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Integrating Behavioural Science in Government Communication

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This is a deck I created for my presentation at the International Government Communicators Forum (Sharjah, UAE) with a goal of helping government communicators move beyond “awareness building” and into actual behaviour change using a social marketing framework.

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Integrating Behavioural Science in Government Communication

  1. 1. @mikekujawski | CEPSM.caIGCF – Sharjah, 2019 Integrating Behavioural Science in Government Communication Tips on moving beyond “awareness building” and into actual behaviour change
  2. 2. Managing Partner & Senior Consultant Centre of Excellence for Public Sector Marketing (CEPSM.ca) How exactly? Through consulting, training, and speaking Niche: Only work with public sector and non- profit organizations Specialty Areas: Strategic marketing, social marketing / behaviour change communication, digital/social media engagement, organizational and personal brand building, digital literacy, social network analysis, open source social media intelligence Sample Clients: United Nations, Elections Canada, Public Safety Canada, Health Canada, Justice Canada, Canadian Intellectual Property Office, Governments of Tanzania, Kazakhstan, Singapore, Malaysia, United States I help public sector organizations in Canada and around the globe adapt to digital disruption and improve their strategic marketing, communications, and behaviour change initiatives. What exactly do I do?
  3. 3. Our little world faces many BIG challenges...
  4. 4. hansonrobotics.com/robot/sophia/
  5. 5. tesla.com/en_CA/models
  6. 6. bostondynamics.com/atlas
  7. 7. goo.gl/gWjDE5 (full video is NSFW)
  8. 8. It’s hard for governments to keep up with the pace of change.
  9. 9. Relying on communications alone to change behaviours is not enough
  10. 10. Social marketing can provide a much more effective and strategic approach.
  11. 11. MARKETING AND SOCIAL MARKETING ARE NOT THE SAME AS COMMUNICATIONS
  12. 12. The strategic planning process for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for your audience. Marketing WANTS AUDIENCES TO ACT
  13. 13. Goal setting Research Segmentation Targeting Positioning Product/Service Price/Opportunity Cost Place/Channel Promotion/Tactics & Messaging The Strategic Marketing Process Communications typically focuses on this element only
  14. 14. The execution of the messaging element of marketing. Also used to create and strengthen relationships inside and outside the organization. Communications WANTS AUDIENCES TO LISTEN
  15. 15. What about Social Marketing? *not to be confused with “social media marketing”
  16. 16. SOCIAL POLICY SOCIAL SCIENCE COMMERCIAL MARKETING PUBLIC SECTOR MARKETING
  17. 17. Social Marketing A process that applies marketing principles and techniques to create, communicate, and deliver value in order to influence target audience behaviors that benefit society as well as the target audience*. *based on the best available scientific evidence and with genuine selfless intent
  18. 18. Health Belief Model Theory of Planned Behaviour Social Cognitive Theory Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change) Social Norms Theory Theory of Reasoned Action Fogg Behaviour Model Diffusion of Innovation Theory
  19. 19. Key components of social marketing Should have a long term outlook based on continuing programs rather than one-off initiatives (3-5 years). Should be strategic rather than tactical Should focus on aggressive listening rather than aggressive promotion Research should be conducted throughout to inform the development of the strategy Should bring about changes in the social and structural factors that impinge on an individual’s opportunities, capacities, and right to a healthy and fulfilling life Should involve upstream targeting of individuals/groups who have the power to make policy, regulatory and legislative changes that protect and enhance people’s quality of life
  20. 20. A few noteworthy differences between commercial and social marketing
  21. 21. Has three main categories of outcome objectives Knowledge objectives: based on statistics that could motivate the target audience. Audience should know benefits of proposed behaviour and the available tools to help them Belief objectives: tied to attitudes, opinions, or feelings held by audience. Must believe they are capable of performing the desired behaviour and that it will produce desired results Behaviour objectives: simple clear and doable actions
  22. 22. EXAMPLE: Drug-Impaired Driving Knowledge Increase target audience knowledge of the safety and legal risks they face with respect to DID, including cannabis Belief Increase the percentage of the target audience who believe that drug impaired driving is unacceptable Behaviour Reduce percentage of the target audience who would drive while high or accept a ride with someone who is
  23. 23. Uses evidence-based segmentation frameworks Transtheoretical Model - Prochaska and DiClemente
  24. 24. EXAMPLE: Healthy Eating Stage of Change Audience Segment Thought Pattern Precontemplation I don’t need to follow my diet as long as I feel okay Contemplation I am not currently following my diet but I know I should Preparation I am following my diet from time to time. I know I should but it is hard Action I am following my diet almost all of the time. I will do what I need to do to stay healthy Maintenance I have been following my diet for at least 6 months now
  25. 25. Prioritizes audience segments using methods not considered in commercial marketing TARPARE – A method for selecting target audiences -RJ Donovan, 1999 T Total number of people in the segment Segments encompassing larger groups of individuals are more attractive AR Proportion of At Risk persons in the segment Segments at higher levels of risk should be given priority P Persuadability of the segment A segment that is easily persuaded to take the desired action (low hanging fruit) should be given higher priority A Accessibility of the segment Target audiences that are easier to reach are more attractive as less work will be needed to make an impact R Resources required to meet the needs of the segment The fewer resources required to meet the needs of the segment, the greater the expected return on investment E Equity, social justice considerations The need to target specific disadvantaged segments
  26. 26. Example: Immunization Segment Name Total#ofpeoplein thesegment(%of total) Atrisk Persuadability Accessibility ResourcesRequired (highscore=less resources) Equity TotalVaccine Acceptors 6 1 10 7 7 3 34 Vaccine Hesitant 3 8 6 7 3 10 37 Vaccine Refusers 1 10 1 9 1 6 28
  27. 27. Factors in “social norms” Source: Perkins and Berkowitz Misperception of normative behaviour Underlying problem Actual statistical data on social norms Social norms intervention correcting misperceptions Increase in healthy behaviours Social norms are people’s beliefs about the attitudes and behaviours that are normal, acceptable, or even expected in a particular social context. Audiences tend to misperceive the norms of their group and engage in behaviours that are in sync with those false norms. Instead of using scare tactics or stigmatizing messages, the social norms approach steers people towards healthy behavior by letting them know it’s the normal thing to do.
  28. 28. EXAMPLE: Mental Health Misperception of normative behaviour • Audience considers seeking counselling for mental health embarrassing. • Think less than 5% of the population is seeking help for mental health Underlying problem • There is still a societal stigma around these issues and bottling them up has been normalized over many decades Actual statistical data on social norms • In reality 30% of the population is experiencing mental health issues. Nearly half of that population (15% of total) is seeking help. Social norms intervention correcting misperceptions • National Mental Health Awareness Day in Workplace and on Social Media • Influencers sharing stories of their own Mental Health Issues Increase in healthy behaviours • Knowing when to seek medical help and not being embarrassed to admit it
  29. 29. The “product” element of the marketing mix is broken down into three distinct components Actual product the specific behaviour that is being promoted Augmented product the tangible objects and services offered to support behaviour change Core product the benefits the target audience will experience when they perform the behaviour
  30. 30. Example: Emergency Preparedness Actual product Make a home emergency plan and buy or prepare a kit that will protect you for 72 hours during an emergency Augmented product -Kit preparation ap -Emergency preparedness kits for purchase -Plan templates . Core product Peace of mind that you will be prepared, safe and not a burden on emergency resources handling much more serious situations
  31. 31. Acknowledges competing behaviours “I want my target audience to see ____________[desired behaviour] as _____________ [a phrase describing positive benefits of adopting the behaviour] and as more important and/or beneficial than ____________[the competing behaviour]”.
  32. 32. “I want my target audience to see [bringing in their own mug to a coffee shop] as [directly contributing to the reduction of landfill waste] and as more important and/or beneficial than [the inconvenience of having to remember to clean and bring it every day]”. EXAMPLE: Waste Reduction
  33. 33. Assume that your are working on a initiative where you are trying to decrease the amount UAE parents that don’t secure their kids in age appropriate safety seats in their vehicles. 1. Create sample knowledge, belief, and behaviour objectives 2. State potential actual, augmented, and core products. 3. Formulate your positioning using the provided template Quick Activity (Time Permitting)
  34. 34. “I want my target audience to see______ (desired behaviour) as ______ (a phrase describing positive benefits of adopting the behaviour) and as more important and/or beneficial than______ (the competing behaviour)”. Actual product: the specific behaviour that is being promoted Augmented product: the tangible objects and services offered to support behaviour change Core product: the benefits the target audience will experience when they perform the behaviour Knowledge objectives: based on statistics that could motivate the target audience. Audience should know benefits of proposed behaviour and the available tools to help them Belief objectives: tied to attitudes, opinions, or feelings held by audience. Must believe they are capable of performing the desired behaviour and that it will produce desired results Behaviour objectives: simple clear and doable actions Activity Cheat Sheet 1 2 3
  35. 35. Final tips
  36. 36. Avoid short-term communications “campaign”- based output thinking. Social marketing is a long-term outcome based process.
  37. 37. Ensure that you spend the bulk of your initiative’s time researching and understanding what audiences perceive as barriers to change.
  38. 38. Use decisions regarding the core, actual and augmented products to determine positioning and drive your messaging.
  39. 39. Keep in mind that for a social norm to be perpetuated it is not necessary for the majority to believe it, but only for the majority to believe that the majority believes it.
  40. 40. TRUSTTrue social marketing is a powerful process that should be selfless and have the best interests of the audience in mind. There is a tremendous opportunity for government to build trust by being more open and transparent about what behaviours it is trying to influence and why. We have so many “open government” initiatives, why not begin to have more “open marketing/communications” initiatives by sharing the research, strategies and results behind them? Above all else, work on building audience
  41. 41. Shukran | Thank you
  42. 42. Mike Kujawski Mobile: +1.613.899.1348 E-mail: mikekujawski@cepsm.ca LinkedIn: “Mike Kujawski” Twitter: @mikekujawski Skype: mikekujawski Blog: mikekujawski.ca Website: cepsm.ca

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