Som 153 understanding jesus -- john - workbook


Published on

SOM-153 is the third class in the Missional Discipleship program of SEATS Schools of Missions. SEATS SOM Level 1, Track 2

Published in: Spiritual
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Som 153 understanding jesus -- john - workbook

  1. 1. SOM-14 Understanding Jesus: Gospel of JohnThis   class   will   examine   how   Filipinos   view   Jesus   Christ   and   how   that   view   can   be  reconciled   with   the   biblical   presentation   of   who   Jesus   is.   How   can   I   bring   a   biblical  understanding  of  Christ  into  my  ministry?          
  2. 2. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       1    SOM-­14  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel  “John  always  refers  to  Jesus’  miracles  as  “signs,”  a  word  emphasizing  the  significance  of  the  action  rather  than  the  marvel.”1  These   signs   are   more   than   significant   in   that   John   does   not   use   the   word   “miracle”   to  describe.  John  consistently  refers  to  Jesus’  mighty  works  as  “signs.”  A  miracle  underscores  power  and  is  generally  received  with  awe.  A  sign  is  revelatory,  disclosing  something  from  God,   something   hidden   before.   The   signs   are   not   merely   acts   of   power   and   might,   they  unveil   that   God   is   at   work   in   Jesus   and   indeed   is   present   in   him.   This   is   an   essential  affirmation  for  John,  and  it  moves  to  the  center  of  what  he  affirms  about  Jesus.  Jesus  is  not  merely  a  man;  he  is  more,  he  conveys  the  presence  of  God  in  the  world  (John  1:14).2  Signs  and  Wonders  in  the  OT  “…  the  reference  is  almost  always  to  the  leading  of  the  people  out  of  Egypt  by  Moses  and  to  the  special  circumstances  under  which  the  people  stood  up  to  the  passage  of  the  Red  Sea  and   in   all     of   which   God   proved   Himself   to   be   the   Almighty   and   showed   Israel   to   be   His  chosen  people.”3  “At  the  same  time,  however,  the  shmeion  which  Jesus  does  show  that  the  age  of  Moses  is  not  just  repeated  in  Him;  it  is  surpassed  in  Him  as  He  Himself  in  His  person  and  what  He  brings  infinitely   surpasses   Moses,   J   1:17.   …   they   make   it   apparent   for   all   to   see   that   Jesus   is   in   fact  more  than  a  new  Moses,  for  Jesus  acts  as  God,  and  therein  He  shows  Himself  to  be  the  Son  of  God.”4  So   whenever   we   read   the   word   shmeion   in   John   we   need   to   think   back   to   the   Exodus   of  Israel   from   Egypt.   John   is   telling   us   that   Jesus   is   identifies   with   that   action   through   his  performance   of   these   signs.   What   John   also   shows   us,   however,   is   that   Jesus   is   not   just   like  Moses;  rather  he  is  greater  than  Moses  and  thus  worthy  of  greater  respect.                                                                                                                  1  Leon  Morris,  Commentary  on  John,  in  International  Bible  Society,  The  NIV  Study  Bible,  ed.  Kenneth  Barker  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  The  Zondervan  Corporation,  1985).  2   Gary   Burge   in   Michael   Carpenter,   New   Conversation   @   Matthews   Table,   April   14,   2009,­‐conversation-­‐matthews-­‐table  (accessed  August  10,  2010).  3  Karl  Heinrich  Rengstorf,  SEMEION,  Vol.  7,  in   Theological  Dictionary  of  the  New  Testament,  ed.  Gerhard  Friedrich,  trans.  Geoffrey  W.  Bromiley,  200-­‐261  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  William  B.  Eerdmans  Publishing  Company,  1971),  216.  4  Karl  Heinrich  Rengstorf,  SEMEION,  Vol.  7,  in   Theological  Dictionary  of  the  New  Testament,  ed.  Gerhard  Friedrich,  trans.  Geoffrey  W.  Bromiley,  200-­‐261  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  William  B.  Eerdmans  Publishing  Company,  1971),  257.  
  3. 3. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       2    The   purpose   of   the   signs   is   “to   convince   people   that   the   Christ,   the   Son   of   God,   is   Jesus.”   So  how  do  these  signs  “breed  faith  in  Jesus?”5   1. The  Sign  of  Turning  the  Water  into  Wine  [John  2:1-­‐11]     a. 2:11   “This   beginning   of   miracles   did   Jesus   in   Cana   of   Galilee,   and   manifested   forth  his  glory;  and  his  disciples  believed  on  him.”     i. What  did  this  reveal  about  Jesus?   ii. Signifies   the   “replacement   of   the   old   purifications   by   the   wine   of   the   kingdom  of  God…”6   2. The  Sign  of  The  Healing  of  the  Nobleman’s  Son  [John  4:46-­‐54]     a. 4:48   “Then   said   Jesus   unto   him,   Except   ye   see   signs   and   wonders,   ye   will   not   believe.”     b. 4:54   “This   is   again   the   second   miracle   that   Jesus   did,   when   he   was   come   out   of  Judaea  into  Galilee.”     3. The  Sign  of  Feeding  a  Huge  Crowd  [John  6:1-­‐15]     a. 6:2   “And   a   great   multitude   followed   him,   because   they   saw   his   miracles   which  he  did  on  them  that  were  diseased.”     b. 6:14  “Then  those  men,  when  they  had  seen  the  miracle  that  Jesus  did,  said,   This  is  of  a  truth  that  prophet  that  should  come  into  the  world.”     4. The  Sign  of  Walking  on  the  Water  [John  6:16-­‐29]     a. 6:26  “Jesus  answered  them  and  said,  Verily,  verily,  I  say  unto  you,  Ye  seek  me,   not   because   ye   saw   the   miracles,   but   because   ye   did   eat   of   the   loaves,   and   were  filled.”     i. Jesus  is  saying  they  should  be  looking  at  the  significance  of  the  signs   he  is  performing  rather  than  the  effect  those  signs  have  on  their  own   personal  lives.  “Something  really  great  is  happening  here  but  you  are   only   concerned   about   yourselves!”   Does   this   speak   to   our   tendency   to   focus  on  what  God  can  do  for  us  rather  than  on  what  God  is  doing  for   the  world?   5. The  Sign  of  The  Healing  of  a  Man  Born  Blind  [John  9:1-­‐41]     a. 9:16  “Therefore  said  some  of  the  Pharisees,  This  man  is  not  of  God,  because   he  keepeth  not  the  sabbath  day.  Others  said,  How  can  a  man  that  is  a  sinner   do  such  miracles?  And  there  was  a  division  among  them.”     i.  Some   didn’t   recognise   the   signs   because   they   misunderstood   his   actions.   6. The  Sign  of  Raising  Lazarus  from  the  Dead  [John  11:1-­‐48]   a. 11:47  “Then  gathered  the  chief  priests  and  the  Pharisees  a  council,  and  said,   What  do  we?  for  this  man  doeth  many  miracles.”                                                                                                                    5  D.A.  Carson,  The  Gospel  According  to  John  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  Wm.  B.  Eerdmans  Publishing  Company,  1991),  167.  6  C.H.  Dodd,  Interpretation  of  the  Fourth  Gospel  (Cambridge:  University  Press,  1953),  297,  in  D.A.  Carson,  The  Gospel  According  to  John  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  Wm.  B.  Eerdmans  Publishing  Company,  1991),  166.  
  4. 4. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       3     i. The   ultimate   in   compromise!   Even   though   we   know   these   are   signs   that   prove   Jesus   is   from   God,   if   we   let   God   do   his   will,   we   will   lose   out   on  all  that  we  have  going  for  us  here.   1. Shows  a  remarkable  lack  of  understanding  of  the  love  of  God  as   well   as   a   lack   of   dependence   upon   him.   They   thought   the   life   they   had   on   earth   was   better   than   the   life   in   the   Kingdom   of   God.  They  forgot  about  that  I  guess.   7. The  Sign  of  Being  raised  from  the  Dead  Himself  [John  2:18-­‐19]   a. 2:18   “Then   answered   the   Jews   and   said   unto   him,   What   sign   shewest   thou   unto  us,  seeing  that  thou  doest  these  things?”     b. Signifies  “…  the  replacement  of  …  the  old  temple  by  the  new  in  the  risen  Lord   …”7   8. The  Sign  of  the  New  Birth  [John  3:1-­‐21]   a. 3:2  “The  same  came  to  Jesus  by  night,  and  said  unto  him,  Rabbi,  we  know  that   thou   art   a   teacher   come   from   God:   for   no   man   can   do   these   miracles   that   thou  doest,  except  God  be  with  him.”     b. Signifies  “…  an  exposition  of  new  birth  for  new  creation  …”8  2:23  “Now  when  he  was  in  Jerusalem  at  the  passover,  in  the  feast  day,  many  believed  in  his  name,  when  they  saw  the  miracles  which  he  did.”       Note  the  juxtaposition  of  the  “Passover”  and  the  “Signs”  Jesus  performed.  6:30   “They   said   therefore   unto   him,   What   sign   shewest   thou   then,   that   we   may   see,   and  believe  thee?  what  dost  thou  work?”    7:31   “And   many   of   the   people   believed   on   him,   and   said,   When   Christ   cometh,   will   he   do  more  miracles  than  these  which  this  man  hath  done?”    10:41   “And   many   resorted   unto   him,   and   said,   John   did   no   miracle:   but   all   things   that   John  spake  of  this  man  were  true.”    12:18   “For   this   cause   the   people   also   met   him,   for   that   they   heard   that   he   had   done   this  miracle.”    12:37   “But   though   he   had   done   so   many   miracles   before   them,   yet   they   believed   not   on  him:”    20:30   “And   many   other   signs   truly   did   Jesus   in   the   presence   of   his   disciples,   which   are   not  written  in  this  book:”                                                                                                                    7   C.H.   Dodd,   Interpretation   of   the   Fourth   Gospel   (Cambridge:   University   Press,   1953),   297   in  D.A.  Carson,  The  Gospel  According  to  John  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  Wm.  B.  Eerdmans  Publishing  Company,  1991),  166.  8  C.H.  Dodd,  Interpretation  of  the  Fourth  Gospel  (Cambridge:  University  Press,  1953),  297  in  D.A.  Carson,  The  Gospel  According  to  John  (Grand  Rapids,  MI:  Wm.  B.  Eerdmans  Publishing  Company,  1991),  166.  
  5. 5. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       4    I  AM  Formula    Jesus   uses   a   very   significant   phrase   repeatedly   throughout   John.   In   is   significant   to   note  that   this   phrase   is   exclusively   used   on   the   lips   of   Jesus   in   John.   This   phrase,   however,   is  meaningless   unless   we   understand   Exodus   3:14,   where   God   gives   his   name   to   Moses   at   the  burning  bush.  Ex   3:14   –   God   answered   Moses,   "I   Am   Who   I   Am   (YHWH).   This   is   what   you   must   say   to   the  people  of  Israel:  I  Am  (YHWH)  has  sent  me  to  you."   Table  1  The  Seven  "I  AM"  Statements  of  Jesus  in  John  Verse   I  AM  the  …   He  who  …   Response  6:35,4 bread  of  life   “…   comes   to   me   will   “The  Jews  began  to  grumble  about  1,   never   be   hungry,   &   he   him  …  ‘Is  this  not  Jesus,  the  son  of  48,51   who   believes   in   me   will   Joseph,  whose  father  &  mother  we   never  be  thirsty”   know?”   “everyone   who   looks   to   “The   Jews   began   to   argue   sharply   the  Son  &  believes  in  him   among   themselves,   “How   can   this   shall  have  eternal  life  …”   man  give  us  his  flesh  to  eat?”   “a   man   may   eat   &   never   “This   is   a   hard   teaching.   Who   can   die.”   accept   it?   …   his   disciples   were   “If   anyone   eats   of   this   grumbling  about  this  …    ‘does  this   bread,   he   will   live   offend  you?’”   forever.”   “many  of  his  disciples  turned  back   &  no  longer  followed  him.”   “‘Lord   to   whom   shall   we   go?   You   have   the   words   of   eternal   life.   We   believe   &   know   that   you   are   the   Holy  One  of  God.’”  8:12   light   of   the   “…    follows  me  will  never   “The   Pharisees   challenged   him,  (9:5)9   world   walk  in  darkness,  but  will   ‘Your  testimony  is  not  valid.’”   have  the  light  of  life.”  10:7,9   gate   for   the   “…  enters  through  me  will   “At   these   words   the   Jews   were   sheep   be  saved.”   again   divided.”   [Is   Jesus   Demon-­‐ possessed  or  not?]  10:11,   good  shepherd   “I   know   my   sheep   &   my   “At   these   words   the   Jews   were  14   sheep   know   me.”   “There   again   divided.”   [Is   Jesus   Demon-­‐ will   be   one   flock   &   one   possessed  or  not?]   shepherd.”  11:25   resurrection   &   “…   believes   in   my   will   “I   believe   you   are   the   Christ,   the                                                                                                                  9   These   two   “light   of   the   world”   statements   gird   the   whole   discussion   of   Jesus’   authority  that   climax   in   his   unreserved   declaration   to   be   “I   AM.”   That   Jesus   was   understood   to   be  claiming  to  be  the  YHWH  of  Ex  3:14  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  the  Jews  immediately  sought  to  stone  him.  
  6. 6. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       5     the  life   live,  even  though  he  dies.”   Son  of  God,  who  was  to  come  into   the  world.”  14:6   way,  the  truth,  &   “No   one   comes   to   the   “Lord,   show   us   the   Father   &   that   the  life   Father   except   through   will  be  enough  for  us.”   me.”  15:1,5   true  vine   “If  a  man  remains  in  me  &   [no  response  recorded]   I   in   him,   he   will   bear   much  fruit.”     Table  2  The  Other  "I  AM"  statements  of  Jesus  in  John  Verse   Statement   Kausap   Response  4:26   “I  who  speak  to  you   Woman  at  the  well   “Come,   see   a   man   who   told   me   am  he.”   everything   I   ever   did.   Could   this   be  the  Christ?”  6:20   “It   is   I;   don’t   be   Disciples  in  boat   Then   they   were   willing   to   take   afraid”   him   into   the   boat   [after   having   been  too  terrified  before].  8:24   “If   you   do   not   People;  Pharisees;  Jews;     “Who  are  you?”   believe  that  I  am  …”  8:28   “…   then   you   will   People;  Pharisees;  Jews;   “Even   as   he   spoke,   many   put   know  that  I  am  …”   their  faith  in  him.”  8:58   “before   Abraham   the   Jews   who   had   “They   picked   up   stones   to   stone   was,  I  am!”   believed  him   him  …”  13:19   “I  am  he.”10   Disciples  &  Apostles   “Jesus  was  troubled  in  spirit.”  18:5,6   “I  am  he.” 11   Judas,   soldiers,   priests,   “…   they   drew   back   &   fell   to   the   Pharisees   ground.”  18:8   “I  am  he.”   Judas,   soldiers,   priests,   “Peter  …  struck  the  High  priest’s   Pharisees   servant,  cutting  off  his  right  ear.”   “The  soldiers  …  arrested  Him.”    1.  Moses  • What   John   shows   us   is   that   Jesus   is   not   just   like   Moses;   rather   he   is   greater   than  Moses  &  thus  worthy  of  greater  respect.  2.  Abraham  • Jews:  We  are  saved  because  of  Abraham.  • Jesus:  You  are  saved  because  of  Me!                                                                                                                  10  This  would  be  proven  by  the  fact  that  Jesus  knew  he  would  be  betrayed.    11   v6   is   merely   a   quotation   of   v5   that   lets   us   know   the   reaction   of   Judas   and   of   the   soldiers,  priests,  and  Pharisees  to  Jesus’  statement.  
  7. 7. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       6      3.  Father  “In  John’s  Gospel   apostellein  (apostellein)  is  used  by  Jesus  when  his  concern  is  to  ground  His   authority   in   that   of   God   as   the   One   who   is   responsible   for   His   words   and   works   and  who   guarantees   their   right   and   truth.   On   the   other   hand,   He   uses   the   formula   o pemqav me  (ho   pempsas   me   pater)   to   affirm   the   participation   of   God   in   his   work   in   the   actio   of   his  sending.”  4.  Me  The  final  theme  of  John  is  “Me.”  So  what  does  all  of  this  mean  for  you  and  me?  In  order  to  understand  that,  we  need  to  look  at  a  traditional  model  of  how  the  church  relates  to   mission:   Notice  that  is  is  very  church  centered.  It   also   almost   seems   like   God   has   to   join   what  the  church  is  doing  rather  than  the   church   joining   what   God   is   doing.   God   is   almost   limited   to   doing   what   the   church   does.  The  church  saves;  the  church  gives   blessings;   the   church   grows;   and   the   church  transforms  the  world.   Something  seems  to  be  backwards   about  this!    Another   option   sees   mission   as  coming  from  God  himself:  He   is   not   dependent   upon   the  church   nor   is   he   limited   by   the  church   in   what   he   does   in   his  mission!   God   is   the   one   who   sends  the   Son,   the   Spirit   AND   the   church  on  HIS  mission.  “Our   missionary   activities   are   only  authentic   insofar   as   they   reflect  participation  in  the  mission  of  God.”      
  8. 8. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       7    So  if  Jesus  sends  us  “as  the  Father  has  sent  him,”  let’s  look  at  “Sent”  words  in  the  Bible  to  see  Jesus’  &  our  mission.  “Sent”  words  in  John  apostellw Apostello: The  Commission27x  in  John  John   1:6,19,24;   3:17,28,34;   4:38;   5:33,36,38;   6:29,57;   7:29,32;   8:42;   9:7;   10:36;   11:3,42;  17:3,8,18,21,23,25;  18:24;  20:21  Pempw Pempo:  The  Sending32x  in  John  John   5:37;   6:38-­‐40,44;   7:16,18,28,33;   8:16,18,26,29;   9:4;   12:44,45,49;   13:16,20;   14:24,26;  15:21,26;  16:5,7;  20:21  “In  John’s  Gospel  apostellein  is  used  by  Jesus  when  his  concern  is  to  ground  His  authority  in  that   of   God   as   the   One   who   is   responsible   for   His   words   and   works   and   who   guarantees  their  right  and  truth.  On  the  other  hand,  He  uses  the  formula  o  pemqav  me  (pater)  to  affirm  the  participation  of  God  in  his  work  in  the  actio  of  his  sending.”  The  Johannine  Great  Commission  Jesus’  prayer  …    “As  thou  didst  send  me  into  the  world,  so  I  have  sent  them  into  the  world”  (17:18).    …  Jesus’  commission    “As  the  Father  has  sent  me,  even  so  I  send  you”  (20:21).    “Jesus  …  made  his  mission  the  model  of  ours,  saying  ‘as  the  Father  sent  me,  so  I  send  you.’  Therefore   our   understanding   of   the   church’s   mission   must   be   deduced   from   our  understanding  of  the  Son’s.”12  John  14:12    "I   can   guarantee   this   truth:   Those   who   believe   in   me   will   do   the   things   that   I   am   doing.  They  will  do  even  greater  things  because  I  am  going  to  the  Father.                                                                                                                      12  John  R.W.  Stott,  Christian  Mission  in  the  Modern  World  (Downers  Grove,  IL:  InterVarsity,  1975),  23.    
  9. 9. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       8    John  4:1-­42  –  Exposition  This  is  a  practice  in  Hermeneutics.  Our  assignment  is  to  understand  what  John  4  is  all  about  (The  Woman  at  the  Well).  1. Please  read  the  story  in  John  4:1-­‐42  and  use  our  interpretive  method,  COMCA,  on  it.  2. Then  read  the  explanation  below.    Context.    Before   we   begin   the   process   of   interpreting   John   4,   we   need   to   see   its   context   within   the  Gospel   of   John.   What   events   have   happened   in   the   first   three   chapters   that   will   help   us  understand   the   fourth?   Are   there   any   concepts   or   ideas   that   John   uses   here   that   can   be  explained   by   chapters   1-­‐3?   Conversely,   are   there   any   answers   in   chapter   4   for   questions  raised  in  chapters  1-­‐3?  W5    (Who,  What,  Why,  Where,  &  When)  1.  Who  are  the  people  mentioned  in  the  story?  This   story   mentions   many   different   people   including   the   Lord/Jesus,   Pharisees,   John,  disciples,  Samaritan  woman,  Jews  &  Samaritans  (as  groups  of  people),  God,  5  husbands  (+  1  not-­‐yet  husband),  Father,  Messiah  (Christ),  &  the  people  of  the  city.    2.  Where  does  the  story  take  place?  The  story  takes  place  on  the  road  from  Jerusalem  to  Galilee,  in  a  village  of  Samaria  named  Sychar,  near  the  well  Jacob  had  given  to  his  son  Joseph  (see  on  vv.  5-­‐6,  below).    3.  When  does  the  story  take  place?  The   story   takes   place   sometime   after   the   first   Passover   of   Jesus’   official   ministry   (2:13).  Jesus  is  on  his  way  back  to  Galilee.    4.  What  is  happening  in  the  story?  He  travels  through  Samaria  &  meets  a  woman  with  whom  he  has  a  conversation.  The  result  is  that  not  only  the  woman  becomes  saved,  the  whole  town  becomes  saved  as  well.    5.  What  words  does  John  use  that  have  significance  in  his  writings?  Truth,  Father,  water,  living  water,  food,  the  world,  witness.    We  will  look  at  some  of  these  words  during  the  explanation,  below.    Explanation.  1  Now  when  the  Lord  knew  that  the  Pharisees  had  heard  that  Jesus  was  making  &  baptizing  more  disciples  than  John  …”  
  10. 10. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       9    4  “He  had  to  pass  through  Samaria.”    Samaria   is   between   Jerusalem   &   Galilee.   There   were   two   roads   to   take,   one   crossed   the  Jordan  &  travelled  north  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  river.  The  other  went  straight  through  Samaria.  Jesus  wanted  to  leave  Judea  in  a  hurry  (see  on  v.  1,  above)  &  so  he  chose  the  most  direct  route  possible.    “It  was  about  the  sixth  hour.”  “There  came  a  woman  of  Samaria  to  draw  water.”    The  sixth  hour  was  about  12:00  PM  (noon).  In  a  country  that  is  desert,  it  is  strange  to  see  someone  working  in  the  hot  sun.  Why  was  she  going  to  the  well  at  this  time?    “Jesus  said  to  her,  "Give  me  a  drink."    This  statement  seems  simple  enough  –  here  is  a  man,  tired  after  walking  a  long  way  in  the  desert.   He   sees   a   well   &   wants   a   drink.   But   why   does   he   have   to   ask   a   stranger?   Doesn’t   he  have  a  group  of  disciples  who  can  help  him?  Where  are  they?  8  “For  his  disciples  had  gone  away  into  the  city  to  buy  food.”    Certainly  an  important  task  but  perhaps  they  forgot  something  else.    “The  Samaritan  woman  said  to  him,  ‘How  is  it  that  you,  a  Jew,  ask  a  drink  of  me,  a  woman  of  Samaria?’    The   woman   has   an   interesting   response   to   Jesus’   request.   Remember   that   this   is   the   first  time  that  John  has  told  us  about  Samaritans  –  up  to  this  point  we  have  heard  nothing  about  them.  So  how  do  we  know  what  the  problem  is?    The   answer   is   to   look   at   the   context   of   the   verse   in   order   to   see   what   it   means.   The   first  thing  that  we  notice  is  the  next  line:    “For  Jews  have  no  dealings  with  Samaritans.”    According   to   Carson,   the   proper   translation   of   this   verse   should   instead   be,   “Jews   do   not  use  dishes  Samaritans  have  used.”  This  reminds  us  of  the  Jewish  customs  as  described  in  the  Torah,  regarding  cleanliness.  Some  things  make  Jews  unclean  &  God  commands  them  to  stay   away   from   them.   There   is   no   further   information   given   in   the   immediate   context,   so  let’s  look  in  the  rest  of  the  Bible  for  the  answer.    Samaritans:  Origins  2   Kings   17:24-­‐41   tells   about   an   interesting   event   in   the   life   of   Israel.   As   you   know,   the  kingdom  of  Israel  was  divided  after  the  death  of  Solomon  into  Israel  &  Judah.  The  capital  of  Israel  was  located  in  Samaria.  Throughout  the  entire  history  of  Israel  there  were  no  good  kings   –   all   were   evil   &   did   evil   in   the   eyes   of   God.   Because   of   this,   God   sent   the   Assyrian  army  to  carry  Israel  off  into  captivity.  After  carrying  them  off,  the  Assyrian  king  resettled  the  land  with  people  from  other  countries  –  Babylon,  Cuthah,  Avva,  Hamath,  &  Sepharvaim.  Verse   25   tells   us   that   these   new   settlers   did   not   fear   the   LORD   &   so   the   LORD   punished  
  11. 11. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       10    them.   In   the   end,   the   people   adopted   some   of   the   religious   practices   of   Israel   &   blended  them  with  their  own  religious  practices,  resulting  in  a  religious  mess.  Of  course  all  of  this  meant  that  there  was  a  big  gap  between  the  Jews  &  the  Samaritans.    10  “Jesus  answered  her,  "If  you  knew  the  gift  of  God,  &  who  it  is  that  is  saying  to  you,  ‘Give  me  a  drink,’  you  would  have  asked  him,  &  he  would  have  given  you  living  water."    Given   the   difficult   relationship   that   Jews   &   Samaritans   have   with   one   another,   we   are  surprised   that   Jesus   is   even   talking   with   “one   of   them.”   Why?   Notice   that   he   does   not  respond  to  the  woman’s  statement  of  surprise  –  he  simply  continues  on  by  talking  about  a  different   kind   of   water.   What   new   kind   of   water   is   he   talking   about?   This   is   the   first  indication  we  have  the  Jesus  is  looking  for  something  more  than  a  drink.  How  is  it  different  from   what   the   woman   can   give   him?   Is   Jesus   really   thirsty   or   is   he   using   the   situation   to  help  the  woman?  What  is  his  purpose  in  talking  with  the  woman?  11   “The   woman   said   to   him,   "Sir,   you   have   nothing   to   draw   with,   &   the   well   is   deep;   where   do  you  get  that  living  water?    The  woman  has  a  right  to  be  surprised  because  the  well  is  indeed  deep  –  almost  50  metres!  Here   is   a   man   who   has   no   bucket   &   had   just   asked   someone   else   for   a   drink   saying   that   the  water  he  can  get  will  give  her  life?  How  can  he  do  that?  Notice  that  she  still  assumes  he  is  talking  about  real  water  that  comes  from  Jacob’s  well.  Is  he?  Let’s  see.    12  “Are  you  greater  than  our  father  Jacob,  who  gave  us  the  well,  &  drank  from  it  himself,  &  his  sons,  &  his  cattle?"    Can   you   do   better   than   our   father   Jacob   who   had   to   dig   for   50   m   before   reaching   water?  Here  the  reason  for  mentioning  the  place  &  name  of  the  well  in  such  detail  (see  on  vv.  5-­‐6,  above).    13  “Jesus  said  to  her,  "Every  one  who  drinks  of  this  water  will  thirst  again  …”    The   fact   that   the   woman   was   out   there   getting   water   is   proof   of   that.   But   how   is   Jesus’  water  different?    14  “…  but  whoever  drinks  of  the  water  that  I  shall  give  him  will  never  thirst;  the  water  that  I  shall  give  him  will  become  in  him  a  spring  of  water  welling  up  to  eternal  life.”  Jesus’  water  is  more  than  well  water,  it  is  more  than  spring  water.  It  is  water  that  leads  to  eternal   life.   We   finally   see   that   Jesus   is   talking   about   spiritual   water,   &   not   just   drinking  water.    15  The  woman  said  to  him,  "Sir,  give  me  this  water,  that  I  may  not  thirst,  nor  come  here  to  draw."    Does   she   really   understand   what   Jesus   is   saying?   Or   does   she   think   that   he   is   talking   about  real   water   that   she   can   drink   &   won’t   have   to   fetch   any   more?   Is   Jesus   talking   about  something  different?    
  12. 12. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       11    16-­17  Jesus  said  to  her,  "Go,  call  your  husband,  &  come  here."  The  woman  answered  him,  "I  have  no  husband."  Jesus  said  to  her,  "You  are  right  in  saying,  ‘I  have  no  husband’;  18  for  you  have  had  five  husbands,  &  he  whom  you  now  have  is  not  your  husband;  this  you  said  truly."    How   does   this   relate   to   water?   Or   is   Jesus   really   talking   about   satisfaction?   The   water   from  Jacob’s   well   never   satisfies   because   you   always   have   to   return   to   drink   some   more.   The  woman  is  not  living  a  satisfied  life  –  she  is  always  looking  for  another  man  to  spend  it  with.  By  asking  this  question,  Jesus  is  telling  her  that  her  search  is  over  –  he  has  the  very  thing  she  has  been  looking  for.    19-­24   “The   woman   said   to   him,   "Sir,   I   perceive   that   you   are   a   prophet.   Our   fathers   worshiped  on  this  mountain;  &  you  say  that  in  Jerusalem  is  the  place  where  men  ought  to  worship."  Jesus  said   to   her,   "Woman,   believe   me,   the   hour   is   coming   when   neither   on   this   mountain   nor   in  Jerusalem  will  you  worship  the  Father.  You  worship  what  you  do  not  know;  we  worship  what  we   know,   for   salvation   is   from   the   Jews.   But   the   hour   is   coming,   &   now   is,   when   the   true  worshipers  will  worship  the  Father  in  spirit  &  truth,  for  such  the  Father  seeks  to  worship  him.  God  is  spirit,  &  those  who  worship  him  must  worship  in  spirit  &  truth.”    Here  we  see  that  the  woman  finally  gets  the  point  –  Jesus  is  a  holy  man  who  is  talking  about  things   of   God.   She   then   begins   by   stating   some   of   the   differences   of   their   beliefs.   Why?    Does  she  want  to  reject  his  message?  I  don’t  think  so.  Rather  she  may  be  saying  that  she  is  unworthy   to   receive   the   water   Jesus   is   offering   because   her   religious   practices   are  different.  Jesus  says  that  is  not  important.  It  is  not  important  where  you  worship.  What  is  important  is  how  you  worship.    19  “…  on  this  mountain  …”    Mount  Gerizim,  mentioned  in  Genesis  12:7-­‐8;  33:20  &  Deuteronomy  11:29;  27:12  as  a  place  where   the   people   of   Israel   would   be   blessed.   Apparently   the   Samaritans   were   using   it   as  their  centre  of  worship,  since  they  weren’t  allowed  to  use  the  Temple  in  Jerusalem  (cf.  Ezra  4:1-­‐3).    25-­26  “The  woman  said  to  him,  ‘I  know  that  Messiah  is  coming  (he  who  is  called  Christ);  when  he  comes,  he  will  show  us  all  things.’    Jesus   said   to   her,   ‘I   who   speak   to   you   am   he.’”   Jesus   is   not   in   the   habit   of   telling   people   that  he  is  the  Messiah,  or  Christ.    27  “Just  then  his  disciples  came.  They  marveled  that  he  was  talking  with  a  woman,  but  none  said,  ‘What  do  you  wish?’  or,  ‘Why  are  you  talking  with  her?’”    28  “So  the  woman  left  her  water  jar,  &  went  away  into  the  city,  &  said  to  the  people,  "Come,  see   a   man   who   told   me   all   that   I   ever   did.   Can   this   be   the   Christ?"   They   went   out   of   the   city   &  were  coming  to  him.”    The   woman,   seeing   that   her   needs   have   been   met,   tells   the   people   of   the   village   to   go   &   see  him  because  he  can  also  help  them.    
  13. 13. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       12    31-­33  “Meanwhile  the  disciples  besought  him,  saying,  "Rabbi,  eat."  But  he  said  to  them,  "I  have  food   to   eat   of   which   you   do   not   know."   So   the   disciples   said   to   one   another,   "Has   any   one  brought  him  food?"    Just   as   the   woman   doesn’t   understand   what   Jesus   is   saying,   so   also   his   disciples   don’t  understand.    34-­38  “Jesus  said  to  them,  "My  food  is  to  do  the  will  of  him  who  sent  me,  &  to  accomplish  his  work.    Do  you  not  say,  ‘There  are  yet  four  months,  then  comes  the  harvest’?  I  tell  you,  lift  up  your   eyes,   &   see   how   the   fields   are   already   white   for   harvest.     He   who   reaps   receives   wages,   &  gathers   fruit   for   eternal   life,   so   that   sower   &   reaper   may   rejoice   together.   For   here   the   saying  holds   true,   ‘One   sows   &   another   reaps.’   I   sent   you   to   reap   that   for   which   you   did   not   labor;  others  have  labored,  &  you  have  entered  into  their  labor."    Jesus  closely  connects  his  story  of  the  food  with  the  work  of  the  kingdom  of  God.  His  lesson  is   that   each   person   has   a   role   to   fill   in   the   harvest   of   souls   from   the   world.   Some   sow   &  others  reap.  Perhaps  he  is  teaching  his  disciples  that  it  is  not  important  whether  they  are  great  preachers,  or  great  teachers,  or  great  evangelists  –  the  one  who  plants  the  seed  is  just  as  important  as  the  one  who  harvests  the  fruit  –  all  they  need  to  do  is  their  role.    39   Many   Samaritans   from   that   city   believed   in   him   because   of   the   woman’s   testimony,   "He  told  me  all  that  I  ever  did."    The   concept   of   witness   is   not   new   in   John’s   Gospel.   In   the   prologue   alone   we   see   four  references   to   the   idea   of   John   being   a   witness.   The   word   is   used   another   tewnty-­‐eight   (28)  times   in   John,   ten   (10)   times   in   the   Epistles,   &   three   (3)   &   times   in   Revelation.   The   concept  is   this:   people   experience   the   goodness   of   Jesus   &   in   turn   tell   others   about   that.   Those  others  are  then  able  to  approach  Jesus  for  salvation.    40-­41  So  when  the  Samaritans  came  to  him,  they  asked  him  to  stay  with  them;  &  he  stayed  there  two  days.”    This   shows   that   the   conflict   between   the   Jews   &   the   Samaritans   broke   down   when   the  Samaritans  saw  that  God  really  wanted  them  to  be  saved  as  well.    41-­42   “And   many   more   believed   because   of   his   word.   They   said   to   the   woman,   "It   is   no   longer  because  of  your  words  that  we  believe,  for  we  have  heard  for  ourselves,  &  we  know  that  this  is  indeed…”    Just  as  John  was  not  the  answer  to  the  problems  of  the  world,  so  also  the  woman  was  not  the   answer   to   the   problems   of   the   city.   Instead,   the   people   themselves   were   able   to   meet   &  learn  from  the  answer  –  Jesus  Christ  himself!    “…  the  Savior  of  the  world."      While  John  uses  this  title  only  once  in  his  writings,  the  concept  of  “the  world”  is  common  in  John.   It   occurs   fifty-­‐eight   (58)   times   in   the   Gospel,   eighteen   (18)   times   in   the   Epistles,   &  three  (3)  times  in  the  Revelation.  The  most  famous  usage  is  perhaps  John  3:16,  which  says  
  14. 14. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       13    that  God  loved  “the  world.”  In  the  modern  day  this  statement  may  not  seem  all  that  strange.  However,   in   the   context   in   which   Jesus   uses   it   in   John   3:16   is   shows   that   God   is   not   only  interested  in  Jews,  he  is  interested  in  all  people,  regardless  of  their  ethnic  background.  In  the   present   passage,   the   Samaritans   use   the   phrase   to   show   their   understanding   that  although   there   is   a   large   separation   between   them   &   the   Jews,   God   still   cares   for   them   &  desires  their  salvation.      Textual  Criticism  –  John  5:1-­7  In   your   readings   for   this   past   week   you   may   have   noticed   that   the   NIV   does   not   include  John   5:3b-­‐4   with   the   rest   of   the   passage.     Rather,   it   places   those   verses   in   a   footnote   and  says,  “Some  less  important  manuscripts  ….”      What  does  this  mean?    Why  is  it  not  included  in  NIV  but  included  in  KJV/AV?      The   passage   in   full   reads   as   follows   (The   italicised   portions   are   included   in   the   NIV  footnote):   1  Some  time  later,  Jesus  went  up  to  Jerusalem  for  a  feast  of  the  Jews.    2  Now  there  is   in   Jerusalem   near   the   Sheep   Gate   a   pool,   which   in   Aramaic   is   called   Bethesda   and   which  is  surrounded  by  five  covered  colonnades.    3  Here  a  great  number  of  disabled   people   used   to   lie   –   the   blind,   the   lame,   the   paralysed   –   and   they   waited   for   the   moving  of  the  waters.    4  From  time  to  time  and  angel  of  the  Lord  would  come  down   and  stir  up  the  waters.    The  first  one  into  the  pool  after  each  such  disturbance  would   be   cured   of   whatever   disease   he   had.   5   One   who   was   there   had   been   an   invalid   for   thirty-­‐eight  years.    6  When  Jesus  saw  him  lying  there  and  learned  that  he  had  been   in  this  condition  for  a  long  time,  he  asked  him,  “Do  you  want  to  get  well?”    7  “Sir,”  the   invalid   replied,   “I   have   no   one   to   help   me   into   the   pool   when   the   water   is   stirred.     While  I  am  trying  to  get  in,  someone  else  goes  down  ahead  of  me.”  Imagine,  if  you  will,  your  job  as  a  Bible  translator.    Since  your  goal  is  to  faithfully  translate  the  word  of  God,  you  collect  together  all  the  copies,  or  manuscripts,  of  the  Bible  that  you  have.    You  also  realise  that  since  there  were  no  Xerox  machines  for  most  of  the  history  of  the  Bible,  the  copies  you  have  will  be  handwritten.    Scribes  throughout  the  years  will  have  painstakingly  copied  these  handwritten  copies.    While  the  scribes  were  very  good  at  their  jobs,  sometimes  problems  would  arise,  as  follows:   1. Typographical  errors  would  be  made.   2. Notes  or  verses  would  be  added  to  make  the  Bible  easier  to  understand.   3. Words  that  the  scribes  thought  wrong  would  be  “corrected.”   a. Eg.  “Gusto  ko  ang  tubig”  would  be  changed  to  “Gusto  ko  ng  tubig”  because  it  is   more   grammatically   correct.     However,   it   is   also   correct   to   use   ang   rather   than  ng,  depending  on  the  situation.        Keeping  all  this  in  mind,  you  would  want  to  find  the  oldest  manuscripts  you  could  to  make  sure   that   these   copying   mistakes   would   be   eliminated.     Imagine,   then   ,   after   a   few   years,  someone   found   some   more   manuscripts,   that   were   older,   and   that   were   sometimes  
  15. 15. Understanding  Jesus:  John  Signs  in  John’s  Gospel       14    different  from  the  ones  you  used  before.    What  would  you  do?    Did  you  know  that  this  is  what  really  happened?  During   the   translation   of   the   Bible   into   the   King   James   Version   (Authorised   Version),   the  translators   had   a   lot   of   manuscripts   available   to   them.     However,   since   the   translation   of  the   KJV   in   1611,   Bible   scholars   have   discovered   more   manuscripts,   some   of   them   older  than  those  used  by  the  KJV.    These  “newly  discovered”  manuscripts  form  the  basis  for  the  NIV.    The  difficulty  arises  when  manuscripts  do  not  agree  on  what  a  verse  says.    Here  is  a  summary  of  what  the  ancient  texts  say  about  John  5:3b-­‐4.       Texts  without  John  5:  3b-­4   Texts  with  John  5:4   Name                                        Date  (Approx.)   Name                              Date  (Approx.)     p66                                        AD  100-­‐299   A       AD  400-­‐599   p75                                        AD  200-­‐299   C3       AD  400-­‐599   a                AD  300-­‐399   K       AD  1000-­‐1099   B                AD  300-­‐399   L       AD  900-­‐999   C*                                          AD  400-­‐499   Xcomm     AD  1000-­‐1099   D              AD  400-­‐599   D       AD  1000-­‐1099   Wsupp              AD  400-­‐499   Q       AD  1000-­‐1099   0125                                        AD  400-­‐499   Y       AD  900-­‐1099   atbp.   063                              AD  1000-­‐1099   078                              AD  1000-­‐1099   atbp.    Notice  that  the  manuscripts  that  include  5:3b-­‐4  are  much  older  than  the  texts  that  omit  it.    What  this  chart  does  not  tell  you  is  that  among  those  manuscripts  that  include  these  verses,  there   is   a   lot   of   disagreement.     Some   include   all   of   it,   others   include   different   parts   of   it.    Some  include  it  but  have  “*”  around  it  so  that  we  know  there  is  something  unique  about  it  –  namely,  that  it  may  not  be  original.      The  translators  of  the  NIV  chose  to  omit  the  verse  based  on  the  evidence  from  the  various  manuscripts.      So,  what  does  this  mean  for  you,  the  Bible  teacher  who  doesn’t  read  Greek?    Can  the  Bible  be  trusted?  The   answer   is,   “Yes!”     It   can   be   trusted   because   there   are   people   who   work   very   hard  making  sure  that  the  Bible  we  have  in  front  of  us  is  as  close  as  possible  to  what  the  original  writers  wrote  so  many  years  ago.      So,  what  do  you  do  when  someone  asks  you  about  it?   1. Explain  the  process  a  little  bit.   2. Look  to  see  if  the  verse  teaches  a  major  point  of  doctrine  or  theology.   3. Don’t  base  your  theology  upon  questionable  verses.