New England Plymouth (1620) - English Puritan Separatists (Pilgrims) - Left Holland & were joined by other English settlers - The ship, the Mayflower, was bound for Virginia, but it landed to the north - Mayflower Compact - an agreement to abide by majority rule is reached - Plymouth Plantation was formed in 1620
Plymouth people and events - Miles Standish – military leader - William Bradford – political leader - Squanto, assisted the settlers in dealings with the Wampanoag and other tribes - Fall of 1621 they celebrated the harvest with the first Thanksgiving - The colony remained small and relatively poor and was annexed by Massachusetts in the 1690’s
<ul><li>Massachusetts Bay Colony (1630) </li></ul><ul><li>- Formed by English Puritans </li></ul><ul><li>- Massachusetts Bay Company – joint stock company </li></ul><ul><li>- Frustrated with the Church of England (too ‘Catholic’) </li></ul><ul><li>- Faced increasing persecution under Charles I </li></ul><ul><li>John Winthrop – leader of the Company and the Colony </li></ul><ul><li>- “City upon a Hill” – an example, a “New England” </li></ul>
Establishment & Growth - Well-planned – well-supplied, skilled craftsman, families - Great Migration (1630-1640) 20,000 English immigrate to Massachusetts - Harvard College – established in 1636 to train Puritan ministers
Democratic Participation - The ‘freemen’ of the colony elected leaders - Town meetings governed locally - The General Court – elected government of the colony - The congregations chose their own ministers Influence of the Congregational (Puritan) Church on Government - Colonists had to attend Church and abide by Church rules - Colonists had to be a church member to serve in government - The Church was ‘Established’ – taxes went to the Church - The church had no official role in government, but heavily influenced it
Dissent Roger Williams – A Puritan minister - Argued that government officials should not punish settlers for their religious beliefs - Argued that colonists should pay Indians for their land - Early proponent of the American ideas of: Separation of Church & State and Freedom of Religion - Forced to flee prosecution in Massachusetts - Established Providence (1636) on these principles, which became the capital of Rhode Island
<ul><li>Anne Hutchinson – accused of antinomianism (rejection of laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Argued that: </li></ul><ul><li>- each individual could interpret the Bible for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>- that women could participate in religious discussions </li></ul><ul><li>- Declared “A woman not fit for our society” for her religious & </li></ul><ul><li>social beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>- Banished from Massachusetts in 1638, died in 1643 </li></ul>
Connecticut - Rev. Thomas Hooker established a village at Hartford in 1635. - Another village was formed at New Haven in 1638 - They were combined to form Connecticut - Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639) – the first written Constitution in English America, establishing the colony’s govt.
<ul><li>New Hampshire </li></ul><ul><li>several different settlements, beginning in 1623 </li></ul><ul><li>disputes with Massachusetts over control </li></ul><ul><li>a royal colony, separate from Massachusetts in 1679 </li></ul><ul><li>Maine </li></ul><ul><li>– formed by Sir Fernando Gorges, but eventually purchased by Massachusetts, of which it remained a part until 1820 </li></ul>
Early conflict between Colonists and American Indians Pequot War (1637) in Connecticut - English settlers allied with the Narragansett, enemies of the Pequot - A Pequot fort was set on fire and nearly everyone who fled, men women & children, were killed - John Mason was leader of the colonial militia The Narragansett and Mohegan warriors who had fought alongside the colonial militia were horrified by the actions and "manner of the Englishmen's fight . . . because it is too furious, and slays too many men." The colonists’ American Indian allies were upset by the violence
New England Confederation - A political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, and Connecticut. - Established 1643, its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against the Indians. - Rhode Island, considered a rogue colony, was excluded - Remained a loose affiliation during the 1600’s. - The collaboration was a basis for cooperation in the years preceding the American revolution
Colonists and American Indians clashed over land and religion Praying Towns - New England settlers formed “Praying Towns” in which they tried to convert American Indians to Protestant Christianity - This angered American Indian leaders and contributed to the Indian decision to start King Philip’s War in 1675-76.
King Philip's War (1675-76) - Metacom/King Philip led an organized attack in an attempt to drive the English out of the region - Over 50 New England villages were attacked, many of them were completely destroyed - Colonists regrouped and successfully counterattacked - Very high casualties on both sides - Colonists drove the Wampanoag and other tribes from New England, forever breaking American Indian power in the region