors Sintered Neo Motor Bonded Neo Motor
  16. 16. Case Study 1:Comparison of Motor Characteristics for the Sintered Neoand Bonded Neo based Motors Torque-efficiency and Torque-output power characteristics Torque-speed and Torque-current characteristics
  17. 17. Case Study 1:Comparison of Key Physical Parameters and Costfor the Sintered Neo and Bonded Neo based Motors
  18. 18. Case Study 2:Comparison of the Sintered Neo andBonded Neo based Motors 4-Pole PMDC Motor 4-Pole PMDC Motor 4-Pole PMDC motor Parameter with Sintered Neo with Sintered Neo with Bonded Neo Magnets Magnets Magnets 4-Arc Sintered neo 4-Arc Sintered neo Isotropic Bonded Neo Type of Magnet (N35SH) (N35) (MQP-B+-20056) Dy content ~3% 0-0.5% 0% Total motor weight (gm) 314.90 451.4 412.50 Length of the motor (mm) 18.00 23.00 20.00 Overall diameter (mm) 57.50 60.72 63.90 Total copper weight (gm) 29.80 21.3 57.10 Total magnet weight (gm) 29.10 56.5 37.30 Length of Air gap (mm) 0.55 0.55 0.55 Current at 220 mN-m (A) 11.08 10.55 11.21 Efficiency at 220 mN-m (%) 73.76 74.59 74.09
  19. 19. Case Study 2:Comparison of Key Physical Dimensions for the Sintered Neoand Bonded Neo based Motors Sintered Neo (35SH) Sintered Neo (N35) Bonded Neo Motor
  20. 20. Case Study 2:Comparison of Motor Characteristics for theSintered Neo and Bonded Neo based Motors Torque-efficiency and Torque-output power characteristics Torque-speed and Torque-current characteristics
  21. 21. Case Study 2:Comparison of Key Physical Parameters and Cost forthe Sintered Neo and Bonded Neo based Motors
  22. 22. Case Study-3 – Comparison of the SinteredNeo and Bonded Neo based Motors 4-Pole PMDC Motor 4-Pole PMDC motor Parameter with Sintered Neo with Bonded Neo Magnets Magnets 4-Arc Sintered neo Isotropic Bonded Neo Type of Magnet (N27SH or N30SH) (MQP-14-12) Total motor weight (gm) 204.35 237.00 Length of the motor (mm) 15.50 19.25 Overall diameter (mm) 44.10 49.79 Total copper weight (gm) 28.09 18.60 Total magnet weight (gm) 18.47 39.80 Length of Air gap (mm) 0.57 0.57 Current at 190 mN-m (A) 27.08 26.99 Efficiency at 190 mN-m (%) 74.30 73.04
  23. 23. Case Study 3:Chemical Composition and MagnetCharacteristics for Sintered Neo Magnet ICP Test Result Element Nd La Ce Pr Sm Dy Tb Gd T.R.E % 21.204 0.004 0.028 6.047 0.000 4.087 0.034 0.109 31.479
  24. 24. Case Study 3:Comparison of Key Physical Dimensions for the Sintered Neoand Bonded Neo based Motors Sintered Neo Motor Bonded Neo Motor
  25. 25. Case Study 3:Comparison of Motor Characteristics for theSintered Neo and Bonded Neo based Motors Torque-efficiency and Torque- output power characteristics Torque-speed and Torque- current characteristics
  26. 26. Case Study 3:Comparison of Key Physical Parameters and Cost forthe Sintered Neo and Bonded Neo based Motors

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