History of native plants


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A student presentation on native plants.

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History of native plants

  1. 1. A Historical Look at the Native Plants of Minnesota By Elizabeth Haspert
  2. 2. The Biomes of MN <ul><li>Prairie </li></ul><ul><li>Deciduous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Coniferous Forest </li></ul><ul><li>Freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Human Culture Interaction </li></ul>
  3. 3. New Jersey Tea <ul><li>A woody shrub found in sandy areas </li></ul><ul><li>After the Boston Tea Party, colonists began to make black tea from the New Jersey Tea plant due to the shortage of tea </li></ul><ul><li>Other uses include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri tribes burned tea leaves as wood fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chippewa tribes used the roots for pulmonary and constipation troubles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cherokee used roots for tooth aches and hot root tea for bowel problems </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Boston Tea Party
  5. 5. Lead Plant <ul><li>Has roots three times the size of the plant, usually four feet or deeper </li></ul><ul><li>Hated by pioneers for its deep roots because it often broke plows </li></ul><ul><li>Common name derived from the belief the plant grew where there was lead in the ground </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Prairie Shoestring (after its long roots) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pioneers Plowing Minnesota Prairie
  7. 7. Bedstraw <ul><li>Name comes from the plant being used to stuff beds </li></ul><ul><li>Also believed to be one of the plants in the hay in the manger in Bethlehem </li></ul><ul><li>Used to curdle milk in order to make cheese as well as give the cheese color </li></ul><ul><li>Used as an herbal remedy for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epilepsy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hysteria </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. From Plant to Bedding
  9. 9. White Pine <ul><li>Identifiable by its five needles per “leaf”, equal to the number of letters in white </li></ul><ul><li>Called King’s Tree because it was “reserved” for the British Royal Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Used as the masts on ships including the USS Constitution </li></ul><ul><li>During American Revolution, patriots enjoyed seeing how many white pines one could cut down and haul away </li></ul><ul><li>Drove expansion westward because it was a favorite tree of loggers </li></ul><ul><li>Used for building construction, furniture, and paneling in colonial homes pre-Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Has also been used as food and herbal medicine by Algonquians, Ojibwe, and Chippewa tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Has five times the amount of Vitamin C of lemons! </li></ul>
  10. 10. USS Constitution
  11. 11. Common Yarrow <ul><li>Has been used in a variety of ways throughout history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a vegetable in the 17 th century </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As herbal medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To stop bleeding, as it was used by Achilles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two English nursery rhymes refer to yarrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Yarroway, yarroway, bear a white blow, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If my love love me, my nose will bleed now.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Thou pretty herb of Venus’ tree, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thy true name it is yarrow, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now who my bosom friend must be, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pray tell thou me to-morrow.” </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Yarrow Fairy
  13. 13. Bearberry <ul><li>Common name derived from the edible fruit bears enjoy eating </li></ul><ul><li>Had many uses throughout history </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chinese used it as a diuretic, as well as to treat kidney and urinary problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anishinaable tribes used bearberry, red bark willow, and red osier dogwood to make tobacco </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheyenne used it to treat back sprains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early European settlers in the Americas used bearberry to treat kidney stones, urinary system diseases, and inflammation of the kidney </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Called kinnikinick when used for tobacco, meaning mixture </li></ul>
  14. 14. Bear Eating Bearberry
  15. 15. Sphagnum Moss <ul><li>Grows in bogs </li></ul><ul><li>Very acidic, yet very sterile </li></ul><ul><li>Can absorb up to twenty times its weight </li></ul><ul><li>Used as bandages to dress wounds in World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Also used in diapers and as feminine napkins </li></ul><ul><li>Dried, compact sphagnum moss is known as peat moss </li></ul><ul><li>Used today as animal bedding, insulating material, and in potted plants </li></ul>
  16. 16. From Sphagnum to Peat Moss
  17. 17. Cattail <ul><li>A wetland plant that grows along the edge of a lake or in a marsh </li></ul><ul><li>Has had many different uses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Native American tribes have used cattail as lining for moccasins, bedding, pillows, diapers, and baby powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The lining in life vests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As food including the yellow pollen that can be used like flour </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Cattail Pancakes <ul><li>1/2 C cattail pollen </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 C all purpose flour </li></ul><ul><li>2 tsp baking powder </li></ul><ul><li>1 C milk (reconstituted can be used) or </li></ul><ul><li>use buttermilk with additional 1/2 tsp soda </li></ul><ul><li>1 egg or egg substitute </li></ul><ul><li>1/4 tsp salt </li></ul><ul><li>1 Tbsp sugar </li></ul><ul><li>2 Tbsp oil </li></ul><ul><li>Mix dry ingredients, then add milk and oil. Mix only until moistened. Heat griddle or pan until water drops sizzle. Pour batter on the hot griddle. Turn pancakes when they are full of bubbles, just before they break. Serve hot. Makes 10 four inch pancakes. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Switchgrass <ul><li>Thought to be an alternative biofuel to help reduce America’s dependency foreign oil </li></ul><ul><li>Currently used to feed livestock or as a groundcover to control erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists work to genetically modify switchgrass to make it more promising as a biofuel </li></ul><ul><li>Opponents concerned switchgrass will be overgrown and grown in non-native areas </li></ul>
  20. 20. Benefits of Switchgrass
  21. 21. Resources <ul><li>Halliwell-Phillipps, J.O. (1849). Popular rhymes and nursery tales. John Russell Smith: London. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.botanical.com/botanical/mgmh/b/bedlad25.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Achillea_millefolium </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bearberry </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_White_Pine </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sphagnum </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Typha </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.easywildflowers.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wildflower.org/ </li></ul>