3.2 new england


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3.2 new england

  1. 1. New England Plymouth (1620) - English Puritan Separatists (Pilgrims) - Left Holland & were joined by other English settlers - The ship, the Mayflower, was bound for Virginia, but it landed to the north - Mayflower Compact - an agreement to abide by majority rule is reached - Plymouth Plantation was formed in 1620
  2. 2. Plymouth people and events - Miles Standish – military leader - William Bradford – political leader - Squanto, assisted the settlers in dealings with the Wampanoag and other tribes - Fall of 1621 they celebrated the harvest with the first Thanksgiving - The colony remained small and relatively poor and was annexed by Massachusetts in the 1690’s
  3. 3. <ul><li>Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630) </li></ul><ul><li>- Formed by English Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>- Massachusetts Bay Company – joint stock company </li></ul><ul><li>- Frustrated with the Church of England (too ‘Catholic’) </li></ul><ul><li>- Faced increasing persecution under Charles I </li></ul><ul><li>John Winthrop – leader of the Company and the Colony </li></ul><ul><li>- “City upon a Hill” – an example, a “New England” </li></ul>
  4. 4. Establishment & Growth - Well-planned – well-supplied, skilled craftsman, families - Great Migration (1630-1640) 20,000 English immigrate to Massachusetts - Harvard College – established in 1636 to train Puritan ministers
  5. 5. Democratic Participation - The ‘freemen’ of the colony elected leaders - Town meetings governed locally - The General Court – elected government of the colony - The congregations chose their own ministers Influence of the Congregational (Puritan) Church on Government - Colonists had to attend Church and abide by Church rules - Colonists had to be a church member to serve in government - The Church was ‘Established’ – taxes went to the Church - The church had no official role in government, but heavily influenced it
  6. 6. Dissent Roger Williams – A Puritan minister - Argued that government officials should not punish settlers for their religious beliefs - Argued that colonists should pay Indians for their land - Early proponent of the American ideas of: Separation of Church & State and Freedom of Religion - Forced to flee prosecution in Massachusetts - Established Providence (1636) on these principles, which became the capital of Rhode Island
  7. 7. <ul><li>Anne Hutchinson – accused of antinomianism (rejection of laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that: </li></ul><ul><li>- each individual could interpret the Bible for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>- that women could participate in religious discussions </li></ul><ul><li>- Declared “A woman not fit for our society” for her religious & </li></ul><ul><li>social beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>- Banished from Massachusetts in 1638, died in 1643 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Connecticut - Rev. Thomas Hooker established a village at Hartford in 1635. - Another village was formed at New Haven in 1638 - They were combined to form Connecticut - Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) – the first written Constitution in English America, establishing the colony’s govt.
  9. 9. <ul><li>New Hampshire </li></ul><ul><li>several different settlements, beginning in 1623 </li></ul><ul><li>disputes with Massachusetts over control </li></ul><ul><li>a royal colony, separate from Massachusetts in 1679 </li></ul><ul><li>Maine </li></ul><ul><li>– formed by Sir Fernando Gorges, but eventually purchased by Massachusetts, of which it remained a part until 1820 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Early conflict between Colonists and American Indians Pequot War (1637) in Connecticut - English settlers allied with the Narragansett, enemies of the Pequot - A Pequot fort was set on fire and nearly everyone who fled, men women & children, were killed - John Mason was leader of the colonial militia The Narragansett and Mohegan warriors who had fought alongside the colonial militia were horrified by the actions and &quot;manner of the Englishmen's fight . . . because it is too furious, and slays too many men.&quot; The colonists’ American Indian allies were upset by the violence
  11. 11. New England Confederation - A political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut. - Established 1643, its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against the Indians. - Rhode Island, considered a rogue colony, was excluded - Remained a loose affiliation during the 1600’s. - The collaboration was a basis for cooperation in the years preceding the American revolution
  12. 12. Colonists and American Indians clashed over land and religion Praying Towns - New England settlers formed “Praying Towns” in which they tried to convert American Indians to Protestant Christianity - This angered American Indian leaders and contributed to the Indian decision to start King Philip’s War in 1675-76.
  13. 13. King Philip's War (1675-76) - Metacom/King Philip led an organized attack in an attempt to drive the English out of the region - Over 50 New England villages were attacked, many of them were completely destroyed - Colonists regrouped and successfully counterattacked - Very high casualties on both sides - Colonists drove the Wampanoag and other tribes from New England, forever breaking American Indian power in the region