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Persuasive Design


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We love stories, recognise patterns in fractions of a second and have a set of highly developed social behaviours. In "Persuasive Design" Mike will be running through a collection of these hard-wired influence points and exploring how they can be used in the design of products, interfaces and experiences.

Published in: Design, Technology, Education
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Persuasive Design

  1. 1. Persuasive Design Tapping the Main Line trampoline systems mike stenhouse locate and visualise expertise in large companies
  2. 2. Be attractive 1974 Canadian federal elections - more attractive cands got 2.5x more votes! When questioned, only 14% thought it possible Better jobs - 12-14% more money Negligence cases staged - good looking defendants paid half the damages - $5000 vs 10000 Cognitive bias - Halo effect, in particular physical attractiveness stereotype
  3. 3. So, you can make a beautiful product
  4. 4. Dan Hill City of Sound writeup Tailored, custom feel Hand-chosen and appropriately designed adverts (animated Rolex clocks) Highbrow Striking up a rapport with users and matching their self-image
  5. 5. Be delightful Giving mints with the bill increases tips 2%/12%/25% special, surprise mint for 25%! “Delighters” Matt Biddulph of Dopplr
  6. 6. Sofitel, Sharm el-Sheikh
  7. 7.
  8. 8. “ Account executive: So, who'd you vote for? Creative director: Obama, he's got cool logos.
  9. 9. BBC iPlayer goes up to 11 - Spinal Tap reference eBay gives you a special phone number
  10. 10. Swoosh!
  11. 11. Beautiful, clever When a Star Wars is added says 'I am your father’ When Rock Band is added sings a portion of Run to the Hills by Iron Maiden Harry Met Sally Best User Experience award from Apple Don’t underestimate the value of joy and fun
  12. 12. Be likeable “Greatest Car Salesman” Guinness Book of World Records when questioned: liking was his key to selling 5 cars per day “finding the salesman you like, plus the price.” sent card saying “i like you” every month to every one of his 13,000 customers
  13. 13. Obvious flattery - implied compliment + commitment This is how clothes salespeople work
  14. 14. Be familiar
  15. 15. flickr touches make me love them just a little bit more each time
  16. 16. “ Angry sales rep: I hate how Amazon thinks it knows me. But beware over-familiarity - Amazon uses my full name, which only gets used when I’ve done something wrong NeurLingProg body language mirroring - simulate rapport Derren Brown - NLP guy mirrored journalist and creeped him out
  17. 17. Be appropriate not just about posing “hippie” vs “straight” asking for a dime (70s!) 2/3rd if dressed same, less than 1/2 if diff Good salesman will take off his tie
  18. 18. Similarity of the application to the audience’s self-image
  19. 19. Beloved of the geek set Viral, invite-only (social proof) growth attracted the technorati and suggested both exclusivity (ego) and bleeding edge Perhaps the slightly unfinished, purely functional design is the most fit for early adopters? Could be a very clever design strategy...
  20. 20. “ The more Themail confirmed their expectations— that is, their mental model of what their relationships were like—the more they enjoyed using the tool. confirmed expectations -> enjoyment
  21. 21. Neither usable nor attractive Almost impossible to make a really nice page. Tone: Apparently amongst kids it’s very, very uncool to have a good looking page Great leveller. I think there’s an argument for bad design! Survival of the most fit or the fit enough NOT the fittest.
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Use your users’ language Resonance Card sorting Double grouping exercises from Sense Making Mine your search box Mine the search engines’ search box
  24. 24. holidays not vacations car hire not car rental riding city breaks hotel with jacuzzi babes and glamour models not porn
  25. 25. Be recommended herd instinct - safety in numbers - evolved survival instinct “Werther effect” (18th C: The Sorrows of Young Werther by Goethe) Jonestown massacre - 1000 committed suicide In the 2 weeks after Marilyn Monroe's death, the suicide by overdose rate jumped 12 percent. High profile suicide -> suicide, car and plane wrecks
  26. 26. Proofed by the herd Pressure of society on you
  27. 27. Reader numbers on the right Credibility
  28. 28.
  29. 29. social proof as popularity
  30. 30. Can choose to promote it: Friends count Collect friends MySpace - not social software As a promotional tool for bands, using friends as a score is perfectly valid - social proof But not a realistic aim of a SOCIAL network
  31. 31. Social proof stats normally hidden
  32. 32. In the context of search where score is important - uses social proof Decision point
  33. 33. “most people who stayed here” -> 26% increase in towel reuse You don’t know that 94%
  34. 34. Towel - people in same room -> towel reuse up to 33% happy users like _you_
  35. 35. “ Here’s the cool thing about Twitter. It’s side by side communication. Here’s a picture of Dan & I (Ed). Say Dan twitters ‘hey, I’ve found this amazing site, go check it out.’ Do I question it? Do I have defenses up? No. I go straight there. Second type of social proof - proofed by a friend Hate quote but illustrates well
  36. 36. Also the reason that virals and social media are such hot property
  37. 37. Both types of social proof in Facebook’s Social Advertising My friend Amy + 757 other people
  38. 38. Be generous Every culture has some concept of it Christmas (Roman’s Sol Invictus 200BC, Christian 200AD) Ethnographer Marcel Mauss ‘The Gift’ 1900 Argue that no such thing as a free gift Mauss: “magical”, “total social fact” Baboons display it when distracting alpha male to get quality time with the lady baboons
  39. 39. Hare Krishna society in the 70s giving “gifts” Krishnas funded hundreds of temples across the US Handing out/collecting/staking out bin/recycling
  40. 40. Cadbury’s “A glass and a half full of joy”
  41. 41. Pot Noodle Pot Noodle spoof
  42. 42. Freemium model Friend who paid for subscription because he felt he owed them Predictably irrational: people would sell basketball tickets for 14 times more than people were willing to buy them for Because they were considering what they would lose $5 with insurance survey more effective that $50
  43. 43. Based on reciprocity Give to get You should start a conversation You have to earn your potential users’ trust Don’t ask for email address without offering something
  44. 44. See this in action... Quality content
  45. 45. Valuable content then call to action Horrid but they’re earning millions! Permission and reciprocity
  46. 46. Think of the experience path as a permissions system “Let us find you a concert” -> “Let us give you something for free”
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Interesting flip side to permission Putting people out - Benjamin Framklin Chinese tech for turning American collaborators in Korea
  49. 49. Be playful
  50. 50. “ Hartmann argued that gratification is gained from the sheer exercise of one's functions, as when a child is delighted by learning to walk or to draw, and Rapaport identified novelty-seeking as a self- rewarding activity. Something else interesting about a permission philosophy as an experience - constant learning - small steps Subtle Humans love to learn
  51. 51. Compulsive play Schiphol airport urinals 80% increase in accuracy
  52. 52. We are learning machines
  53. 53. “ The ideal in gameplay, the goal every developer aims for, is an experience that keeps players in a “flow” state — constantly surfing the edges of their abilities without bogging down. [...] The flow comes from constantly discovering innovative ways to solve these open-ended problems. the most compelling games are the most appropriately challenging ones Halo 3 is about learning!
  54. 54. Be understanding Understand how people think - where our limits lie
  55. 55. “ The assistant professor of cognitive science at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has demonstrated that the shapes of letters in 100 writing systems reflect common ones seen in nature: Take the letter “A”—it looks like a mountain, he says. And “Y” might remind one of a tree with branches. He also showed that across different languages most characters take three strokes to write out. 3 is the highest quantity a person can perceive without counting Some societies don’t develop numbers above 3
  56. 56. “ There is a span of absolute judgement that can distinguish about seven categories and that there is a span of attention that will encompass about six objects at a glance. George Miller 1956 The Magical Number Seven 7 turnings in a set of directions Tones to numbers Phone number Notes in a scale Number of god (7 clean animals, times around Jericho) Deadly sins Dwarves with snowwhite
  57. 57. “ In poetry all over the world you have lines that are very close to 3 seconds long separated by pauses. Chinese terse numbering - 10 digits Suggested that 2 second memory
  58. 58.
  59. 59. “ It seems that by adding more dimensions and requiring crude, binary, yes-no judgements on each attribute we can extend the span of absolute judgement from seven to at least 150. Chunking - why learning increases ability to execute complex tasks This is why complex tasks require training Trying to teach a friend to use a computer when she couldn’t use a mouse
  60. 60. “'s_number Dunbar’s surveys of village and tribe sizes also appeared to approximate this predicted value, including 150 as the estimated size of a neolithic farming village; 150 as the splitting point of Hutterite settlements; 200 as the upper bound on the number of academics in a discipline’s sub-specialization; 150 as the basic unit size of professional armies in Roman antiquity and in modern times since the 16th century; and notions of appropriate company size. Studying primates - neocortex size correlates with social group size Applied his results to humans, based on relative neocortex size and estimated c.150 for motivated group The grooming required to remain connected is too much
  61. 61. size ranges of 30-50, 100-200 members each. Agile starts to break down at 15
  62. 62. These limits are why MySpace isn’t social and...
  63. 63. Facebook friends lists is having to provide tools to help us chunk our friends to let us remain social
  64. 64. Notice the wear...
  65. 65. “ In most elevators, at least in any built or installed since the early nineties, the door-close button doesn’t work. It is there mainly to make you think it works. [...] Elevator design is rooted in deception—to disguise not only the bare fact of the box hanging by ropes but also the tethering of tenants to a system over which they have no command. Sometimes have a hack mode - combination of key presses
  66. 66. Auto-save
  67. 67. Be conventional Anathema to designers But conventions are your friend Here’s why
  68. 68. example pattern from Matt Webb’s Mind Hacks “light-from-above”
  69. 69. Light from above pattern Cues: Icons, Patterns, Colour, Shape, Gradient, URL
  70. 70. Pattern matching Mind hacks Reptilian, pattern matching machines Our senses fire neurons and if the combination unlocks a memory then it’s brought forward This is also how sleight of hand magic works - give enough cues to trigger movement recognition Nature - attention in stage magic
  71. 71. RPD leads to all sorts of interesting behavioural phenomena Recog Primed Dec Making on the web: Google Effect Links are coloured Headlines are big If they don’t deliver then switch to evaluative Reptilian, convention response to the cues on the page first time
  72. 72. People under pressure responding to patterns in their environment HMS Gloucester 1992 Gulf War. Friendly plane or silkworm missile? From instrument data - indistinguishable. Officer recognised a pattern in the flight path. Responding to unconscious cues. This is the basis for conventions - they’re patterns
  73. 73. Cues and experience Cues, The Golden Retriever - Boxes and Arrows: The design behind the design Each train station in a large city has a unique audio melody associated with it. Commuters learn their chime and the one for the station before theirs
  74. 74. Ability to associate things together in our minds Peg system for remembering numbers Go back to 85BC. Mentioned by Cicero (Roman) One blatant example of pattern matching is icons - consistent visual cue
  75. 75. phonetic but with cues
  76. 76. Loads of cues to jog your memory
  77. 77. Long and short - this is why we’ve had icons almost as long as we’ve had graphical interfaces Susan Kare - Apple and Windows
  78. 78. Colour is used as an extra dimension in visualisation
  79. 79. Bug status ambient signifier
  80. 80. Colour as an ambient signifier
  81. 81.
  82. 82. Be remarkable Design to be remarked - Seth Godin Stories One of the most fundamental mechanisms we have for transmitting information 32,000 years ago Epic of Gilgamesh, Illiad and the Odyssey - Illiad 15,693 and takes 14 hours to read aloud! Rhyming couplets to aid memory (inbuilt cues!)
  83. 83. Dave Snowden - business anthropologist Plumbers story Xerox parc engineers manuals - prescriptive manuals were the least successful ever Nurses specialising in prematurely born babies - training material composed of anecdotes containing the cues
  84. 84. There’s occasional talk of UX as story-telling but they can be applied all over Seth Godin - being remarkable - design to be remarked trying to design for oral transmission Story style to aid memory Pre-constructed anecdote to help spread the word People tend to explain the benefits in raw form but a little wrapping might help...
  85. 85. Be... attractive delightful likeable appropriate recommended generous playful understanding conventional remarkable persuasive design
  86. 86. The End Mike Stenhouse
  87. 87. Paper Influence by Robert Cialdini Sources of Power by Gary Klein Permission Marketing by Seth Godin A Theory of Fun by Raph Koster Mind Hacks by Stafford and Webb Blink by Malcolm Gladwell Tricks of the Mind by Derren Brown Yes! by Goldstein, Martin & Cialdini Freakonomics by Levitt & Dubner Predictably Irrational by Dan Ariely
  88. 88. Electronic informatics-493301 %2FEyetracking2%2DSample%2Epdf's_number
  89. 89. The End Mike Stenhouse