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Pollution And Human Health

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An introduction to the effects of pollution on human health

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine

Pollution And Human Health

  1. 1. Mike Slater
  2. 2. Content Sources of pollution How pollutants can affect humans Examples of common pollutants and their effects
  3. 3. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
  4. 4. Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
  5. 5. Source: http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/envrf2004/en/index.html
  6. 6. The effects of pollution onhuman health can beDirectIndirect
  7. 7. The effects of pollution onhuman health can beImmediateDelayed
  8. 8. Paracelsus (1493-1541)"All substances arepoisons ; there is nonewhich is not a poison.The right dosedifferentiates a poisonfrom a remedy"
  9. 9. Risk is the likelihood that harmwill occur in practice RISK = Hazard x Exposure
  10. 10. Exposure to Pollutants Air pollution Settlement Direct inhalation Rain animals Food Ground pollution drinking water & fish Water pollution Plants
  11. 11. Routes of Entry
  12. 12. Routes of EntryInhalation
  13. 13. Routes of EntryInhalationIngestion
  14. 14. Routes of EntryInhalationIngestionSkin contact
  15. 15. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
  16. 16. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
  17. 17. InhalationGasesAerosols
  18. 18. Head Airways Region
  19. 19. Tracheo-bronchial Region
  20. 20. Gas Exchange Region
  21. 21. 100 TotalDeposition Fraction relativeto ambient aerosol (DF, %) 80 Extrathoracic Tracheobronchiolar 60 Alveolar 40 20 0 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Particle Diameter (Dp, micrometer)
  22. 22. ISO Criteria for Dust 120 Inhalable 100 Thoracic 80 Respirable % retained 60 40 20 0 1 10 100 Aerodynamic diameter (um)
  23. 23. EN 12341:1998 PM10 - A target specification for sampling thoracic particles 120 100 80cummulative % 60 40 20 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Aerodynamic diameter (microns)
  24. 24. PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency of 50% atan aerodynamic diameter of 2.5micrometres”
  25. 25. Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1838 accessed 17/11/09
  26. 26. TheSkinbfcfrancos @flickr
  27. 27. Many organic compounds arereadily absorbed through the skin solvents pesticides organo-metal compounds
  28. 28. Ingestion can occur due to: Foodstuff contamination Drinking water contamination
  29. 29. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
  30. 30. Distribution Transport by blood Substances released from storage
  31. 31. Storage Fat Bones Blood Liver and kidney Other organs / tissues
  32. 32. Dioxin and PCP trends in mothers milk monitored in Sweden http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1843
  33. 33. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
  34. 34. Biotransformation  Occurs mainly in the liver  Also in lungs, kidney & intestine
  35. 35. Biotransformation Phase I reactions • Oxidation • Reduction • hydrolysisPhase II reactions• Conjugation• Synthesis Metabolites Elimination
  36. 36. BiotransformationSometimes biotransformation increases toxicity
  37. 37. Distribution and storageAbsorption Elimination Biotransfromation
  38. 38. ExcretionKidney  urine  water soluble compounds
  39. 39. ExcretionLungs  volatile compounds  gaseous metabolites
  40. 40. ExcretionLiver  bile  fat soluble compounds
  41. 41. ExcretionOther routes  Hair  Nails  Skin  Sweat  Milk
  42. 42. Biological Half Life - time taken for half theamount of the substance absorbed to be excreted 150 100 Body burden 50 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 time
  43. 43. Some Half Lives Toluene ~ 10 hours Selenium ~ 10 days Mercury ~ 6 weeks Lead ~ 10 years or more
  44. 44. Site of EffectLocal At site of contactSystemic Following distribution
  45. 45. Types of Effectchronicsub-chronic timescalesub-acuteacute
  46. 46. The effect experienced depends onthe dose Blood Alcohol Conc. Effect g/100ml 0.01 - 0.05 Subclinical 0.032 - 0.12 Euphoria 0.09 - 0.25 Excitement 0.18 - 0.30 Confusion 0.25 - 0.40 Stupor 0.35 - 0.50 Coma 0.45 + Death
  47. 47. Dose - Effect
  48. 48. Susceptibility Variation in susceptibility between individuals
  49. 49. Susceptibility Different doses required to produce same effect
  50. 50. Susceptibility The most susceptible groups include  Elderly,  Children,  People with pre-existing disease
  51. 51. Susceptibility Inter-species variation
  52. 52. Dose - Response
  53. 53. Dose - Response Threshold Dose
  54. 54. LD50 – Median Lethal Dose
  55. 55. Some LD50s mg/kg body weight ETHYL ALCOHOL 7060 SODIUM CHLORIDE 3000 NAPHTHALENE 1760 FERROUS SULFATE 1500 ASPIRIN 1000 FORMALDEHYDE 800 AMMONIA 350 CAFFEINE 192 PHENOBARBITAL 150 CHLORPHENIRAMINE MALEATE 118 DDT 100 STRYCHNINE SULFATE 2 NICOTINE 1 DIOXIN 0.0001 BOTULINUS TOXIN 0.00001
  56. 56. PollutionEffects on Human HealthDirect effectsIndirect effects
  57. 57. Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
  58. 58. Without effective responses,climate change will compromise:Water quality and quantityFood securityControl of infectious diseaseProtection from disasters
  59. 59. Chemicals in the EnvironmentChemical reactionsPhotochemical reactionsBiological transformationBioaccumulation
  60. 60. Exposure to Pollutants MixedConcentration Accumulation exposures
  61. 61. Evidence for Effects of PollutionAnimal experimentsHuman volunteer studiesEpidemiological evidence
  62. 62. Irritation Billablubb@Flickr
  63. 63. Irritation Megyarsh@Flickr
  64. 64. Irritation Jess and Colin@Flickr
  65. 65. CorrosiveDestroys tissue Leo Reynolds@Flickr
  66. 66. Chronic obstructive pulmonarydisease (COPD)  Chronic bronchitis  Emphysema
  67. 67. Emphysema
  68. 68. Asthma
  69. 69. SensitisersCause allergic reaction in susceptible individuals
  70. 70. SensitisersCannot identify susceptible individuals!
  71. 71. SensitisersDevelops gradually
  72. 72. SensitisersNot always easy to identify causative agent
  73. 73. CancerUnregulated growth and proliferation of cells
  74. 74. CarcinogensLong latency period
  75. 75. Latency Periods Site Agent Average Range (years) (years) Skin Arsenic 25 4-46 Coal tar and pitch 20 1-50 Solar radiation 25 15-40 Lung Asbestos 18 15-48 Blood Benzene 3-19 Bladder Aromatic amines 15 2-40
  76. 76. MutagensTeratogensSystemic effects
  77. 77. Toxicological Interactions Independent Additive Synergistic Potentiation Antagonism
  78. 78. London 1952
  79. 79. “Higher levels ofPM(10) and NO(2),which are typicallymarkers of trafficrelated pollution,seem to be associatedwith transientlyincreased risk ofmyocardial infarction1-6 hours afterexposure,..”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
  80. 80. “.. air pollution maybe associated withbringing eventsforward in time("short-termdisplacement") ratherthan increasing overallrisk. ”BMJ. 2011 Sep 20;343:d5531.Bhaskaran et al
  81. 81. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants
  82. 82. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Animal experiments
  83. 83. There are two main sources ofevidence for the effects ofpollutants Epidemiology
  84. 84. Problems with animalexperiments
  85. 85. Problems with animalexperiments Inter-species variation
  86. 86. Problems with animalexperiments They evaluate: acute effects from high doses of single substances over a short period
  87. 87. Problems with animalexperiments Ethics
  88. 88. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies
  89. 89. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Simultaneous exposure to many environmental pollutants
  90. 90. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other exposures to chemicals
  91. 91. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Other confounders such as • temperature, • smoking
  92. 92. Problems with epidemiologicalstudies Low level effects are difficult to quantify
  93. 93. Air pollution is estimated to cause1,152,000 deaths per year worldwide Source: World Health Organisation (2006) Preventing disease through healthy environments: Towards an estimate of the environmental burden of disease
  94. 94. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/globatmos/gagccukem.htm
  95. 95. Source: http://www.who.int/globalchange/environment/en/index.html
  96. 96. Carbon MonoxideChemical asphyxiant
  97. 97. Sulphur dioxide Sulphur dioxide
  98. 98. Sulphur dioxide http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf20.htm
  99. 99. Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsSoluble acid gasUpper respiratory tract irritation
  100. 100. Sulphur Dioxide - EffectsIncreased effect on people with pre-existing respiratory disease
  101. 101. Indirect effect fromsulphur dioxide :“acid rain”
  102. 102. http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemnox.htm
  103. 103. Nitrogen DioxideDeep lung irritantLess evidence for effect on pre-existing conditions
  104. 104. Nitrogen oxides, as acidicGases can also contributeTo “acid rain”
  105. 105. VOCs http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/kf/aqkf23.htm
  106. 106. VOCs - Direct effectsDepends on compound
  107. 107. VOCs - Indirect effectsPhotochemical ozone formationOzone depletionClimate change
  108. 108. Ozone Depletion Reduced stratospheric ozone CFCs Chlorohydrocarbons Immune system Skin cancer Cataracts supression
  109. 109. OzoneProduced by photochemical reactionsDeep lung irritant
  110. 110. Ozone - Acute effectsReduced lung functionAggravates asthmaDamages lining of respiratory passages
  111. 111. Ozone - Chronic effectsPermanent reduction in lung function?
  112. 112. Fig 2Estimated number of acute adverse health effectsavoided by meeting the 1997 US EPA Ozone Ambient AirQuality standard Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005; 115:689-699 (DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2005.01.056 )
  113. 113. Particulate Matter
  114. 114. PM2.5Approximates therespirable fraction
  115. 115. PM2.5“mass per cubic metre of particles passingthrough the inlet of a size selective samplerwith a transmission efficiency of 50% at anaerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometres”
  116. 116. Contribution to primary PM2.5 emissionsin the EU-15, year 2020 http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1838 accessed 17/11/09
  117. 117. Premature deaths attributed to PM2.5, 2005(attributable annual mortality per 10 000 people) Source: WHO (2010) Health and Environment in Europe: Progress Assessment
  118. 118. Particulate Matter Acute Effects Chronic Effects Lung inflammatory reactions Increase in lower respiratory symptoms Respiratory symptoms Reduction in lung function in children Adverse effects on the Increase in chronic obstructive cardiovascular system pulmonary disease Increase in medication usage Reduction in lung function in adults Increase in hospital admissions Reduction in life expectancy Increase in mortalitySource: Health aspects of air pollution: Results from the WHO project "Systematic review of healthaspects of air pollution in Europe" (WHO, 2004)
  119. 119. ISSN 1047-3289 J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 56:709–742
  120. 120. Lead concentrations in childrens blood, and lead in petrol (tonne) sold in Sweden 1976-2003. Lead (Pb) in blood in children, 3-12 years of age, in relation to Pb in petrol, tons per year 1800 70 1600 60 1400 Pb in petrol, ton Pb in blood, µg/l 50 1200 1000 40 800 30 600 20 400 10 200 0 0 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 Year Pb in petrol sold in Sweden Pb in blood, children 3-12 years of agehttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1845
  121. 121. Change in mercury concentration in human and animal hair from Greenlandhttp://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/atlas/viewdata/viewpub.asp?id=1842
  122. 122. Water andLand Pollution
  123. 123. Mercury - The Minamata IncidentMinamata Bay, Japan, 1950sChisso Corporation
  124. 124. Mercury - The Minamata Incident Inorganic mercury discharged Biotransformed to methylmercury Bioaccumulation in fish Ingestion by humans
  125. 125. Initial Symptoms Peripheral sensory loss Delirium Disturbed speech, vision and hearing Disturbed gait
  126. 126. Severe Cases General paralysis, involuntary movements Convulsions Death
  127. 127. Camelford Incident 1988, Camelford, Cornwall Aluminium sulphate contamination of water supply
  128. 128. Short term effectsNauseaVomitingMouth ulcersSkin rashes
  129. 129. Longer term effectsMemory loss?Effects on cerebal function?
  130. 130. Source: Arsenic in groundwater: testing pollution mechanisms for sedimentary aquifers in Bangladesh.J.M. McArthur, P. Ravenscroft, S. Safiullah and M.F. Thirlwall. Water Resources Research
  131. 131. Effects of Arsenic PollutionSkin  keratonosis  Melanosis
  132. 132. Effects of Arsenic PollutionGastrointestinal disturbancesCancer
  133. 133. http://www.slideshare.net/mikeslatermichael.slater@manchester.ac.ukhttp://diamondenv.wordpress.comTwitter @diamondenv
  134. 134. Websites US National Library of Medicine Toxicology Tutor  http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/enviro/toxtutor.html UK DEFRA air quality statistics  http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/airqual/aqemissions.htm European Environmental Agency report – “Europes environment: the third assessment - Chapter 12 - Environment and human health”  http://reports.eea.europa.eu/environmental_assessment_report_2003_10/Chapter12 European Environmental Agency report “Environment and Health”  http://reports.eea.europa.eu/eea_report_2005_10/en WHO Systematic review of health aspects of air pollution in Europe  http://www.euro.who.int/eprise/main/WHO/Progs/AIQ/activities/20030528_3 Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants (COMEAP)  http://www.dh.gov.uk/ab/comeap/index.htm Video on Minamata incident  http://science.education.nih.gov/supplements/nih2/chemicals/activities/lesson5.htm

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