Stanford HCI Group


Coordinating
Tasks on the
Commons
Designing for Personal Goals,
Expertise and Serendipity


Mike Krie...
Stanford HCI Group


Coordinating
Tasks on the
Commons
Designing for Personal Goals,
Expertise and Serendipity


Mike Krie...
Social software & Task
     management
hundreds of
thousands of
tasks, from tens
of thousands of
editors
Collective Creation &
Design
Distributed groups,
collaborating
asynchronously to
flickr photo by:   jerrydonut
Wikipedi
how Wikipedia editors
approach task
management on Wikipedia

what design principles can
we extract to make these
practices...
Roadmap
Background
Requirements Analysis
Design of WikiTasks
WikiTasks
Roadmap
Background
Requirements Analysis
Design of WikiTasks
Task organization
In traditional companies
In volunteer organizations
In Wikipedia
Traditional
                                    Volunteer Orgs                     Wikipedia
                       Orgs

...
Traditional
                                    Volunteer Orgs                     Wikipedia
                       Orgs

...
Traditional
                                    Volunteer Orgs                     Wikipedia
                       Orgs

...
Traditional
                                    Volunteer Orgs                     Wikipedia
                       Orgs

...
Wikipedia
Based on flexible MediaWiki
Evolves its own practices
Study practice, design around needs
Wikipedia
Prior research uncovers patterns, broadly
Interplay between quantitative 
qualitative
Wikipedia thrives  evolves




                              (Kittur et al. 2007)
Wikipedia thrives  evolves




                              (Kittur et al. 2007)
Roadmap
Background
Requirements analysis
Design of WikiTasks
How do editors select and track tasks?



How does this vary across
participation levels on Wikipedia?



What implication...
How do editors select and track tasks?



How does this vary across
participation levels on Wikipedia?



What implication...
How do editors select and track tasks?



How does this vary across
participation levels on Wikipedia?



What implication...
How do editors select and track tasks?



How does this vary across
participation levels on Wikipedia?



What implication...
Method
Method


Participatin
g
Method


Participatin   Wikipedia community,
               WikiProjects, Recent
g             Changes patrol
Method


Participatin   Wikipedia community,
               WikiProjects, Recent
g             Changes patrol



Interview...
Method


Participatin   Wikipedia community,
               WikiProjects, Recent
g             Changes patrol


          ...
Method


Participatin   Wikipedia community,
               WikiProjects, Recent
g             Changes patrol


          ...
Method


Participatin   Wikipedia community,
               WikiProjects, Recent
g             Changes patrol


          ...
Method
Sample questions
How do you figure out what to do next on
Wikipedia? Do you use any project to-do
list, or your own ...
Wikipedia Personas




             builds from work in Bryant et al.
                                      (2005)
Wikipedia Personas
      Passers-
      by
      Readers
      Lurkers




                 builds from work in Bryant et ...
Wikipedia Personas
               Passers-

           {   by
78M visitors
               Readers
               Lurkers

...
Wikipedia Personas
               Passers-

           {   by
78M visitors
               Readers
               Lurkers
 ...
Wikipedia Personas
             Passers-

          {  by
78M visitors
             Readers
             Lurkers
   175,00...
Wikipedia Personas
             Passers-

          {  by
78M visitors
             Readers
             Lurkers
         ...
Wikipedia Personas
             Passers-

          {  by
78M visitors
             Readers
             Lurkers
         ...
Wikipedia Personas
             Passers-

          {  by
78M visitors
             Readers
             Lurkers
         ...
Wikipedia Personas
             Passers-

          {  by
78M visitors
             Readers
             Lurkers
         ...
Finding tasks on Wikipedia,
today
{{Expand|date=August 2007}}
Other task sources




                     Cosley,
Other task sources




                     Cosley,
Focus: Two Personas
Beginning Editor

Advanced Editor
Beginning Editors
broad editing, rather than article
ownership
site-provided actions

random browsing
Huggle: Community Vandalism Fighting




“We like to consider it a game of whack-a-
mole.”
                               ...
“Huggle lets me see only filtered,
likely vandalism [edits]”
I find things to do
        by...



“reading Wikipedia namespace drama/
doing Huggle mindless reverts/actually
reading ran...
“I don't tend to stick around articles
much”
Needs of Beginning Editors
Template tags are insuficient
Hard to contextually discover tasks
Users feel lack of expertise
Advanced Editors
Initiate their own Wikipedia activities,
from o-site triggers

Participate actively in WikiProjects,
and ...
“If I’m going somewhere - like Deptford or
Dovedale or Amsterdam - then I will work
on that article for a bit as a way of
...
source: Wikipedia, see also Viégas et al (2007)
source: Wikipedia
Needs of Advanced Editors
Connecting between own goals and
site goals
More granularity in WikiProject lists
Ofload triagin...
Discussio
n
Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated

Template tags do not function well as ‘next
actions’

Lack of...
Discussio
n
Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated

Template tags do not function well as ‘next
actions’

Lack of...
Discussio
n
Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated

Template tags do not function well as ‘next
actions’

Lack of...
Discussio
n
Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated

Template tags do not function well as ‘next
actions’

Lack of...
Discussio
n
Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated

Template tags do not function well as ‘next
actions’

Lack of...
Discussio
n
Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated

Template tags do not function well as ‘next
actions’

Lack of...
Roadmap
Background
Quantitative study / requirements analysis
Design of WikiTasks
Design Goals
facilitate transition between
personal and site-wide tasks
on-page, contextual task
management; fortuitous di...
Tasks in WikiTasks
are added by community members
can be accepted by anyone
can be marked as
completed, or returned to
com...
Tasks in WikiTasks
can be tagged as short, medium, or
long time investment
are displayed in sidebar on article
can be vote...
Implementation
                  Browser


                 Browsing/
                   Editing

                  Firefo...
Implementation
XMLHttpRequest loads more information
on page load
WikiTasks loaded into sidebar, sized using
location hash...
For other developers
Augmenting is simpler than proxying

GreaseMonkey turns into Firefox
extensions easily
Instrument ext...
Evaluation
Goals
Usability evaluation of WikiTasks

Does WikiTasks aid task discovery on
Wikipedia?
Suggestions for future...
Evaluation

Method
11 students using WikiTasks for 1 week
Asked to focus eorts on Stanford-related topics

Pre- and post-s...
Evaluation

Results
93 tasks added (8.5 per
participant)
79 tasks “accepted”, 49 completed
Evaluation

Results
                          Per-participant
     Tasks        Total
                              mean
 ...
Evaluation

Origin of tasks
                                         50


Participants were                       37.5



...
Evaluation
Sample Participant
Contributions
Task:

Provide more
information about
student groups
Evaluation
Sample Participant
Contributions
Task:

Write about Haas
Public Service
Center
Evaluation

Participant responses
“[I like how WikiTasks] puts the items to be
edited right next to the main content,
ther...
Evaluation

Participant responses
Pages with dense task lists perceived as
more credible
Perceived applicability to other ...
Evaluation

Usability tweaks
Add tasks box too similar to search box

Filtering  search

Per-person statistics
Next steps
Would like to see it deployed to all
Wikipedia
Testing applicability of findings and design to
other collaborati...
Summary
Distributed, asynchronous social software
projects evolve their own task practices

Task management for such commu...
For more information


http://
hci.stanford.edu
mkrieger@hci.stanford.e
du
http://slideshare.com/
mikeyk
flickr photo by:
 Bellotti et al.: design principles for task
  management
  Faceted views into tasks
  Capturing task history
  Captur...
source: Cosley et al. (2007)
User page lists




                  source: Wikipedia
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
Coordinating Tasks on the Commons
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Coordinating Tasks on the Commons

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My CHI2009 talk about WikiTasks, a collaborative task manager for Wikipedia

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  • Good morning, and thanks for coming to this session. My name is Mike Krieger and I’m from the Human-Computer Interaction Group at Stanford University. [slow down] The work I’ll be presenting today was researched in collaboration with Emily Stark & Prof. Scott Klemmer.
  • So, our research lies at the intersection of Social Software and task management. [slow down] We conducted a needfinding experiment and requirements analysis to understand how editors get things done on Wikipedia, and built a collaborative task manager to better support these task practices & *reduce the threshold to participation on WIkipedia*

  • I’ll start out with a bit of background & what motivated us to investigate task management practices on Wikipedia. Our lab’s research focuses on tools for design and prototyping. As part of our research, we’ve seen online crowds increasingly participate in design-related activities, and wanted to learn how to support work where participants are loosely coupled.

  • But we found we needed a petri dish, a living lab, to investigate & design for...
  • Wikipedia, with its open data policy, millions of users and hundreds of millions of edits, was a good choice.
  • Actionably, this work asks *how*...and *what*... [slow down]
  • The remainder of the talk...’

    on design of WikiTasks, change slide
  • This work culminates in the design & implementation of Wikitasks, a collaborative task management system for Wikipedia,
  • The remainder of the talk...
  • We look broadly at three main areas... we mostly know about the first two






  • 9,358,561 registered accounts
  • 9,358,561 registered accounts
  • 9,358,561 registered accounts
  • 9,358,561 registered accounts
  • The remainder of the talk...
  • We began with three questions...

    , and similar social software systems
  • We began with three questions...

    , and similar social software systems
  • We began with three questions...

    , and similar social software systems
  • We began with three questions...

    , and similar social software systems
  • We began with three questions...

    , and similar social software systems
  • slow down here!

    and we talked to Jimmy Wales
  • slow down here!

    and we talked to Jimmy Wales
  • slow down here!

    and we talked to Jimmy Wales
  • slow down here!

    and we talked to Jimmy Wales
  • slow down here!

    and we talked to Jimmy Wales
  • slow down here!

    and we talked to Jimmy Wales

  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • Bryant and Forte described the transition towards “Becoming Wikipedian” -- we broke down the steps into a few more steps randing on their impact and interest in Wikipedia tasks
  • [slow down]
  • Pause and let them absorb












  • Hyde Park isn’t even under the Expand section, it’s under Wikify...



  • Though not in our scenario, one tool built in related work is SuggestBot, which implements an intelligent task routing technique to suggest tasks proactively.











  • ...from this, 5 insights! [slow down]









  • The remainder of the talk...

  • Here is Wikipedia today....
  • ...and with WikiTasks introduced!









  • Related pages...ALSO related projects. ALSO slow down, man
  • Palo alto page, seeing contextual tasks...










  • 11 students participated in a week-long study of WikiTasks for course credit.

    10 out of 11 had prior experience with Wikipedia; of those who had edited, they all reported having only made small edits based on random browsing
  • [slow down]

  • Using student’s t-test with the null hypothesis that origin of task should be about even




  • Coordinating Tasks on the Commons

    1. 1. Stanford HCI Group Coordinating Tasks on the Commons Designing for Personal Goals, Expertise and Serendipity Mike Krieger Emily M. Stark Scott R. Klemmer
    2. 2. Stanford HCI Group Coordinating Tasks on the Commons Designing for Personal Goals, Expertise and Serendipity Mike Krieger Emily M. Stark Scott R. Klemmer
    3. 3. Social software & Task management
    4. 4. hundreds of thousands of tasks, from tens of thousands of editors
    5. 5. Collective Creation & Design
    6. 6. Distributed groups, collaborating asynchronously to
    7. 7. flickr photo by: jerrydonut
    8. 8. Wikipedi
    9. 9. how Wikipedia editors approach task management on Wikipedia what design principles can we extract to make these practices more eective
    10. 10. Roadmap Background Requirements Analysis Design of WikiTasks
    11. 11. WikiTasks
    12. 12. Roadmap Background Requirements Analysis Design of WikiTasks
    13. 13. Task organization In traditional companies In volunteer organizations In Wikipedia
    14. 14. Traditional Volunteer Orgs Wikipedia Orgs Self-created Management Hub and spoke Source motivated Highly inter- Inter-dependent Independent Relationship dependent GANTT chart, Wiki pages, Task lists, central Representation task lists, email WikiProjects, meeting space inbox personal pages Pearce 1993, Bellotti 2003 2004, Kreifelts, 1993
    15. 15. Traditional Volunteer Orgs Wikipedia Orgs Self-created Management Hub and spoke Source motivated Highly inter- Inter-dependent Independent Relationship dependent GANTT chart, Wiki pages, Task lists, central Representation task lists, email WikiProjects, meeting space inbox personal pages Pearce 1993, Bellotti 2003 2004, Kreifelts, 1993
    16. 16. Traditional Volunteer Orgs Wikipedia Orgs Self-created Management Hub and spoke Source motivated Highly inter- Inter-dependent Independent Relationship dependent GANTT chart, Wiki pages, Task lists, central Representation task lists, email WikiProjects, meeting space inbox personal pages Pearce 1993, Bellotti 2003 2004, Kreifelts, 1993
    17. 17. Traditional Volunteer Orgs Wikipedia Orgs Self-created Management Hub and spoke Source motivated Highly inter- Inter-dependent Independent Relationship dependent GANTT chart, Wiki pages, Task lists, central Representation task lists, email WikiProjects, meeting space inbox personal pages Pearce 1993, Bellotti 2003 2004, Kreifelts, 1993
    18. 18. Wikipedia Based on flexible MediaWiki Evolves its own practices Study practice, design around needs
    19. 19. Wikipedia Prior research uncovers patterns, broadly Interplay between quantitative qualitative
    20. 20. Wikipedia thrives evolves (Kittur et al. 2007)
    21. 21. Wikipedia thrives evolves (Kittur et al. 2007)
    22. 22. Roadmap Background Requirements analysis Design of WikiTasks
    23. 23. How do editors select and track tasks? How does this vary across participation levels on Wikipedia? What implications does this have for the design of tools for Wikipedia?
    24. 24. How do editors select and track tasks? How does this vary across participation levels on Wikipedia? What implications does this have for the design of tools for Wikipedia?
    25. 25. How do editors select and track tasks? How does this vary across participation levels on Wikipedia? What implications does this have for the design of tools for Wikipedia?
    26. 26. How do editors select and track tasks? How does this vary across participation levels on Wikipedia? What implications does this have for the design of tools for Wikipedia?
    27. 27. Method
    28. 28. Method Participatin g
    29. 29. Method Participatin Wikipedia community, WikiProjects, Recent g Changes patrol
    30. 30. Method Participatin Wikipedia community, WikiProjects, Recent g Changes patrol Interviewin
    31. 31. Method Participatin Wikipedia community, WikiProjects, Recent g Changes patrol 15 Wikipedia Editors Interviewin Email, IRC, Phone
    32. 32. Method Participatin Wikipedia community, WikiProjects, Recent g Changes patrol 15 Wikipedia Editors Interviewin Email, IRC, Phone Prototyping
    33. 33. Method Participatin Wikipedia community, WikiProjects, Recent g Changes patrol 15 Wikipedia Editors Interviewin Email, IRC, Phone Prototyping and validating design ideas as we observed
    34. 34. Method Sample questions How do you figure out what to do next on Wikipedia? Do you use any project to-do list, or your own list? What was the best collaborative eort you were part of on Wikipedia?
    35. 35. Wikipedia Personas builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    36. 36. Wikipedia Personas Passers- by Readers Lurkers builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    37. 37. Wikipedia Personas Passers- { by 78M visitors Readers Lurkers builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    38. 38. Wikipedia Personas Passers- { by 78M visitors Readers Lurkers Editors builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    39. 39. Wikipedia Personas Passers- { by 78M visitors Readers Lurkers 175,000 Editors builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    40. 40. Wikipedia Personas Passers- { by 78M visitors Readers Lurkers Beginning { Advanced 175,000 Editors builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    41. 41. Wikipedia Personas Passers- { by 78M visitors Readers Lurkers Beginning { Advanced 175,000 Editors Administrators builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    42. 42. Wikipedia Personas Passers- { by 78M visitors Readers Lurkers Beginning { Advanced 175,000 Editors 1,630 Administrators builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    43. 43. Wikipedia Personas Passers- { by 78M visitors Readers Lurkers Beginning { Advanced 175,000 Editors 1,630 Administrators Superusers builds from work in Bryant et al. (2005)
    44. 44. Finding tasks on Wikipedia, today
    45. 45. {{Expand|date=August 2007}}
    46. 46. Other task sources Cosley,
    47. 47. Other task sources Cosley,
    48. 48. Focus: Two Personas Beginning Editor Advanced Editor
    49. 49. Beginning Editors broad editing, rather than article ownership site-provided actions random browsing
    50. 50. Huggle: Community Vandalism Fighting “We like to consider it a game of whack-a- mole.” source: Huggle
    51. 51. “Huggle lets me see only filtered, likely vandalism [edits]”
    52. 52. I find things to do by... “reading Wikipedia namespace drama/ doing Huggle mindless reverts/actually reading random Wikipedia page” Participant
    53. 53. “I don't tend to stick around articles much”
    54. 54. Needs of Beginning Editors Template tags are insuficient Hard to contextually discover tasks Users feel lack of expertise
    55. 55. Advanced Editors Initiate their own Wikipedia activities, from o-site triggers Participate actively in WikiProjects, and help guide work Stick to topic areas
    56. 56. “If I’m going somewhere - like Deptford or Dovedale or Amsterdam - then I will work on that article for a bit as a way of gathering information about a place that I am about to visit.” flickr photo by: mikeykrieger
    57. 57. source: Wikipedia, see also Viégas et al (2007)
    58. 58. source: Wikipedia
    59. 59. Needs of Advanced Editors Connecting between own goals and site goals More granularity in WikiProject lists Ofload triaging to more members
    60. 60. Discussio n Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated Template tags do not function well as ‘next actions’ Lack of triage reduces reliability of task views Site-wide and personal tasks are disconnected Lack of support for contextual discovery of tasks
    61. 61. Discussio n Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated Template tags do not function well as ‘next actions’ Lack of triage reduces reliability of task views Site-wide and personal tasks are disconnected Lack of support for contextual discovery of tasks
    62. 62. Discussio n Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated Template tags do not function well as ‘next actions’ Lack of triage reduces reliability of task views Site-wide and personal tasks are disconnected Lack of support for contextual discovery of tasks
    63. 63. Discussio n Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated Template tags do not function well as ‘next actions’ Lack of triage reduces reliability of task views Site-wide and personal tasks are disconnected Lack of support for contextual discovery of tasks
    64. 64. Discussio n Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated Template tags do not function well as ‘next actions’ Lack of triage reduces reliability of task views Site-wide and personal tasks are disconnected Lack of support for contextual discovery of tasks
    65. 65. Discussio n Tasks are generally self-created, not delegated Template tags do not function well as ‘next actions’ Lack of triage reduces reliability of task views Site-wide and personal tasks are disconnected Lack of support for contextual discovery of tasks
    66. 66. Roadmap Background Quantitative study / requirements analysis Design of WikiTasks
    67. 67. Design Goals facilitate transition between personal and site-wide tasks on-page, contextual task management; fortuitous discovery contextual display of related articles’ tasks reduce threshold for Beginning Editors; improve management and triaging for Advanced
    68. 68. Tasks in WikiTasks are added by community members can be accepted by anyone can be marked as completed, or returned to community
    69. 69. Tasks in WikiTasks can be tagged as short, medium, or long time investment are displayed in sidebar on article can be voted up/down by community
    70. 70. Implementation Browser Browsing/ Editing Firefox extension Wiki page
    71. 71. Implementation XMLHttpRequest loads more information on page load WikiTasks loaded into sidebar, sized using location hash parameter Matches look feel of Wikipedia
    72. 72. For other developers Augmenting is simpler than proxying GreaseMonkey turns into Firefox extensions easily Instrument extensively
    73. 73. Evaluation Goals Usability evaluation of WikiTasks Does WikiTasks aid task discovery on Wikipedia? Suggestions for future steps
    74. 74. Evaluation Method 11 students using WikiTasks for 1 week Asked to focus eorts on Stanford-related topics Pre- and post-study questionnaire
    75. 75. Evaluation Results 93 tasks added (8.5 per participant) 79 tasks “accepted”, 49 completed
    76. 76. Evaluation Results Per-participant Tasks Total mean Added 93 8.45 Accepted 79 7.18 Completed 49 4.45 Returned 25 2.27 Accepted, 49 4.45 added by others
    77. 77. Evaluation Origin of tasks 50 Participants were 37.5 Tasks completed more likely to take 25 tasks suggested by others 12.5 0 Added by self Added by others p 0.05
    78. 78. Evaluation Sample Participant Contributions Task: Provide more information about student groups
    79. 79. Evaluation Sample Participant Contributions Task: Write about Haas Public Service Center
    80. 80. Evaluation Participant responses “[I like how WikiTasks] puts the items to be edited right next to the main content, therefore encouraging editing.” “Provides direction in any given context by suggesting quick edits that get someone working immediately”
    81. 81. Evaluation Participant responses Pages with dense task lists perceived as more credible Perceived applicability to other settings, such as educational environments
    82. 82. Evaluation Usability tweaks Add tasks box too similar to search box Filtering search Per-person statistics
    83. 83. Next steps Would like to see it deployed to all Wikipedia Testing applicability of findings and design to other collaborative systems Exploration of other task visualizations for social software
    84. 84. Summary Distributed, asynchronous social software projects evolve their own task practices Task management for such communities must bridge individual community goals Contextually displaying tasks lowers threshold to participation on collective creation sites
    85. 85. For more information http:// hci.stanford.edu mkrieger@hci.stanford.e du http://slideshare.com/ mikeyk
    86. 86. flickr photo by:
    87. 87.  Bellotti et al.: design principles for task management  Faceted views into tasks  Capturing task history  Capturing time constrains  Tying tasks to context  Displaying social relations  Capturing task info away from the system itself
    88. 88. source: Cosley et al. (2007)
    89. 89. User page lists source: Wikipedia

    ×