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Soscial dance.docx669888yhiu

  1. 1. mike jhun valencia | [Course Title] | [Date] SOSCIAL DANCE P.E. 502
  2. 2. PAGE 1 WHAT IS SOCIAL DANCE? Social dance is a major category or classification of dance forms or dance styles, where sociability and socializing are the primary focuses of the dancing. Many social dances are partner dances. In fact,quite often when spoken about social dances, ballroom or other partner dances are kept in mind. However it is natural to include in this category such groups of dances as circle dances,line dances,novelty dances,or simply club dancing in solo. Ballroom dance Definitions The term 'ballroom dancing' is derived from the word ball,which in turn originates from the Latin word ballare which means 'to dance' (a ball-room being a large room specially designed for such dances). In times past, ballroom dancing was social dancing for the privileged, leaving folk dancing for the lower classes. These boundaries have since become blurred, and it should be noted even in times long gone, many ballroom dances were really elevated folk dances. The definition of ballroom dance also depends on the era: balls have featured popular dances of the day such as the Minuet, Quadrille, Polonaise, Polka, Mazurka, and others, which are now considered to be historical dances.  Ballroom dance, depending on how it is defined, may refer to a wide variety of partner dances. Typically it includes Standard (also termed Smooth or Modern) dances such as waltz or foxtrot, and Latin (also termed Rhythm) dances such as cha cha and rumba. Standard dances are normally danced to straight-beat, Western music; couples dance around the floor; and when formalized, the lady wears a long gown and the gentleman a bow-tie and tails. Latin dances are normally danced to off-beat, latin or jive music; couples may dance more-or-less in one spot or move around the floor; and when formalized, the woman wears a short-skirt latin outfit and the man dresses in black.  Ballroomdance may refer,at its widest definition, to almost any type of partner dancing as recreation. However,with the emergence of dancesport in modern times, the term has become narrower in scope. Traditionally, the term refers to the five International Standard and five International Latin style dances.. Early Modern Age The first authoritative knowledge of the earliest ballroom dances was recorded toward the end of the 16th century, when Jehan Tabourot, under the pen name "Thoinot-Arbeau", published in 1588 his Orchésographie,a study of late 16th-century French renaissance social dance. Among the dances described were the solemn basse danse, the livelier branle, pavane, and the galliarde which Shakespeare called the "cinq pace" as it was made of five steps. In 1650 the Minuet, originally a peasant dance of Poitou, was introduced into Paris and set to music by Jean-Baptiste Lully and danced by the King Louis XIV in public, and would continue to dominate ballroom from that time until the close of the 18th century. Toward the latter half of the 17th century, Louis XIV founded his 'Académie Royale de Musique et de Danse',where specific rules for the execution of every dance and the "five positions" of the feet were formulated for the first time by members of the Académie. Eventually, the first definite cleavage between ballet and ballroom came when professional dancers appeared in the ballets, and the ballets left the Court and went to the stage. Ballet technique such as the turned out positions of the feet,however, lingered for over two centuries and past the end of the Victoria era. 19th century The waltz with its modern hold took root in England in about 1812; in 1819 Carl Maria von Weber wrote Invitation to the Dance,which marked the adoption of the waltz form into the sphere of absolute music. The dance was initially
  3. 3. PAGE 2 met with tremendous opposition due to the semblance of impropriety associated with the closed hold, though the stance gradually softened. In the 1840s severalnew dances made their appearance in the ballroom, including the Polka, Mazurka, and the Schottische. In the meantime a strong tendency emerged to drop all 'decorative' steps such as entrechats and ronds de jambes that had found a place in the Quadrilles and other dances. Early 20th century Modern ballroom dance has its roots early in the 20th century, when severaldifferent things happened more or less at the same time. The first was a movement away from the sequence dances towards dances where the couples moved independently. This had been pre-figured by the waltz, which had already made this transition. The second was a wave of popular music, such as jazz, much of which was based on the ideas of black musicians in the USA. Since dance is to a large extent tied to music, this led to a burst of newly invented dances. There were many dance crazes in the period 1910–1930. The third event was a concerted effort to transform some of the dance crazes into dances which could be taught to a wider dance public in the US and Europe. Here Vernon and Irene Castle were important, and so was a generation of English dancers in the 1920s, including Josephine Bradley and Victor Silvester. These professionals analysed, codified, published and taught a number of standard dances. It was essential, if popular dance was to flourish, for dancers to have some basic movements they could confidently perform with any partner they might meet. Here the huge Arthur Murray organisation in America, and the dance societies in England, such as the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing, were highly influential. Finally, much of this happened during and after a period of World War, and the effect of such a conflict in dissolving older social customs was considerable. Later,in the 1930s, the on-screen dance pairing of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers influenced all forms of dance in the USA and elsewhere. Although both actors had separate careers,their filmed dance sequences together,which included portrayals of the Castles, have reached iconic status. Much of Astaire and Rogers' work portrayed social dancing, although the performances were highly choreographed (often by Astaire or Hermes Pan),and meticulously staged and rehearsed. Competitive dancing - DANCESPORTS Competitions, sometimes referred to as Dancesport,range from world championships, regulated by the World Dance Council (WDC),to less advanced dancers at various proficiency levels. Most competitions are divided into professional and amateur, though in the USA pro-am competitions typically accompany professional competitions.The International Olympic Committee now recognizes competitive ballroom dance. It has recognized another body, the World DanceSport Federation (WDSF), as the sole representative body for dancesport in the Olympic Games. However,it seems doubtful that dance will be included in the Olympic Games, especially in light of efforts to reduce the number of participating sports. Ballroom dance competitions are regulated by each country in its own way. There are about 30 countries which compete regularly in international competitions. There are another 20 or so countries which have membership of the WDC and/or the WDSF, but whose dancers rarely appear in international competitions. In Britain there is the British Dance Council, which grants national and regional championship titles, such as the British Ballroom Championships, the British Sequence Championships and the United Kingdom Championships. In the United States,amateur dance proficiency levels are defined by USA Dance (formerly United States Amateur Ballroom Dance Association, USABDA). Ballroom dancing competitions in the former USSR also included the Soviet Ballroom dances,or Soviet Programme. Australian New Vogue is danced both competitively and socially. In competition there are 15 recognised New Vogue dances,which are performed by the competitors in sequence. These dance forms are not recognised internationally, neither are the US variations such as American Smooth, and Rhythm. Such variations in dance and competition methods are attempts to meets perceived needs in the local market-place.
  4. 4. PAGE 3 Internationally, the Blackpool Dance Festival, hosted annually at Blackpool, England, is considered the most prestigious event a dancesport competitor can attend. Formation dance is another style of competitive dance recognised by the IDSF. In this style, multiple dancers (usually in couples and typically up to 16 dancers at one time) compete on the same team,moving in and out of various formations while dancing. Elements of competition In competition ballroom, dancers are judged by diverse criteria such as poise, the hold or frame, posture, musicality and expression, timing, body alignment and shape, floor craft,foot and leg action, and presentation. Judging in a performance-oriented sport is inevitably subjective in nature, and controversy and complaints by competitors over judging placements are not uncommon. The scorekeepers—called scrutineers—will tally the total number recalls accumulated by each couple through each round until the finals, when the Skating system is used to place each couple by ordinals, typically 1–6, though the number of couples in the final may vary. Sometimes, up to 7 couples may be present on the floor during the finals. During competitions, dancers are not all judged at the same level. There are 2 categories of levels. They are called the syllabus or open levels. Open levels are reserved for higher-skilled dancers and it usually takes quite a while to get to that caliber of dancing. There are three levels in the open category; novice, pre-champ, and champ in increasing order of skill. At those levels, dancers no longer have restrictions on clothing, so all those beautifully gowns covered in jewels are now allowed in the smooth and standard dances. The fringe dresses with huge cutouts and elaborate designs are now allowed in the rhythm and latin categories. Women also tend to wear extremely intricate hairstyles and bright makeup, often with jewels glued on in patterns. Moving on to the syllabus category, there are three levels there as well. They are bronze, silver, and gold; gold being the highest and bronze the lowest. In these levels, moves that you can do are restricted to moves that are clearly written in syllabus, and illegal moves can lead to disqualification. Each level, bronze, silver, and gold, has different moves on their syllabus increasing in difficulty. At these levels, the elaborate costumes are not allowed, as there are very strict clothing restrictions. Jewels on costumes or hair can lead to disqualification. Medal tests Medal examinations for amateurs enable dancers' individual abilities to be recognized according to conventional standards. In medal exams, which are run by bodies such as the Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing (ISTD), each dancer performs two or more dances in a certain genre in front of a judge. Genres such as Modern Ballroom or Latin are the most popular. Societies such as the ISTD also offer medal tests on other dance styles (such as Country & Western,Rock 'n Roll or Tap). In some North American examinations, levels include Newcomer,Bronze, Silver, Gold and Championship; each level may be further subdivided into either two or four separate sections. Collegiate Ballroom There is a part of the ballroom world dedicated to college students. These chapters are typically clubs or teams that have an interest in ballroom dancing. Teams hold fundraisers, social events, and ballroom dance lessons. Ballroom dance team’s goals are to have fun and learn to dance well. There is a strong focus on finding a compatible dance partner and bonding with teammates. There is also a competitive side to collegiate ballroom. In competitive collegiate ballroom, competitors go to competitions at different schools or events, such as Arnold Dancesport Classic and MIT Open Ballroom Dance Competition. Dancers can compete in four different categories. The categories are American Rhythm, International Latin, American Smooth, and International Standard. Competitors dance at different level based on their abilities. The levels of dance,in order of difficultly, are newcomer,bronze, silver, gold, novice, pre-championship, and championship. Bronze through gold is considered syllabus. Novice through Championship is considered open. Individuals and teams as a whole compete against each other. For example, the University of Michigan Ballroom Dance Team has won the National Collegiate Championships for nine consecutive years.
  5. 5. PAGE 4 "Ballroom dance" refers most often to the ten dances of International Ballroom (or Standard) and International Latin, though the term is also often used interchangeably with the five International Ballroom dances. Sequence dancing, which is danced predominantly in the United Kingdom, is also sometimes included as a type of Ballroom dancing.  cha-cha (dance) The cha-cha-cha, or simply cha-cha, is the name of a dance of Cuban origin. It is danced to the music of the same name introduced by Cuban composer and violinist Enrique Jorrín in 1953. This rhythm was developed from the danzón by a syncopation of the fourth beat. The name is onomatopoeic, derived from the rhythm of the güiro (scraper) and the shuffling of the dancers' feet. Origin Cha-cha-cha rhythm The ballroom style of dancing the cha-cha-chá comes from studies made by dance teacher Monsieur Pierre (Pierre Zurcher-Margolle), who partnered Doris Lavelle. Pierre,then from London, visited Cuba in 1952 to find out how and what Cubans were dancing at the time. He noted that this new dance had a split fourth beat, and to dance it one started on the second beat, not the first. He brought this dance idea to England and eventually created what is now known as ballroom cha-cha-cha. The validity of his analysis is well established for that time, and some forms of evidence exist today. First, there is in existence film of Orquesta Jorrin playing to a cha-cha-cha dance contest in Cuba; second, the rhythm of the Benny More classic Santa Isabel de lasLajas written and recorded at about the same time is quite clearly syncopated on the fourth beat. Also, note that the slower bolero-son ("rumba") was always danced on the second beat. Description Cha-cha-cha may be danced to authentic Cuban music, or to Latin Pop or Latin Rock. The music for the international ballroom cha-cha-cha is energetic and with a steady beat. The Cuban cha-cha-chá is more sensual and may involve complex polyrhythms. Styles of cha-cha-cha dance may differ in the place of the chasse in the rhythmical structure. The original Cuban and the ballroom cha-cha-cha count is "two, three,chachacha"or "four-and-one, two, three". The dance does not start on the first beat of a bar, though it can start with a transfer of weight to the lead's right. Nevertheless,many social dancers count "one, two, cha-cha-cha"and may find it difficult to make the adjustment to the "correct" timing of the dance. Basic step of cha-cha-cha The basic pattern involves the lead (usually the man) taking a checked forward step with the left foot, retaining some weight on the right foot. The knee of the right leg must stay straight and close to the back of the left knee, the left leg having straightened just prior to receiving part weight. This step is taken on the second beat of the bar.Full weight is returned to the right leg on the second step (beat three). The fourth beat is split in two so the count of the next three steps is 4-and-1. These three steps constitute the cha-cha- cha chasse. A step to the side is taken with the left foot, the right foot is half closed towards the left foot (typically
  6. 6. PAGE 5 leaving both feet under the hips or perhaps closed together), and finally there is a last step to the left with the left foot. The length of the steps in the chasse depends very much on the effect the dancer is attempting to make. The partner takes a step back on the right foot, the knee being straightened as full weight is taken. The other leg is allowed to remain straight. It is possible it will shoot slightly but no deliberate flexing of the free leg is attempted. This is quite different from technique associated with salsa, for instance. On the next beat (beat three) weight is returned to the left leg. Then a cha-cha-cha chasse is danced RLR. Each partner is now in a position to dance the bar their partner just danced. Hence the fundamental construction of Cha-cha-cha extends over two bars. Hip movement In the International Latin style, the weighted leg is almost always straight. The free leg will bend, allowing the hips to naturally settle into the direction of the weighted leg. As a step is taken, a free leg will straighten the instant before it receives weight. It should then remain straight until it is completely free of weight again. International Latin style Cha-cha-cha Cha-cha-cha is one of the five dances of the "Latin American" program of international ballroom competitions. As described above, the basis of the modern dance was laid down in the 1950s by Pierre & Lavelle and developed in the 1960s by Walter Laird and other top competitors of the time. The basic steps taught to learners today are based on these accounts. In general, steps are kept compact and the dance is danced generally without any rise and fall. The modern ballroom technique of Cha-cha-cha (and other ballroom dances) does undergo gradual evolution, particularly in competition dancing, but in essence is still firmly based on its Cuban origin in the 1950s.  Samba (ballroom dance) The international Ballroom version of samba is a lively, rhythmical dance with elements from Brazilian samba. It has recently been exposed to the American public in television programmes such as Strictly come dancing and Dancing with the stars. It differs considerably from the original samba styles of Brazil, in particular it differs from Ballroom Samba in Brazil itself. It is often not always danced to music with a samba rhythm and often danced to music with less complex 2/4 and 4/4 time. In particular in the popular television programmes Strictly come dancing and Dancing with the stars it almost never danced to samba music or a samba rhythm. Moreover its performance does not necessarily include the characteristic steps from Samba no Pé. In many other ways it though been influenced by the Brazilian version of samba, in particular maxixe, and subsequently developed independenty from samba in Brazil. Origins The ballroom samba has its origins in Brazil at the beginning of the 20th century. Many steps can be traced back to the Maxixe danced in the 1910s. A book published in France in 1928 described how to perform the samba.[1] Technique As a ballroom dance,the samba is a partner dance. Ballroom samba,even more than other ballroom dances,is very disconnected from the origins and evolution of the music and dance that gives it its name. The ballroom samba is danced to music in 2/4 or 4/4 time. It uses severaldifferent rhythmic patterns in its figures, with cross-rhythms being a common feature. Thus, for three-step patterns,common step values (in beats) are:
  7. 7. PAGE 6 Samba usually refers to the typical Brazilian dance and rhythm. As is typical of many Brazilian cultural manifestations, samba is the result of the fusion of european and african influence (in particular rhythms such as batuque and lundu). It sometimes seen as controversial, calling a dance samba (a word, which in international popular culture is intimately connected to the very cultural essence of Brazil), that is so disconnected from any dance or music, which would be called samba in Brazil itself. Music The ballroom samba is danced under severaldifferent rhythms, including the original Samba (music). It is also possible to dance ballroom samba with flamenco, zouk, and other South American rhythms.  Rumba rumba is a dance term with two quite different meanings. In some contexts, "rumba" is used as shorthand for Afro-Cuban rumba, a group of dances related to the rumba genre of Afro-Cuban music. The most common Afro-Cuban rumba is the guaguancó. The other Afro-Cuban rumbas are Yambu and Colombia. In other contexts, "rumba" refers to ballroom-rumba, one of the ballroom dances which occurs in social dance and in international competitions. In this sense,rumba is the slowest of the five competitive International Latin dances: the paso doble, the samba, the cha-cha-cha and the jive being the others. This ballroom rumba was derived from a Cuban rhythm and dance called the bolero-son; the international style was derived from studies of dance in Cuba in the pre- revolutionary period. Cuban rumba The Afro-Cuban rumba is entirely different from the ballroom rumba, both in rhythm and dance. See guaguanco. Rumba outside Cuba The ballroom rumba derives its movements and music from the son,just as do the salsa and mambo. The Peanut Vendor was the first recording of Cuban music to become an international hit: it was incorrectly described on the label as a rumba,perhaps because the word son would not be understood in English. The label stuck, and a rumba craze developed through the 1930s. This kind of rumba was introduced into dance salons in America and Europe in the 1930s, and was characterized by variable tempo, sometimes nearly twice as fast as the modern ballroom rumba. Early American rumba This kind of rumba was introduced into American dance salons at the beginning of the 20th century, characterized by high tempo, nearly twice as fast as the modern ballroom rumba, typical examples being the tunes The Peanut Vendor and Siboney. Ballroom rumba International style
  8. 8. PAGE 7 The modern international style of dancing the rumba derives from studies made by dance teacher Monsieur Pierre (Pierre Zurcher-Margolle), who partnered Doris Lavelle. Pierre,then from London, visited Cuba in 1947, 1951 and 1953 to find out how and what Cubans were dancing at the time. The international ballroom rumba is a slower dance of about 120 beats per minute which corresponds, both in music and in dance to what the Cubans of an older generation called the bolero-son. It is easy to see why, for ease of reference and for marketing, rumba is a better name, however inaccurate; it is the same kind of reason that led later on to the use of salsa as an overall term for popular music of Cuban origin. No social dances in Cuba involve a hip-sway over the standing leg and, though this is scarcely noticeable in fast salsa, it is more pronounced in the slow ballroom rumba. In general, steps are kept compact and the dance is danced generally without any rise and fall. This style is authentic, as is the use of free arms in various figures. The basic figures derive from dance moves observed in Havana in the pre-revolutionary period, and have developed their own life since then. Competition figures are often complex, and this is where competition dance separates from social dance. Details can be obtained from the syllabuses of dance teaching organizations and from standard texts.  Pasodoble Pasodoble,or paso doble,(literal meaning in Spanish: double-step) is a traditional couple's dance from Spain. It is danced to the type of music typically played in bullfights during the bullfighters' entrance to the ring (paseo) or during the passes (faena) just before the kill. It corresponds to the pasodoble dance (traditional and ballroom). Pasodoble is a lively style of dance to the duple meter march-like pasodoble music. It is modelled after the sound, drama, and movement of the Spanish and Portuguese bullfight. Famous bullfighters have been honoured with pasodoble tunes named after them. Other tunes have been inspired by patriotic motifs or local characters. Dance Pasodoble is based on music played at bullfights during the bullfighters' entrance (paseo)or during the passes (faena) just before the kill. The leader of this dance plays the part of the matador. The follower generally plays the part of the matador's cape,but can also represent the shadow of the matador, as well as the bull or a flamenco dancer in some figures. Its origin dates back to a French military march with the name “Paso Redoble.” This was a fast paced march, which is why this is a fast-paced Latin American dance modeled after the Spanish bull fight. Bull fighting was well- known around this time. Ballroom A significant number of Paso Doble songs are variants of España Cañi.The song has breaks in fixed positions in the song (two breaks at syllabus levels three breaks and a longer song at Open levels). Traditionally Paso Doble routines are choreographed to match these breaks,as well as the musical phrases. Accordingly, most other ballroom Paso Doble tunes are written with similar breaks (those without are simply avoided in most competitions).  Jive (dance) In Ballroom dancing, Jive is a dance style in 4/4 time that originated in the United States from African-Americans in the early 1930s. It was originally presented to the public as 'Jive' in 1934 by Cab Calloway. It is a lively and uninhibited variation of the Jitterbug, a form of Swing dance. Glenn Miller introduced his own jive dance in 1938 with the song "Doin' the Jive" which never caught on. Jive is one of the five International Latin dances. In competition it is danced at a speed of 176 beats per minute, although in some cases this is reduced to between 128 and 160 beats per minute.
  9. 9. PAGE 8 Many of its basic patterns are similar to these of the East Coast Swing with the major difference of highly syncopated rhythm of the Triple Steps (Chasses),which use straight eighths in ECS and hard swing in Jive. To the players of swing music in the 1930s and 1940s "Jive" was an expression denoting glib or foolish talk. Or derived from the earlier generics for giouba of the African dance Juba dance verbal tradition. American soldiers brought Lindy Hop/Jitterbug to Europe around 1942, where this dance swiftly found a following among the young. In the United States the term Swing became the most common word used to describe the dance. In the UK variations in technique led to styles such as Boogie-Woogie and Swing Boogie, with "Jive" gradually emerging as the generic term. Reference:  Richardson P.J.S. 1960. Social dances of the 19th century in England.p44  Sachs, Curt. 1937. World history of the dance. Norton.  How to become a Good Dancer by Arthur Murray 1947 Simon and Schuster. revised edition. page 175.  Paul Bottomer. 1997. Black Dog & Leventhal. page 157. ISBN 1-57912-049-0  rovio, Helio 2004. Cuban music from A to Z. p50  Giro, Radamés 2007. Diccionario enciclopédico de la música en Cuba. La Habana. p281  Blatter, Alfred 2007. Revisiting music theory: a guide to the practice p28. ISBN 0-415-97440-2.  Imperial Society of Teachers of Dancing 2004. 100 years of dance: a history of the ISTD Examinations Board. London. p62

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