Industrial revolution


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Industrial revolution

  1. 1. Agriculture Revolution & Industrial Revolution 1650 – 1700 1720- 1914 A shift from hand made items to machine made items
  2. 3. Nationalism <ul><li>Great Exhibition </li></ul><ul><li>Industry of Nations </li></ul><ul><li>1851 </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal Palace </li></ul>
  3. 4. Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Technology is man’s attempt to overcome his environment </li></ul><ul><li>Discovery </li></ul><ul><li>Invention </li></ul><ul><li>Production not machines </li></ul><ul><li>Industry is about what is produced </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from hand produced goods to machine produced goods </li></ul>
  4. 5. Production methods lead to surplus <ul><li>IR preceded by 2 nd Agriculture Revolution which created a surplus of goods </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charles “Turnip” Townsend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seed Drill 1701 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jethro Tull </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crop rotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavier plows </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surplus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar cane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Population increases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor for Industrial Revolution </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Factors of Production <ul><li>Land </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to develop the resources needed both in factories and agricultural lands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An available and willing labor force </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become a market economy or price based on market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Availability or amount of surplus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Product demand increases production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Too much or too little demand effects the price </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supply and demand </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Complex factors <ul><li>Begins in England because they have land, labor and capital </li></ul><ul><li>Enclosure movement – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English fenced in land so they could control what was grown and moved the tenets from the land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three effects – greater crop yield or surplus and tenets moved to cities and needed to work (raw materials and labor) and landowners got wealthy and needed somewhere to spend their money (capital) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Coal (steam engines) </li></ul><ul><li>Canals </li></ul><ul><li>Railroad </li></ul>
  7. 8. Series of little inventions lead to greater production of textiles using surplus <ul><li>John Kay – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1733 flying shuttle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>broader cloth could be woven and at a quicker rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>James Hargreaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invented the Spinning Jenny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which meant that more than one thread could be produced at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Richard Arkwright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1769, water frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which allowed cotton to be spun for the first time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Samuel Compton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mule in 1779 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed the spinning of finer cloths by drawing, twisting, winding on and copping motions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Edmund Cartwright </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1786 Power Loom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>completed the mechanization of the weaving process. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Methods of Production Mass Production <ul><li>System of manufacturing a large number of identical goods. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor -a type of mass production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>division of the manufacturing process into a series of separate tasks. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worker is very skilled in one task </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality improves. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>requires fewer workers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Workers get bored and not focused on task makes more errors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worker satisfaction declines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System of interchangeable parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>type of mass production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less innovation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>conveyor belt carried the product to each worker </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>saved energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased productivity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Worker satisfaction declines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More errors </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Industrial Revolution <ul><li>1 st Stage of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cottage industry and hand made items to machine made items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories source of energy was steam and coal was needed to make steam </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 nd Stage of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steam is used to create new means of transportation such as steam boats and trains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad built after the Bessemer Steele process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased need for new chemicals and new sources of energylike petroleum and oil and then later electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New weapons are developed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 rd Stage of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New forms of communication (radio, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still and movie pictures creates a new industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment Industry – First moving picture 1898 and first full movie in 1915 “Birth of a Nation” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Inventors <ul><li>Alexander Graham Bell </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Guglielimo Marconi </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless telegraph system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nicolo Telsa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thomas Edison </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonograph </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Michael Faraday </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric motor </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. CHANGES <ul><li>Provokes growing demand for manufactured commodities </li></ul><ul><li>Provokes shift in a nation’s economy away from agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Provokes rapid growth of cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provokes rapid demographic change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decline in both birth and death rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aids in the establishment of a centralized, bureaucratic government </li></ul><ul><li>Improves general standard of living but does not improve distribution of wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often causes increase in gap between rich and poor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes the replacement of traditional elites by new ones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bourgeoisie replaces nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes involves political upheaval </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Middle class has leisure time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New parks are built </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New sports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New cultural outlets such as opera, plays, music sheets for the common man, later cinema </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department stores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater availability of goods </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Role of the print media <ul><li>Punch </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between industry and social problems </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger strikes by social reformers </li></ul>Mummy why don’t they forcibly feed us?
  13. 14. Battery and electrical measurement <ul><li>Alessandro Volta </li></ul><ul><li>1800 first copper zinc battery </li></ul>
  14. 15. Photographs <ul><li>In 1814, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce created the first photographic image with a camera obscura, however, the image required eight hours of light exposure and later faded. </li></ul><ul><li>Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre is considered the inventor of the first practical process of photography in 1837. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Automobile <ul><li>In 1769, the very first self-propelled road vehicle was invented by French mechanic, Nicolas Joseph Cugnot. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it was a steam-powered model. In 1885, Karl Benz designed and built the world's first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1885, Gottlieb Daimler took the internal combustion engine a step further and patented what is generally recognized as the prototype of the modern gas engine and later built the world's first four-wheeled motor vehicle. </li></ul>
  16. 17. TV <ul><li>In 1884, Paul Nipkow sent images over wires using a rotating metal disk technology with 18 lines of resolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Television then evolved along two paths, mechanical based on Nipkow's rotating disks, and electronic based on the cathode ray tube. American Charles Jenkins and Scotsman John Baird followed the mechanical model while Philo Farnsworth, working independently in San Francisco, and Russian émigré Vladimir Zworkin, working for Westinghouse and later RCA, advanced the electronic model. </li></ul>
  17. 18. TV <ul><li>1927 first demonstrated </li></ul><ul><li>March 1935 1 st commercial broadcast by German postal service </li></ul><ul><li>1937 - 18 experimental stations in US </li></ul><ul><li>July 1, 1941 NBC was the first with a commercial broadcast </li></ul><ul><li>1950 color TV </li></ul>
  18. 19. % of American homes with TV
  19. 20. Introduction of Cable TV
  20. 21. Office equipment <ul><li>1873 </li></ul><ul><li>Remington </li></ul>
  21. 22. Zipper <ul><li>1893 </li></ul><ul><li>1905 </li></ul><ul><li>1913 </li></ul>
  22. 23. Electricity <ul><li>1800 Alexandra Voltra of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>In 1831, English scientist Michael Faraday discovered that moving a magnet through a coil of copper caused an electric current. This discovery led to the development of the first electric generator and the use of electricity. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Crystal Palace
  24. 25. Intersection of social problems of IR and Imperialism <ul><li>&quot;A Lesson to John Chinaman.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Mr. Punch. &quot;Give it him well, Pam [Lord Palmerston, wielding a cat o' nine tails]. While you are about it!&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Punch , 9 May 1857, page 185. </li></ul>