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Chapter 02 notes

  1. 1. Chapter IntroductionSection 1: Our English HeritageSection 2: The English ColoniesSection 3: Colonial SocietySection 4: Birth of a Democratic NationVisual Summary
  2. 2. The American colonies weresettled by individuals frommany nations. Nonetheless,the majority of Americansettlers came from England.Many of the rights thatAmerican citizens enjoy canbe traced to the political andlegal traditions of England.When English people begansettling in the Americas, theybrought with them a traditionof limited and representativegovernment.
  3. 3. Section 1:Our English HeritagePolitical and economicinstitutions evolve to helpindividuals and groupsaccomplish their goals. TheEnglish colonists brought withthem ideas about governmentthat had been developing inEngland for centuries.
  4. 4. Section 2:The English ColoniesPolitical, social, religious,and economic changesinfluence the wayAmericans think and act.The English establishedthirteen colonies along theEast Coast of North America.
  5. 5. Section 3:Colonial SocietyPolitical, social, religious,and economic changesinfluence the wayAmericans think and act.The English colonists createda prosperous economy andlearned to governthemselves.
  6. 6. Section 4:Birth of a DemocraticNationPolitical principles andmajor events shape howpeople form governments.The Declaration ofIndependence explained whythe colonies were founding anew nation.
  7. 7. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical and economic institutionsevolve to help individuals and groupsaccomplish their goals.
  8. 8. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Enlightenment • social contract• monarch • colony• legislature • joint-stock company• precedent • charter• common law • compact• natural rights
  9. 9. Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• document• authority• grant
  10. 10. What Influenced Colonial Government? Science and the influence of reason led to new innovations in political thought.
  11. 11. What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• Many rights that American citizens enjoy can be traced to England and to the Enlightenment.• English ruled by monarchs
  12. 12. What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• The Magna Carta: – Protection for nobles – Certain rights for all landholders – Limited power for monarchs Sources of American Law
  13. 13. What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• Parliament: – Legislature – The Glorious Revolution – The English Bill of Rights• Common law: – Precedent as the basis of a body of law – Common law based on court decisions
  14. 14. What Influenced Colonial Government? (cont.)• John Locke: – Argued that people had natural rights – Life, Liberty, Property – Believed in a social contract among people in a society• Baron de Montesquieu’s ideas on the separation of powers• Enlightenment ideas about natural laws
  15. 15. Colonial Traditions of Self-Government The American colonists accepted the idea of representative government.
  16. 16. Colonial Traditions of Self-Government (cont.)• England established colonies in America in the 1600s and 1700s.• Jamestown: – Joint-stock company – Authority to set up colonial governments – Formation of the House of Burgesses
  17. 17. Colonial Traditions of Self-Government (cont.)• Plymouth: – The Mayflower Compact – Town meetings• The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was America’s first written constitution.
  18. 18. Colonial Traditions of Self-Government (cont.)• Governments of the thirteen colonies: – Governors elected by colonists or appointed by the English king – Legislature representatives elected by free adult males• Increased power and responsibility of colonial governments
  19. 19. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical, social, religious, andeconomic changes influence the wayAmericans think and act.
  20. 20. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• proprietary • toleration colony • indentured• royal colony servant• religious • plantation dissenters • triangular trade• Puritans• Pilgrims
  21. 21. Guide to ReadingAcademic Vocabulary• acquire• decade
  22. 22. Settling the Colonies The English established thirteen colonies along the East Coast of North America.
  23. 23. Settling the Colonies (cont.)• England established thirteen colonies along the East Coast of North America.• New England Colonies: – Massachusetts and the Massachusetts Bay Company – Connecticut, Rhode Island and New Hampshire established by the mid-1600s
  24. 24. Settling the Colonies (cont.)• The Middle Colonies: – New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware – New Netherland – New York as a proprietary colony – New Jersey as a royal colony – William Penn and Pennsylvania and Delaware
  25. 25. Settling the Colonies (cont.)• Southern Colonies: – Virginia as a joint-stock colony – North and South Carolina – James Oglethorpe and Georgia The English Colonies
  26. 26. People of the Colonies Throughout the colonies, people adapted their traditions to the new conditions of life in America.
  27. 27. People of the Colonies (cont.)• English colonists immigrated to the thirteen colonies for different reasons.• Religion: – Religious dissenters – Puritans and Pilgrims – Religious toleration – Quakers and Catholics
  28. 28. People of the Colonies (cont.)• Economic reasons for immigration• System of indentured servants• Conflicts with Native Americans over land Dominant Immigrant Groups in the Colonies
  29. 29. People of the Colonies (cont.)• Slavery: – Plantation system – Enslaved Africans – Triangular trade – The Middle Passage
  30. 30. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical, social, religious, andeconomic changes influence the wayAmericans think and act.
  31. 31. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• Tidewater• egalitarianismAcademic Vocabulary• adapt• assist
  32. 32. The Economy The people in the colonies developed different ways of living.
  33. 33. The Economy (cont.)• Colonists in different regions had to adapt to the geography.• New England: – Small farms – Small businesses – Forests and shipbuilding – Fishing and whaling – The Puritan ethic (honesty, thriftiness, obedience)
  34. 34. The Economy (cont.)• The Middle Colonies: – Agriculture and cash crops – Busy ports – New York, Philadelphia – Industries – Immigrants from European countries American Economy
  35. 35. The Economy (cont.)• The Southern Colonies: – Large-scale agriculture – Encouraged by warm climate, long growing season, and rich soil – Tidewater crops—Tobacco and rice – River transport – Plantations and enslaved African workers – Smaller farms – Lack of industry and commerce
  36. 36. An American Identity The colonies continued to grow and developed their own culture and beliefs.
  37. 37. An American Identity (cont.)• Colonists eventually developed an American identity.• Religion: – Religious freedom – Religious leaders were sometimes leaders of the government. – Religious tolerance – The Great Awakening – Expressed a personal religious experience
  38. 38. An American Identity (cont.)• Education: – America’s first schools and colleges – Many founded for the purpose of training ministers – Schools were founded to teach kids to read the Bible – Slave codes
  39. 39. An American Identity (cont.)• The family as the foundation of colonial society • Only men could vote and hold government and church positions• The spirit of egalitarianism: – The ideas of John Locke – Many colonists believed that Britain did not uphold the “social contract” – No representation in Parliament – British taxes were high
  40. 40. Guide to ReadingBig IdeaPolitical principles and major eventsshape how people formgovernments.
  41. 41. Guide to ReadingContent Vocabulary• mercantilism • delegate• boycott • independence• repealAcademic Vocabulary• challenge• restore
  42. 42. Colonial Resistance The American colonists began to fight against British control.
  43. 43. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The American colonists had experience in self-government.• Salutary neglect as a policy of loose control by the British • The colonies were 3,000 across the Atlantic Ocean • Did not insist on strict enforcement of British laws • As long as Britain was making $
  44. 44. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The theory of mercantilism: – Country’s power depends on its wealth – A favorable balance of trade – The colonies as a source of cheap, raw materials – The Navigation Acts, early 1660s – Ensured a favorable balance of trade by requiring that requiring that all goods from the colonies go directly to Britain
  45. 45. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• Fighting between the British and the French in North America• The Albany Plan: – Plan for federal union – Proposed by Benjamin Franklin – Rejected, but 1st attempt at union in the colonies
  46. 46. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The French and Indian War: – Cost the British government a lot of $ – Reaction: – The Proclamation of 1763 – The Stamp Act of 1765 – The Quartering Act
  47. 47. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• Boycott of British goods by the colonists• Opposition to the Stamp Act by the Sons of Liberty• The Stamp Act Congress, 1765: – Declaration of rights and grievances against British actions – The Stamp Act repealed by Parliament
  48. 48. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The Declaratory Act of 1766 giving Parliament the right to tax and make decisions for the colonists• The Townshend Acts: – New taxes on imports – Writs of assistance – Boycotts and destruction of property – The Boston Massacre
  49. 49. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• The Tea Act: – East India Company given the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying most of the taxes usually placed on tea – Unfair advantage over colonial merchants – The Boston Tea Party as protest to the Tea Act
  50. 50. Colonial Resistance (cont.)• BRITISH REACTION TO THE BOSTON TEA PARTY: • The Intolerable Acts restricting civil rights of colonists • Including right to trial by jury
  51. 51. Moving Toward Independence The colonists began to take steps toward independence from Great Britain.
  52. 52. Moving Toward Independence (cont.)• The colonists began to challenge British control.• The First Continental Congress, 1774: – Delegates sent from 12 colonies – Restoration of rights of the colonists – Extension of boycott of British goods
  53. 53. Moving Toward Independence (cont.)• The Battles of Lexington and Concord as the start of the Revolutionary War • Until this time, most colonists considered themselves loyal to Britain • After seeing British soldiers shoot Americans, many began to question their loyalty to Britain• The Second Continental Congress, 1775, and debate over independence
  54. 54. Moving Toward Independence (cont.)• Common Sense by Thomas Paine: – Inspired many colonists – Called for complete independence from Britain
  55. 55. The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence used traditional English political rights to call for independence for the colonies.
  56. 56. The Declaration of Independence (cont.)• The Declaration of Independence: – British government did not look after colonial interests – King George III a tyrant – Rights of individuals – Purpose of the government to protect rights
  57. 57. The Declaration of Independence (cont.) – Government based on the consent of the people – People entitled to overthrow a government if it disregards rights – Influence of John Locke – Written by Thomas Jefferson – Approved on July 4, 1776
  58. 58. The colonistsbelieved that thetaxes on necessarygoods, like tea, wereunfair.
  59. 59. Enlightenmentmovement that spread the idea thatreason and science could improvesociety
  60. 60. monarchking or queen
  61. 61. legislature a group of people that makes laws
  62. 62. precedent a ruling that is used as the basis for ajudicial decision in a later, similarcase
  63. 63. common law a system of law based on precedentand customs
  64. 64. natural rightsfreedoms people possess relating tolife, liberty, and property
  65. 65. social contractan agreement among people in asociety with a government
  66. 66. colony a group of people in one place whoare ruled by a parent countryelsewhere
  67. 67. joint-stock companyinvestors provide partial ownership ina company organized for profit
  68. 68. chartera written document granting land andthe authority to set up colonialgovernments; or a governmentdocument granting permission toorganize a corporation
  69. 69. compactan agreement, or contract, among agroup of people
  70. 70. document a written paper that providesinformation or proof of something
  71. 71. authority power or influence over other peopleor groups; person or persons havingthe power of government
  72. 72. grant to allow or permit
  73. 73. propriety colonyarea with owner-controlled land andgovernment
  74. 74. royal colonya colonial area of land controlleddirectly by a king or other monarch
  75. 75. religious dissenterthose who followed a religious faithother than the official religion ofEngland
  76. 76. Puritanreligious dissenter who came to thecolonies to purify, or reform, theAnglican Church
  77. 77. Pilgrimcolonial Puritans who consideredthemselves people on a religiousjourney
  78. 78. tolerationacceptance of other groups, such asreligious groups
  79. 79. indentured servantworkers who contracted withAmerican colonists for food andshelter in return for their labor
  80. 80. plantationa large estate
  81. 81. triangular tradepattern of trade that developed incolonial times among the Americas,Africa, and Europe
  82. 82. acquire to gain or get possession of
  83. 83. decade a period of 10 years
  84. 84. Tidewaterareas of low, flat plains near theseacoast of Virginia and NorthCarolina
  85. 85. egalitarianismthe philosophy or spirit of equality
  86. 86. adapt to adjust or become adjusted to asituation or condition
  87. 87. assist to help or aid
  88. 88. mercantilismthe theory that a country should sellmore goods to other countries than itbuys
  89. 89. boycott the refusal to purchase certain goods
  90. 90. repeal to cancel a law
  91. 91. delegate a representative to a meeting
  92. 92. independence self-reliance and freedom fromoutside control
  93. 93. challenge a demand for justification or a dispute
  94. 94. restore to bring back into existence or putback in an original condition
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