English Civil War (1642-1649) - Parliament/Puritans defeated King/Anglicans The Protectorate Puritan General Oliver Cromwell ruled England in a ‘Republic’ that became a theocratic/military dictatorship 1649-60 Restoration – in 1660 the English nobles ‘restored’ the Monarchy, making Charles II King of England - The King and his brother, the Duke of York, rewarded some of their supporters with colonies in America, we call them Restoration Colonies
North Carolina - formally separated from the South in 1712 - independent-minded colonists - democratic and anti-aristocratic (like Rhode Island) Carolina - founded in 1663 by supporters of Charles II - A Restoration & Proprietary Colony - South Carolina - initially tried sugar, then settled on rice to feed Caribbean plantations - developed indigo (blue dye) as a cash crop - Rice, an African grain, made the colony profitable - slave population grew, slave codes were brought in as well
Plantation System - The large farms that were established in the south to grow cash crops, like tobacco, sugar cane, and rice, still required a large labor force - Fewer people would become indentured servants, as travel to America became less expensive. - Free immigrants from Europe did not want to work for someone else when there was so much available land - So slaves were increasingly imported from the Caribbean onto southern plantations by the early 1700’s
Slave Codes - Laws, also brought from the Caribbean, which governed the status of slaves - Slaves were considered property rather than persons. - They had no legal right to testify, or make a contract, or own property. - They could not travel without permission nor meet without a white person present. - They could not be taught to read or write and they were not permitted to marry. - Offenders were subject to severe punishment, including whipping, branding, imprisonment, and death.
College of William & Mary -founded in 1693 in Virginia to educate the young, aristocratic men of the southern colonies
Middle Colonies (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware) - More diverse population than North or South - English, German, Dutch - Religious toleration, cooperation with American Indians - Fur trade, farming, shipping trade
New Netherlands - Henry Hudson explored what became the Hudson River in 1609 - The river runs north-south in present-day New York state - claimed the area for the Dutch - The Dutch established a series of fur trade trading posts along the River and the city of New Amsterdam on Manhattan Island - Population grew as they invited more people of many countries into the colony - England saw it as a ‘Dutch Wedge’ between its colonies in New England & its Southern Colonies
<ul><li>New York </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Stuyvesant was the last Dutch governor </li></ul><ul><li>by 1664 had become unpopular </li></ul><ul><li>- England’s Duke of York (James) took the New Netherlands without a fight in 1664 </li></ul><ul><li>- A Restoration Colony & Proprietary Colony </li></ul>