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  1. 1. <ul><li>European Exploration of the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus – Italian Ship Captain </li></ul><ul><li>- Believed he could open a trade route to Asia by sailing west </li></ul><ul><li>- Underestimated the actual distance to Asia (by 5000 miles) </li></ul><ul><li>Convinced Isabella and Ferdinand, the Spanish monarchs, to support his voyage in 1492 – three ships Nina, Pinta, & Santa Maria </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Columbus (cont’d) </li></ul><ul><li>After 10 weeks (Aug. 3 – Oct. 11) the expedition reached the islands of the Caribbean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus claimed the region for Spain and began the Spanish conquest of the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Columbus completed four voyages in all, never accepting that he had reached a new land mass, not Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Christopher Columbus never acquired the fortune or fame for which he had hoped and only became celebrated long after his death. </li></ul><ul><li>- Columbus opened the Americas to European exploration and colonization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Columbian Exchange – a transfer of living things between the New & Old Worlds (East and West Hemispheres)
  4. 4. Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) - Pope Alexander IV’s effort to keep the peace between Spain and Portugal as they explored new territories - The north-south dividing line gave authority to colonize most of the Americas to Spain (except for Brazil) and gave Portugal authority in Africa.
  5. 5. <ul><li>Portuguese Explorers </li></ul><ul><li>Bartolomeu Dias </li></ul><ul><li>Nobleman-explorer who was the first European to sail around the southern cape of Africa in 1488 </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama </li></ul><ul><li>- Military captain and explorer who was the first European to sail around the southern cape of Africa and reach India (1497-1499) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><li>- Italian explorer who exaggerated his role in discovering and exploring the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>given credit for the idea of the ‘New World’ – a land mass between Europe and Asia </li></ul><ul><li>mapmakers appear to have used his name to label the new continents </li></ul>
  7. 7. Explorers – bypassing North America John Cabot – (1497 & 1498) – searched for the Northwest Passage, exploring the Atlantic coast of Canada & claimed the coast of North America for England Ferdinand Magellan’s Expedition (1519-1522) – sailed around South America and his expedition was the first to circumnavigate the globe (Magellan died en route & only 1 of 3 ships made it)
  8. 8. Conquistadors – Spanish Conquerors of the New World Guns, Steel, Horses – material advantages of the Europeans Disease was the leading reason why the American Indians could not resist the Spanish. - European diseases killed as much as 90% of the American Indian population.
  9. 9. Spanish Conquistadors Juan Ponce de León (1513 & 1521) – claimed Puerto Rico and explored, claimed, & named Florida Vasco Nuñez Balboa (1513) – crossed Panama, first European to see the Pacific Ocean, & claimed all land touching that sea for Spain Hernándo Cortés (1519-1521) – conquered the Aztecs and Montezuma in Central Mexico, claiming gold and beginning the mining of silver
  10. 10. Francisco Pizarro (1532) – conquered the Incan Empire on the west coast of South America, claiming tons of gold & silver Hernándo DeSoto (1539-1542) – explored the American Southeast looking for gold, was the first European to see Alabama and the Mississippi River
  11. 11. Francisco Coronado (1540-1542) – explored the American southwest looking for cities of gold, first to see the Grand Canyon and herds of buffalo
  12. 12. Encomienda – Spanish system of enslaving the American Indians Mestizos – people of Spanish and American Indian ancestry Gold & Silver enriched Spain & Europe – economic growth, but eventually ruined Spain’s economy with price inflation and debt
  13. 13. <ul><li>St. Augustine (1565) </li></ul><ul><li>Spain founded the first permanent European city in what is now the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>(on the Atlantic coast of Florida). </li></ul><ul><li>It was formed to protect Spanish treasure ships from French Buccaneers and English Seadogs (pirates/privateers). </li></ul>