Som 109 structural evil handout


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Som 109 structural evil handout

  1. 1. South  East  Asian  Theological  Schools,  Inc.  Schools  of  Mission   SOM-­109  Structural  Evil    1.  Introduction  to  Structural  Evil    7  BASIC  ASSUMPTIONS   1. God   is   sovereign   and   He   created   all   things   both   in   heaven   and   on   earth,   visible  and  invisible.   2. There   are   invisible   realities   and   spiritual   forces   that   influence   historical   events.   3. These  spiritual  forces  are  either  good  or  bad.   4. There  were  two  Falls:  the  fall  of  Satan  and  his  demons  and  the  fall  of  man  and   woman.   5. Satan   and   devils   (powers   and   principalities)   are   personal   evil   spirits   who   attack  the  Church  and  hinder  the  spread  of  the  Gospel.   6. There   are   structures   of   existence   in   our   world   and   they   are   not   evil   by   themselves   but   can   be   influenced   by   Satan   to   carry   out   his   devious   work   –   hence  structural  evil.   7. The   transformation   of   nations   requires   that   the   Church   deal   with   these   visible  and  invisible  forces.      
  2. 2. Structure  –  the  arrangement  or  interrelation  of  all  the  parts  of  a  whole  …  forming  an  organism  or  organization.  Structural  evil  includes  attitudes  or  beliefs  or  culture  –  social;  a  system  that  creates  lack   of   economic   opportunities   or   alternatives   –   economic;   unjust   laws   or   law-­‐enforcement  system  –  political.  It  can  also  be  religious.    Stephen  V.  Monsma  [Pursuing  Justice  in  a  Sinful  World]  gives  helpful  definition  by  examples  of  structural  evil:     “The   pattern   underlying   structural   evil   may   be   formed   by   certain   attitudes  or  beliefs,  as  is  the  case  with  racism.  When  this  is  the  case,   the   evil   becomes   part   of   the   society’s   culture,   supported   by   deeply   ingrained   beliefs   and   taboos.   Or   the   pattern   may   be   economic   in   nature.   In   this   case   the   evil   flows   from   the   lack   of   certain   economic   opportunities   or   alternatives,   a   lack   that   forces   people   into   poverty   or   unwanted   occupations   despite   their   desires,   abilities,   and   efforts.   Or   the   pattern   may   be   political   in   nature,   with   the   evil   flowing   from   unjust   laws   or   unjust   law-­‐enforcement   systems.   Bias   and   capricious   rule,  resulting  in  the  loss  of  freedom  and  opportunity.  Often  structural   evils   are   cultural,   economic,   and   political   all   at   once,   with   society’s   values  and  biases  and  its  economic  and  political  systems  all  working   together  to  hold  down  a  certain  region  or  group.”      Understanding  STRUCTURAL  EVIL    There   are   structured   evils   rooted   in   society’s   prevailing   religious,   social,   economic  or  political  systems.  The  key  element  of  structural  evil  is  that  it  is  organizational,  a  pattern  or  network  that  opposes  the  Kingdom.      Structural   evil   is   a   system   or   pattern   of   beliefs   or   activities   in   an   organization   or  culture  that  hinders  or  opposes  the  advance  of  God’s  kingdom  in  this  world.    Examples  of  STRUCTURAL  EVIL     1. Tax  evasion   2. Caste  system   3. Dowry   4. Sexual  mutilation   5. Slavery   6. Racism  –  apartheid     7. Colonialism   8. Bribery/governmental  corruption   9. Structures  of  sin    
  3. 3. KEY  ELEMENTS  OF  STRUCTURAL  EVIL     1. Existence  of  wicked  power  or  spirit.   2. Corporate:  Organizational  or  Institutional.   3. Systemic,  patterns,  networks  of  activities  or  parts.   4. Multiple   nature:   laws,   law   enforcements,   culture,   taboos,   attitudes,   beliefs,   lack  of  alternatives,  repressive  rule.   5. Can  be  social,  political,  economic,  religious.   6. Aims  to  create  chaos,  division,  injustice,  human  suffering  or  natural  damage.   7. Opposes  advance  of  Kingdom  of  God.      POWERS  &  PRINCIPALITIES    Ephesians  1:21    “All  rule,  authority,  power,  dominion.”  Ephesians  2:2    “Prince  of  the  power  of  the  air.”  Ephesians  6:11    “Scheme  of  the  devil.”  Ephesians   6:12     “Not   against   flesh   &   blood,   against   the   rulers,   against   the   powers,  against  the  world  forces  of  darkness,  spiritual  forces  of  wickedness  in  the  heavenly  places.”    Works  Of  Satan  &  His  Minions     1. Sin  And  Temptation.   2. Demonization.   3. Division.   4. Illnesses   (Lk   13:16),   Mt   9:32,   Epilepsy   (Lk   9:42),   Muteness   ,   Blindness   (Mk   9:25),  Fever  (Lk  4:39).   5. Disruption  Of  Nature  -­‐  Mk  4:39  (Storm),  2  Ki  3:27.   6. Disorder   In   Society   &   The   State   –   World   (Kosmos),   Age   (Aion)   –   Structural   Evil.   7. Occult  &  Astrology  (Humans  Think  They  Can  Manipulate  Powers  Of  Darkness   To  Their  Advantage).   8. Non-­‐Christian  Religions  &  Cults.   9. Opposition  To  God’s  Work  Of  Salvation  And  The  Missions  Of  The  Church.    THE  MISSIONARY  TASKS.   1. Evangelism  &  Church  Planting    PENAL  SUBSTITUTION/JUSTIFIED  BY  FAITH   • All  have  sinned  and  have  come  short  of  the  glory  of  God  (Ro  3:23).   • The  wages  of  sin  is  death  (Ro  6:23;  Eze  3:16FF,  18:4,  14:13ff).   • Christ  died  for  the  sins  of  sinners  and  paid  the  penalty.  He  substituted  for   sinners  (atonement)  –  Ro  5:8;  Jo  3:16.   • Faith   in   Christ   brings   forgiveness   of   sin   (Eph   2:8),   eternal   life   (Jo   1:12,   3:16),  and  freedom  (Eph  2:1ff)  &  power  over  Satan.  
  4. 4. • Justified  by  faith  (Ro  5:1).    SATURATION  CHURCH  PLANTING   1. Core  group  of  national  leaders  agrees  to  do  a  national  SCP.   2. Do   research:   unreached   people   groups,   unchurched   villages,   analysis   of   existing  church  health,  etc.   3. Call   a   national   SCP   congress   (regional   congresses)   to   share   and   discuss   the   research.   4. Each  participating  group  makes  a  time-­‐bound  Church  Growth  goal.   5. Combine  the  individual  goals  –  as  the  national  goal.   6. Organize  a  movement  or  structure  to  coordinate  the  SCP.   7. Create   Sub-­‐Committees   to   provide   support   on   key   areas   of   ministry   (Coordination,  Finance,  Research,  Strategy,  Policy,  Church  Relations,  etc.).   8. Promote  the  new  Movement  and  invite  others  to  join.   9. Monitor  and  evaluate  progress  through  periodic  consultations.   10. Update  research  and  hold  a  National  Congress  every  five  years.    THE  MISSIONARY  TASKS.   1. Evangelism  &  Church  Planting   2. Social  Concern    Social  Concern   Social  Service   Social  Action  Relieving  human  need   Removing  the  causes  of  human  need  Philanthropic  activity   Political  &  economic  activity  Seeking  to  minister  to  families   Seeking   to   transform   the   individuals,   individuals   &  families  and  structures  of  society  Works  of  mercy       The  quest  for  justice   John  Stott,  1985:  31.    THE  MISSIONARY  TASKS.   1. Evangelism  &  Church  Planting   2. Social  Concern   3. Prayer  And  Fasting    CRISTUS  VICTOR   • At   the   cross   Christ   defeated   sin,   death,   and   Satan   (Jo   16:11;   Mt   12:28).   These  now  have  no  hold  on  believers.   • All   authority   is   given   to   Christ   …   He   is   far   above   all   and   every   other   name   (Mt  28:18).   • The   Church   as   His   Body   shares   this   authority   over   Satan   &   evil   spirits   (Eph  1:22-­‐23;  Col.  2:9-­‐10).   • In  Christ  the  believer  is  given  the  authority  to  disciple  nations  (Mt  28:19,   10:1ff;  Lk  9:1ff;  Eph  6:11,13).  
  5. 5. • References:  Mt  4:8ff;  2Co  4:4;  Jo  12:31,  16:11,33;  Col  2:15;  He  2:14;  1  Jo   3:8;  Re  5:5;  Eph  6:10-­‐18;  Ja  4:7.            
  6. 6.  VICTORY  OVER  POWERS  &  PRINCIPALITIES   • Mt  28:18ff   -­‐  …  All  authority  has  been  given  to  me  in  Heaven  and  on  earth.   Go  therefore  and  make  disciples…   • Mt   10:1   cf   Lk   9:1   –   He   gave   (twelve   disciples)   authority   over   unclean   spirits,  to  cast  them  out,  and  to  heal  every  kind  of  disease  and  every  kind  of   sickness.   • 1Jo  3:8  –  Christ  came  to  destroy  the  devil’s  work.   • VICTORY  OVER  POWERS  &  PRINCIPALITIES   • Col   2:15   –   Powers   and   authorities   disarmed,   made   a   public   spectacle,   Christ  triumphing  over  them  by  the  cross.   • He   2:14   –   The   devil   who   holds   the   power   of   death   is   destroyed   and   freedom  from  fear  of  death  is  given  to  believers.   • Jo  14:12-­‐14  –  Greater  things  than  this  you  will  do…  You  may  ask  Me  for   anything  in  my  name  and  I  will  do  it.    2.  Reaction  Against  Dealing  With  Structural  Evil    Christian  Apathy  Towards  STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  1      • Evangelical   reaction   to   some   contemporary   psychological   thought,   which   reduces  human  individual  responsibility  for  sin.  
  7. 7.        
  8. 8. Christian  Apathy  Towards  STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  2       o DENIAL  OF  EVIL   o Sin  is  the  result  of  socio-­‐political  categories.   o Fallacy  of  false  dilemma,  i.e.,  either  personal  sin  or  structural  evil.   o Poem:     o But   I   am   happy   for   the   lesson   it   (crimes)   had   taught,   that   everything   I   do  that’s  wrong,  is  someone  else’s  fault.    Christian  Apathy  Towards  STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  3       o DISTANCE   o The   further   from   the   sin,   the   less   responsible   (e.g.   stockholder   of   Tobacco  Company).   o The   fault   lies   with   the   person   who   chose   to   pay   for   his   own   death   and   funeral.   o The  human  depravity.    Christian  Apathy  Towards  STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  4       o DESIRE  FOR  NEUTRALITY.   o Don’t  rock  the  boat.   o The  primacy  argument  &  the  danger  of  disjunction.   o Non-­‐involvement.   o With  evil,  there  is  no  neutrality.  
  9. 9.  Christian  Apathy  Towards    STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  5     o DICHOTOMOUS  VIEW  OF  MAN.   o Man  is  made  up  of  body  (material)  and  soul  (spiritual).   o Matter  is  evil,  soul  (mind)  is  good  (cf.  Gnosticism  &  Nestorianism).   o Deal  only  with  the  soul  (cf.  Primacy  Argument).   o Christian’s  high  view  of  the  body  (resurrection  &  blessed  hope).   o Model  of  Jesus  (valued  both  body  and  soul  in  His  ministry).    Christian  Apathy  Towards  STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  6     o ADMISSION  OF  HELPLESSNESS   o Church   is   powerless   to   deal   with   the   overwhelming   problem   of   structural  evil  or  “I  am  alone”  or  Elijah  syndrome.   o Not  trained  politically  to  manage  power.   o Profiles  of  Courage:     o Moses,  Elijah,  Jesus.   o William   Wilberforce,   Martin   Luther   King,   Nelson   Mandela,   Cory   Aquino.   o Nisha  Sharma  on  dowry  system.    Christian  Apathy  Towards  STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  7       o GROUP  CONDITIONING   o Group  culture.   o Seduction  of  the  culture  of  corruption  upon  individuals.   o Members  have  strong  inertia  to  go  against  their  own  structure.   o Frog  in  the  kettle  –  good  simply  dies.   o Anatomy  of  corruption:  Hab.  2:18-­‐19,  15-­‐16,  6-­‐12.    Christian  Apathy  Towards  STRUCTURAL  EVIL  –  8     o ACQUIESCENCE  TO  AUTHORITY   o We  didn’t  do  the  act  or  approve  of  the  government  policy  (cf.  Ro  13:1-­‐ 7;  Trial  at  Nuremberg).   o Human  authority  is  derived  from  God  and  is  subject  to  accountability.   o We  have  a  choice:  Christ  or  Caesar;  good  or  evil.   o There  is  no  moral  hiding  place.   o The  Christian  task  is  to  make  what  is  moral  legal  and  to  declare  illegal   what  is  immoral.    3.  Biblical  Concepts  Related  to  Structural  Evil    An  Evangelical  View    
  10. 10. 1. STRUCTURES  ARE  NOT  EVIL.   2. STRUCTURES  CAN  BE  INFLUENCED  BY  EVIL:   • All  have  sinned  (Ro  3:23).   • Walked  according  to  prince  of  the  air  (Eph  2:2ff.).   • Satan   influences   evil   men   and   women   to   carry   out   his   purposes   of   resisting  the  will  of  God  through  structures  and  systems  (laws,  culture).   • Influenced  by  evil  (from  Ro  13  to  Re  13).    4.    Scope  Of  Holistic  Ministry    5.  Structural  Evil  &  What  Evangelicals  Can  Do     1. Intensify  evangelism  and  church  planting.  
  11. 11. 2. Participate  in  Biblical  social  concern,  e.g.  concern  for  the  poor.   3. Engage  in  prayer  and  fasting.   4. Model   the   Kingdom   life   in   our   local   churches   –   peace,   justice   and   righteousness.   5. Have  faith  for  change.            
  12. 12.        Spiritual  Warfare  –  1:  Identificational  Repentance     *    Identify  National  sin  (Lev.  18;  Num.  35:33-­‐34;  Deut.  21:22-­‐23;  Hosea  4:2-­‐3).     *  Corporate  Confession  of  sin  (Dan.  9:20;  Neh.  1:5-­‐6;  9:2;  Deut.  9:18-­‐20;  Ezek.  22:31-­‐32).     *  Apply  Christ’s  blood     *  Restitution  as  able.  Reconciliation  Walk       *    Tracking  path  of  crusade  (Lyn  Green  –  YWAM)    Spiritual  Warfare  –  2:  Levels  of  Spiritual  Warfare   • Ground-­‐level  SP  –  casting  out  demons   • Occult-­‐level  SP  –  dealing  with  astral  powers  &  world  of  darkness   • Strategic-­‐level   SP   –   confronting   high-­‐ranking   territorial   spirits   assigned   by  Satan   • Prayer  Journeys     o Field  trips  to  practice  prayer  walking   o Aid  to  spiritual  mapping    Spiritual  Warfare  –  3:  Spiritual  Mappings    Identify  the  strong  man:   • Revelation  of  territorial  prince  or  power.   • Natural  person  whom  Satan  is  using.   • Identify  corrupt  social  structures.   • Bind  him.  
  13. 13. • Divide  his  spoils.  Method   • Historical  or  religious  research  (cf.  Acts  16:18  –  no  name).   • Prayer  (Wagner:  Seek  God’s  gifted  intercessor;  redemptive  gift  of   the   City,   Territorial   spirits   assigned   to   the   City,   Corporate   sin,   God’s   plan  of  attack  and  timing)    6.  What  Salvation  Has  Done!  Equipping  For  Ministry  Against  Structural  Evil                            
  14. 14.    7.    Towards  A  Holistic  Approach  To  Structural  Evil:  Word,  Work,  &  Wonders      
  15. 15.