Chapter IntroductionSection 1: Our English HeritageSection 2: The English ColoniesSection 3: Colonial SocietySection 4: Birth of a Democratic NationVisual Summary
The American colonies weresettled by individuals frommany nations. Nonetheless,the majority of Americansettlers came from England.Many of the rights thatAmerican citizens enjoy canbe traced to the political andlegal traditions of England.When English people begansettling in the Americas, theybrought with them a traditionof limited and representativegovernment.
Section 1:Our English HeritagePolitical and economicinstitutions evolve to helpindividuals and groupsaccomplish their goals. TheEnglish colonists brought withthem ideas about governmentthat had been developing inEngland for centuries.
Section 2:The English ColoniesPolitical, social, religious,and economic changesinfluence the wayAmericans think and act.The English establishedthirteen colonies along theEast Coast of North America.
Section 3:Colonial SocietyPolitical, social, religious,and economic changesinfluence the wayAmericans think and act.The English colonists createda prosperous economy andlearned to governthemselves.
Section 4:Birth of a DemocraticNationPolitical principles andmajor events shape howpeople form governments.The Declaration ofIndependence explained whythe colonies were founding anew nation.
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical and economic institutionsevolve to help individuals and groupsaccomplish their goals.
Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Enlightenment • social contract• monarch • colony• legislature • joint-stock company• precedent • charter• common law • compact• natural rights
Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• document• authority• grant
What Influenced Colonial Government? Science and the influence of reason led to new innovations in political thought.
What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• Many rights that American citizens enjoy can be traced to England and to the Enlightenment.• English ruled by monarchs
What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• The Magna Carta: – Protection for nobles – Certain rights for all landholders – Limited power for monarchs Sources of American Law
What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• Parliament: – Legislature – The Glorious Revolution – The English Bill of Rights• Common law: – Precedent as the basis of a body of law – Common law based on court decisions
What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• John Locke: – Argued that people had natural rights – Life, Liberty, Property – Believed in a social contract among people in a society• Baron de Montesquieu’s ideas on the separation of powers• Enlightenment ideas about natural laws
Colonial Traditions of Self-Government The American colonists accepted the idea of representative government.
Colonial Traditions of Self-Government (cont.)• England established colonies in America in the 1600s and 1700s.• Jamestown: – Joint-stock company – Authority to set up colonial governments – Formation of the House of Burgesses
Colonial Traditions of Self-Government (cont.)• Plymouth: – The Mayflower Compact – Town meetings• The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was America’s first written constitution.
Colonial Traditions of Self-Government (cont.)• Governments of the thirteen colonies: – Governors elected by colonists or appointed by the English king – Legislature representatives elected by free adult males• Increased power and responsibility of colonial governments
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical, social, religious, andeconomic changes influence the wayAmericans think and act.
Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• proprietary • toleration colony • indentured• royal colony servant• religious • plantation dissenters • triangular trade• Puritans• Pilgrims
Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• acquire• decade
Settling the Colonies The English established thirteen colonies along the East Coast of North America.
Settling the Colonies (cont.)• England established thirteen colonies along the East Coast of North America.• New England Colonies: – Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Bay Company – Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire established by the mid-1600s
Settling the Colonies (cont.)• The Middle Colonies: – New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware – New Netherland – New York as a proprietary colony – New Jersey as a royal colony – William Penn and Pennsylvania and Delaware
Settling the Colonies (cont.)• Southern Colonies: – Virginia as a joint-stock colony – North and South Carolina – James Oglethorpe and Georgia The English Colonies
People of the Colonies Throughout the colonies, people adapted their traditions to the new conditions of life in America.
People of the Colonies (cont.)• English colonists immigrated to the thirteen colonies for different reasons.• Religion: – Religious dissenters – Puritans and Pilgrims – Religious toleration – Quakers and Catholics
People of the Colonies (cont.)• Economic reasons for immigration• System of indentured servants• Conflicts with Native Americans over land Dominant Immigrant Groups in the Colonies
People of the Colonies (cont.)• Slavery: – Plantation system – Enslaved Africans – Triangular trade – The Middle Passage
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical, social, religious, andeconomic changes influence the wayAmericans think and act.
Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Tidewater• egalitarianismAcademic Vocabulary• adapt• assist
The Economy The people in the colonies developed different ways of living.
The Economy (cont.)• Colonists in different regions had to adapt to the geography.• New England: – Small farms – Small businesses – Forests and shipbuilding – Fishing and whaling – The Puritan ethic (honesty, thriftiness, obedience)
The Economy (cont.)• The Middle Colonies: – Agriculture and cash crops – Busy ports – New York, Philadelphia – Industries – Immigrants from European countries American Economy
The Economy (cont.)• The Southern Colonies: – Large-scale agriculture – Encouraged by warm climate, long growing season, and rich soil – Tidewater crops—Tobacco and rice – River transport – Plantations and enslaved African workers – Smaller farms – Lack of industry and commerce
An American Identity The colonies continued to grow and developed their own culture and beliefs.
An American Identity (cont.)• Colonists eventually developed an American identity.• Religion: – Religious freedom – Religious leaders were sometimes leaders of the government. – Religious tolerance – The Great Awakening – Expressed a personal religious experience
An American Identity (cont.)• Education: – America’s first schools and colleges – Many founded for the purpose of training ministers – Schools were founded to teach kids to read the Bible – Slave codes
An American Identity (cont.)• The family as the foundation of colonial society • Only men could vote and hold government and church positions• The spirit of egalitarianism: – The ideas of John Locke – Many colonists believed that Britain did not uphold the “social contract” – No representation in Parliament – British taxes were high
Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical principles and major eventsshape how people formgovernments.
Colonial Resistance The American colonists began to fight against British control.
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The American colonists had experience in self-government.• Salutary neglect as a policy of loose control by the British • The colonies were 3,000 across the Atlantic Ocean • Did not insist on strict enforcement of British laws • As long as Britain was making $
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The theory of mercantilism: – Country’s power depends on its wealth – A favorable balance of trade – The colonies as a source of cheap, raw materials – The Navigation Acts, early 1660s – Ensured a favorable balance of trade by requiring that requiring that all goods from the colonies go directly to Britain
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• Fighting between the British and the French in North America• The Albany Plan: – Plan for federal union – Proposed by Benjamin Franklin – Rejected, but 1st attempt at union in the colonies
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The French and Indian War: – Cost the British government a lot of $ – Reaction: – The Proclamation of 1763 – The Stamp Act of 1765 – The Quartering Act
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• Boycott of British goods by the colonists• Opposition to the Stamp Act by the Sons of Liberty• The Stamp Act Congress, 1765: – Declaration of rights and grievances against British actions – The Stamp Act repealed by Parliament
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The Declaratory Act of 1766 giving Parliament the right to tax and make decisions for the colonists• The Townshend Acts: – New taxes on imports – Writs of assistance – Boycotts and destruction of property – The Boston Massacre
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The Tea Act: – East India Company given the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying most of the taxes usually placed on tea – Unfair advantage over colonial merchants – The Boston Tea Party as protest to the Tea Act
Colonial Resistance (cont.)• BRITISH REACTION TO THE BOSTON TEA PARTY: • The Intolerable Acts restricting civil rights of colonists • Including right to trial by jury
Moving Toward Independence The colonists began to take steps toward independence from Great Britain.
Moving Toward Independence (cont.)• The colonists began to challenge British control.• The First Continental Congress, 1774: – Delegates sent from 12 colonies – Restoration of rights of the colonists – Extension of boycott of British goods
Moving Toward Independence (cont.)• The Battles of Lexington and Concord as the start of the Revolutionary War • Until this time, most colonists considered themselves loyal to Britain • After seeing British soldiers shoot Americans, many began to question their loyalty to Britain• The Second Continental Congress, 1775, and debate over independence
Moving Toward Independence (cont.)• Common Sense by Thomas Paine: – Inspired many colonists – Called for complete independence from Britain
The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence used traditional English political rights to call for independence for the colonies.
The Declaration of Independence (cont.)• The Declaration of Independence: – British government did not look after colonial interests – King George III a tyrant – Rights of individuals – Purpose of the government to protect rights
The Declaration of Independence (cont.) – Government based on the consent of the people – People entitled to overthrow a government if it disregards rights – Influence of John Locke – Written by Thomas Jefferson – Approved on July 4, 1776
The colonistsbelieved that thetaxes on necessarygoods, like tea, wereunfair.
Enlightenmentmovement that spread the idea thatreason and science could improvesociety
independence self-reliance and freedom fromoutside control
challenge a demand for justification or a dispute
restore to bring back into existence or putback in an original condition
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