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   Topics
    Measurement
    Kinds
    Type
    Importance
   The responsiveness of one variable to changes
    in another
   When price rises, what happens
    to demand?
   Demand falls
   BUT!
   How much does demand fall?
   If price rises by 10% - what happens to
    demand?
   We know demand will fall
   By more than 10%?
   By less than 10%?
   Elasticity measures the extent to which
    demand will change
   A. Absolute elasticity

         Qd = a – b P




   B. Current elasticity




             E = △Q/P△
Elastic


   E >1




Inelastic




   E<1




Unit Elastic




   E=1
   4 basic types used:
   Price elasticity of demand
   Price elasticity of supply
   Income elasticity of demand
   Cross elasticity
   Price Elasticity of Demand
     The responsiveness of demand
      to changes in price
     Where % change in demand
      is greater than % change in price – elastic
     Where % change in demand is less than % change in
      price - inelastic
The Formula:
              % Change in Quantity Demanded
              ___________________________
      Ped =
                    % Change in Price

  If answer is between 0 and -1: the relationship is inelastic
If the answer is between -1 and infinity: the relationship is elastic

Note: PED has – sign in front of it; because as price rises
demand falls and vice-versa (inverse relationship between
price and demand)
Price (£)
            The demand curve can be a
            range of shapes each of which
            is associated with a different
            relationship between price and
            the quantity demanded.




                Quantity Demanded
Price                               Total revenue is price x
                                    The importance of elasticity
                                    quantity sold. In this
                                    is the information it
                                    example,on the£5 x 100,000
                                    provides TR = effect on
                                    = £500,000. of changes in
                                    total revenue
                                    price.
                                    This value is represented by
                                    the grey shaded rectangle.
  £5




        Total Revenue


                               D

                    100   Quantity Demanded (000s)
Elasticity
Price                                    If the firm decides to
                                         decrease price to (say) £3,
                                         the degree of price elasticity
                                         of the demand curve would
                                         determine the extent of the
                                         increase in demand and the
                                         change therefore in total
  £5                                     revenue.




  £3


        Total Revenue
                                    D
               100       140   Quantity Demanded (000s)
Price (£)
              Producer decides to lower price to attract sales

       10             % Δ Price = -50%
                      % Δ Quantity Demanded = +20%
                       Ped = -0.4 (Inelastic)
       5               Total Revenue would fall
                       Not a good move!

                  D
            5 6
                                         Quantity Demanded
Price (£)
            Producer decides to reduce price to increase sales
             % Δ in Price = - 30%
               % Δ in Demand = + 300%
                     Ped = - 10 (Elastic)
                               Total Revenue rises
      10
                                              Good Move!
       7
                                                          D




                5              Quantity Demanded     20
   If demand is price        If demand is price
    elastic:                   inelastic:
   Increasing price          Increasing price
    would reduce TR (%Δ        would increase TR
    Qd > % Δ P)                (%Δ Qd < % Δ P)
   Reducing price would      Reducing price would
    increase TR                reduce TR (%Δ Qd <
    (%Δ Qd > % Δ P)            % Δ P)
   Income Elasticity of Demand:
       The responsiveness of demand
        to changes in incomes
   Normal Good – demand rises
    as income rises and vice versa
   Inferior Good – demand falls
    as income rises and vice versa
   Income Elasticity of Demand:

   A positive sign denotes a normal good
   A negative sign denotes an inferior good
   For example:
   Yed = - 0.6: Good is an inferior good but inelastic – a rise in
    income of 3% would lead to demand falling
    by 1.8%
   Yed = + 0.4: Good is a normal good but inelastic –
    a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising
    by 1.2%
   Yed = + 1.6: Good is a normal good and elastic –
    a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising
    by 4.8%
   Yed = - 2.1: Good is an inferior good and elastic –
    a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to a fall in demand of 6.3%
   Cross Elasticity:
   The responsiveness of demand
    of one good to changes in the price of a
    related good – either
    a substitute or a complement


          % Δ Qd of good t
         __________________
    Xed =
         % Δ Price of good y
   Goods which are complements:
       Cross Elasticity will have negative sign (inverse
        relationship between the two)
   Goods which are substitutes:
       Cross Elasticity will have a positive sign (positive
        relationship between the two)
   Price Elasticity of Supply:
     The responsiveness of supply to changes
      in price
     If Pes is inelastic - it will be difficult for suppliers
      to react swiftly to changes in price
     If Pes is elastic – supply can react quickly to
      changes in price
                    % Δ Quantity Supplied
               Pes = ____________________
                        % Δ Price
   Time period – the longer the time under consideration
    the more elastic a good is likely to be
   Number and closeness of substitutes –
    the greater the number of substitutes,
    the more elastic
   The proportion of income taken up by the product –
    the smaller the proportion the more inelastic
   Luxury or Necessity - for example,
    addictive drugs
   Relationship between changes
    in price and total revenue
   Importance in determining
    what goods to tax (tax revenue)
   Importance in analysing time lags in
    production
   Influences the behaviour of a firm

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Elasticity (2)

  • 1.
  • 2. Topics Measurement Kinds Type Importance
  • 3. The responsiveness of one variable to changes in another  When price rises, what happens to demand?  Demand falls  BUT!  How much does demand fall?
  • 4. If price rises by 10% - what happens to demand?  We know demand will fall  By more than 10%?  By less than 10%?  Elasticity measures the extent to which demand will change
  • 5. A. Absolute elasticity Qd = a – b P  B. Current elasticity E = △Q/P△
  • 6. Elastic E >1 Inelastic E<1 Unit Elastic E=1
  • 7. 4 basic types used:  Price elasticity of demand  Price elasticity of supply  Income elasticity of demand  Cross elasticity
  • 8. Price Elasticity of Demand  The responsiveness of demand to changes in price  Where % change in demand is greater than % change in price – elastic  Where % change in demand is less than % change in price - inelastic
  • 9. The Formula: % Change in Quantity Demanded ___________________________ Ped = % Change in Price If answer is between 0 and -1: the relationship is inelastic If the answer is between -1 and infinity: the relationship is elastic Note: PED has – sign in front of it; because as price rises demand falls and vice-versa (inverse relationship between price and demand)
  • 10. Price (£) The demand curve can be a range of shapes each of which is associated with a different relationship between price and the quantity demanded. Quantity Demanded
  • 11. Price Total revenue is price x The importance of elasticity quantity sold. In this is the information it example,on the£5 x 100,000 provides TR = effect on = £500,000. of changes in total revenue price. This value is represented by the grey shaded rectangle. £5 Total Revenue D 100 Quantity Demanded (000s)
  • 12. Elasticity Price If the firm decides to decrease price to (say) £3, the degree of price elasticity of the demand curve would determine the extent of the increase in demand and the change therefore in total £5 revenue. £3 Total Revenue D 100 140 Quantity Demanded (000s)
  • 13. Price (£) Producer decides to lower price to attract sales 10 % Δ Price = -50% % Δ Quantity Demanded = +20% Ped = -0.4 (Inelastic) 5 Total Revenue would fall Not a good move! D 5 6 Quantity Demanded
  • 14. Price (£) Producer decides to reduce price to increase sales % Δ in Price = - 30% % Δ in Demand = + 300% Ped = - 10 (Elastic) Total Revenue rises 10 Good Move! 7 D 5 Quantity Demanded 20
  • 15. If demand is price  If demand is price elastic: inelastic:  Increasing price  Increasing price would reduce TR (%Δ would increase TR Qd > % Δ P) (%Δ Qd < % Δ P)  Reducing price would  Reducing price would increase TR reduce TR (%Δ Qd < (%Δ Qd > % Δ P) % Δ P)
  • 16. Income Elasticity of Demand:  The responsiveness of demand to changes in incomes  Normal Good – demand rises as income rises and vice versa  Inferior Good – demand falls as income rises and vice versa
  • 17. Income Elasticity of Demand:  A positive sign denotes a normal good  A negative sign denotes an inferior good
  • 18. For example:  Yed = - 0.6: Good is an inferior good but inelastic – a rise in income of 3% would lead to demand falling by 1.8%  Yed = + 0.4: Good is a normal good but inelastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising by 1.2%  Yed = + 1.6: Good is a normal good and elastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to demand rising by 4.8%  Yed = - 2.1: Good is an inferior good and elastic – a rise in incomes of 3% would lead to a fall in demand of 6.3%
  • 19. Cross Elasticity:  The responsiveness of demand of one good to changes in the price of a related good – either a substitute or a complement % Δ Qd of good t __________________ Xed = % Δ Price of good y
  • 20. Goods which are complements:  Cross Elasticity will have negative sign (inverse relationship between the two)  Goods which are substitutes:  Cross Elasticity will have a positive sign (positive relationship between the two)
  • 21. Price Elasticity of Supply:  The responsiveness of supply to changes in price  If Pes is inelastic - it will be difficult for suppliers to react swiftly to changes in price  If Pes is elastic – supply can react quickly to changes in price % Δ Quantity Supplied Pes = ____________________ % Δ Price
  • 22. Time period – the longer the time under consideration the more elastic a good is likely to be  Number and closeness of substitutes – the greater the number of substitutes, the more elastic  The proportion of income taken up by the product – the smaller the proportion the more inelastic  Luxury or Necessity - for example, addictive drugs
  • 23. Relationship between changes in price and total revenue  Importance in determining what goods to tax (tax revenue)  Importance in analysing time lags in production  Influences the behaviour of a firm

Editor's Notes

  1. This slide has a ten second gap in between each example to allow the teacher to explain how the figures have been calculated. This gap can be increased or reduced as appropriate using the custom animation tool.
  2. This slide also has an automatic response with ten second gaps in between each point. At this stage we have tried to keep things as simple as possible but to introduce issues that will be dealt with later in the course.