9.1 revolutionary war_i


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9.1 revolutionary war_i

  1. 1. Notes on the Revolution Lexington & Concord, April 1775 - First Shots
  2. 2. The 2 nd Continental Congress - Began meeting in May 1775 in Philadelphia, PA - Became the government of the colonies during the Revolutionary War
  3. 3. Second Continental Congress (cont’d) - Recognized George Washington as commander of the Continental Army - the Colonial militia that surrounded Boston - Authorized paper money - Established a committee for foreign relations
  4. 4. Battle of Bunker Hill - June 17, 1775 British General Gage attacked colonial militia on Breed’s Hill, north of Boston, with 2,400 redcoats - Colonists had limited ammunition and waited to fire: American officer William Prescott commanded, “ Do not fire until you see the whites of their eyes.” - The militia mowed down the British, until the colonists ran out of ammunition and retreated - The British had over 1,000 casualties to 311 for the Americans - It was the bloodiest battle of the War The casualties embarrassed & outraged the British government
  5. 5. Olive Branch Petition – July of 1775 – Colonists offered to make peace with King George III and return to “the former harmony” between Britain & America Loyalists & Patriots – early in the war there was fighting (civil war) throughout the colonies between supporters of the King (loyalists) and supporters of the Revolution (patriots). Summer/Fall of 1775 - The colonists fought British troops in upstate New York and Montreal – the colonists hoped Quebec would join the Revolution – they did not. George III , in August 1775, declared that the colonists were in rebellion and issued a proclamation to suppress it
  6. 6. Common Sense – Thomas Paine wrote this 43-page pamphlet, published in January of 1776. He argued that America should become independent and form a republic – with social equality and equal economic opportunity for all citizens. By spring 100’s of thousands of Americans had been influenced by Common Sense and had begun to favor American Independence.
  7. 7. Colonial Siege of Boston - April 1775 ‘til March of 1776 - The militia under Washington surrounded Boston - Henry Knox brought cannons from Fort Ticonderoga to Boston, which were used to threaten the British Army & fleet - in March ‘76 the British army finally withdrew from Boston to Canada
  8. 8. The Declaration of Independence - Richard Henry Lee of Virginia proposed Independence in June of 1776 - The Congress finally agreed and formed a committee to write a formal declaration - The committee included Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams. - Jefferson was appointed to write the document
  9. 9. The Declaration of Independence - Jefferson based his argument for Independence on John Locke’s political philosophy & Enlightenment Ideals - natural rights - Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness - social contract - government formed to protect rights - citizens may abolish a government that does not protect their rights - government draws its authority from the consent of the governed - “ All men are created equal” – equal political rights - The signers were committing Treason against Britain
  10. 10. The Northern Campaign - New York, August 1776 – The British forced Washington to retreat from and abandon New York City to the British - Washington’s army reduced from about 20,000 men to as few as 5,000 after the retreat
  11. 11. Nathan Hale , a spy for Gen. Washington, was captured during the New York campaign and before he was hanged said, “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”
  12. 12. <ul><li>The American Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>- Winter 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>- Washington’s Army was in retreat from N.Y. and was on the verge of disintegrating. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Paine wrote this pamphlet encouraging Americans to continue to fight </li></ul><ul><li>- arguing that anything worth having would be difficult to obtain </li></ul>
  13. 13. - Trenton, Christmas 1776 - Washington won a surprise victory by crossing the Delaware River into New Jersey, and defeating Hessian mercenaries who had been celebrating the holiday - The victory convinced many troops, who could have left the Army, to re-enlist - Princeton, January 1777 – Another Washington victory against a small British force helped encourage the troops and American patriots Washington Crossing the Delaware by Emanuel Leutze
  14. 14. Philadelphia, Fall 1777 - British moved against the ‘capital’ and Washington delayed the British while the Continental Congress fled. - Washington lost two battles to the British - Brandywine Creek September 1777 - Germantown, October 1777 - The British occupied Philadelphia until mid-1778
  15. 15. <ul><li>Saratoga - The Turning Point of the War </li></ul><ul><li>- British General John Burgoyne moved south down the Hudson River with a mixed force of Redcoats, mercenaries, and Mohawk – Summer/Fall 1777 </li></ul><ul><li>- Burgoyne expected help from Howe in New York </li></ul><ul><li>- The British were constantly ambushed by American troops as they moved south </li></ul><ul><li>- October 1777 at Saratoga in upstate New York American Generals Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold defeated Burgoyne & forced a British surrender </li></ul><ul><li>Three important outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Americans believed they could win </li></ul><ul><li>British realized they could lose, and began to focus on cities </li></ul><ul><li>3) France agreed to ally with America, giving America a chance to win </li></ul>
  16. 16. Valley Forge - Washington’s Army spent the freezing winter of 1777-78 in terrible conditions in this Pennsylvania village - The Army dwindled from about 12,000 to about 8,000 from death and desertion
  17. 17. - Despite the conditions, Washington was joined by two important European officers: - Marquis de Lafayette – young French aristocrat - cared passionately for the American cause and served on Washington’s staff - Baron von Steuben – Prussian (German) officer - helped train the Continental Army to fight like a European Army – to march, maneuver, and fire in an organized way - This training turned the Continental Army into a more effective fighting force