Key Questions...•What is development?•What are the Patterns of GlobalDevelopment?•How do we measure it?
Development is...• Reducing levels of povertyIn pairs discuss:What are the advantages and disadvantages of these statements as adefinition for development.•Increasing levels of wealth•Creating equal status for men and woman•Creating justice, freedom of speech and political participation for everyone•Ensuring that everyone is safe from conflict and terrorism•Ensuring that everyone fulfils their basic needs: food, water and shelter•Ensuring that all children have good standards of education•Reducing the gap between the richest and poorest members of societyWhat four statements do you think give the best definition of developmentand why?Create your own statement / definition for development.
1. National wealth (GDP)1. National wealth (GDP)The wealth of a country is usually measured by its Gross National Product(GNP) per person. The GNP per person of a country is calculated by:Step 1: Add up the total value of goods and services produced by people livingin that country and by people abroad who are still citizens of that country.Step 2: Divide this figure by the total number of citizens of that country.The Brandt Line
2. Health data2. Health dataHealth data is also often used to describe a country’s level of development.Two commonly used indicators are:1.Infant Mortality Rate (IMR): the number of children who die before the ageof one for every 1,000 that are born. The figure varies widely, from 270 inSierra Leone to only 3 in Sweden.2. Average Life Expectancy:the average age to which people can expect to live.3. Human Development Index(HDI)3. Human Development Index(HDI)A comparative measure of lifeexpectancy, literacy, education andstandards of living for countriesworldwide.
Think..Think....What are the advantages and disadvantages of different indicators?(Do they give a fair/realistic overview of the development of thatcountry?)
Key Questions...•What are the patterns of development in Ghana?•What are the reasons for this?
GHANA - Facts• Located in Sub SaharanWest Africa• Poverty and Hungerproblems in Ghana• Gross National Incomeis $520 per person• 45% of population liveon less than $1 a day• 55% of workingpopulation work onfarms• Farmers are Ghana’spoorest earners• They have little savings• 19% of Ghana’s childrenunder 5 aremalnourishedGHANA - Facts• Located in Sub SaharanWest Africa• Poverty and Hungerproblems in Ghana• Gross National Incomeis $520 per person• 45% of population liveon less than $1 a day• 55% of workingpopulation work onfarms• Farmers are Ghana’spoorest earners• They have little savings• 19% of Ghana’s childrenunder 5 aremalnourishedVery RuralLower IncomePoor Transport LinksLittle IndustryFew touristsPoor RainfallFarming main source ofincomeLack of jobsPoor drinking waterHealth Care AvailablePlenty of TeachersDiseaseBad Malnutritionplenty of jobsgood drinking waterHealth Care AvailablePlenty of TeachersHealthyPlenty of FoodVery UrbanHigher IncomeBetter Transport LinksLittle Industrylots of touristsReliable Rainfalltourism main source ofincome
Regional Patterns of Development in Ghana?Ghana has a tropical climate. In the southern regions of thecountry, the long wet season means that farmers can grow foodcrops like sorghum, or cash crops like cocoa. Almost 90% ofGhana’s crop is grown on tiny farms by 2.5 million smallholders.However, the average farmer only earns about £160 a year.The price of cocoa goes up and down on the world market. It’sdifficult to make a profit and invest it in the farm. Further norththe annual rainfall is much lower and it can be unreliable. Thismeans that the land has to be used less intensively and farmershere can grow fewer food crops. Instead they keep a few goats.
VideoWhat can be done to help?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lScsKYAuNHkPlenaryThis is how Cadbury World Helps Ghana!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ktLtvinZBs
• The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight goals to be achievedby 2015 that respond to the worlds main development challenges.• The MDGs are drawn from the actions and targets contained in theMillennium Declaration that was adopted by 189 nations-and signed by147 heads of state and governments during the UN Millennium Summit inSeptember 2000.• The eight MDGs break down into 21 quantifiable targets that are measuredby 60 indicators.United Nations Millennium GoalsKey Questions...• What are the UN Development Goals?• How can these targets be achieved?
Who is helping countries reach their MDGs?Working towards the MDGs is a major concern for many people working ingovernment and in voluntary sector. A disaster like an earthquake isinstantly reported around the world on the internet and by satellite. Thiscreates enormous public sympathy and people from both rich and poorcountries give generously to provide emergency aid.However, emergency aid is only a small part of the aid given by bothgovernments and Non Government Organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam,Action Aid or Christian Aid. Most aid is in fact planned over a long period oftime to tackle poverty and improve quality of life. This is known as long-term, or development aid. It is these long term projects, supported by bothgovernments and NGOs, that address the MDGs.
What do you notice about this picture?Progressing towards Goals 2 & 3(Education and Gender Equality)Progressing towards Goals 2 & 3(Education and Gender Equality)
Progressing towards Goals 2 & 3(Education and Gender Equality)Progressing towards Goals 2 & 3(Education and Gender Equality)An educated girl...Marries later in lifeSeeks medical attentionsooner for herself and herchildrenProvides better care and nutrition forherself and her childrenHas a higher probability ofsurvival as do her childrenHas fewer childrenProvides good learningopportunities for her ownchildrenWhy is this important fordevelopment?Why is this important fordevelopment?
How has literacy improved from 1990-2004?1990 Male Female 2004 Male FemaleSub-Saharan Africa 60 40 69 53Middle East & North Africa 66 39 74 52South Asia 59 34 66 42East Asia & Pacific 88 72 93 81Latin America & Caribbean 87 83 90 88Russia & the countries ofEastern Europe98 94 98 95Complete following statement in booklet:The lowest adult literacy in 2003 was in ......... . In this region female literacyimproved from ........ per cent in 1960 to ........ per cent in 2004. Maleliteracy improved from ....... per cent in the same period.
How well is South Asia Progressing?Positive Progress Indicates more progress neededIndian universities produce the third largestnumber of engineers each year.The number of children missing from primaryschool in India was 25 million in 2003India’s college/university system is one of thelargest in the world with over 10 millionstudents.Rural children often have to travel long distancesto secondary school. The cost of travel preventsmany poor families from sending their children toschool.The number of children missing from primaryschool in India in 2007 was 9.6 million.Less than 40% of Indian teenagers attendsecondary schools.The curriculum needs to change so thatstudents become independent learners andcritical thinkers.Parents are often not willing to send teenagedaughters to school where there are no femaleteachersA survey in the late 1990’s found that 72% ofschools in India did not have a libraryOnly 1 in 10 young people go into highereducation. Most of these are from well-offfamilies.THINK...How can India progress towards reaching MDG 2 & 3?e.g. What strategies are needed for improving school attendance?
MDG 7 - Improving water supply insub-Saharan AfricaMDG 7 - Improving water supply insub-Saharan AfricaThe UN has set the target to doubling the access to clean waterand sanitation (the safe disposal of sewage) by 2015.To meet this target we could:1. Waste less water by fixing leeks2. Use water more efficiently, for example using waste water fromwashing to water the garden3. Increase the amount of freshwater supplies
Action taken in Africa:Lesotho Highlands Water Project1. What is the Lesotho Highlands Water Project?2. What are the short term advantages and disadvantagesof the Lesotho Highlands Water Project (LHWP)?3. What are the long term advantages and disadvantagesof the LHWP?4. What alternative strategies can be used to manageSouth Africa’s water?