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Company
           Radio Broadcasting
LOGO




          The Golden Age 1930 – early 1950s
Progress of Radio

                                Early           Golden
                    Early       Broadcasting
Exp...
Mass Media Market

               Newspapers
                                       Magazines/Books




Phonograph
       ...
Radio Station Growth
Radio Stations - 1922

•
AM Radio Stations - 1946
FM Radio Station - 1958
Radio Stations - 2006
Rapid Growth

• 1922 – 100,000 sets
  sold; avg cost $50
• 1929 – Avg cost $100 –
  4 weeks salary
• 1930 – Over ½ half of...
Ideas for Financing Radio

• Tax on radios
• Public tax
• Wealthy Contributors
• 1922 AT&T – Proposed a network
  supporte...
It Cost Money to Run a Station

• Radio News (1922) – “Advertising by radio
  cannot be done; it would ruin the radio
  bu...
Major Source for Entertainment

• 1934 – 593 broadcast stations in U.S.
• 1935 – 67% of homes had radio sets;
  grows to 8...
Networks

• David Sarnoff (RCA) suggested a co.
  specializing in programming
• Through negotiations got AT & T to get out...
Other Networks

• Agents wanted to organize talent to NBC
• When shunned, they formed CBS (1927).
• WGN Chicago formed Mut...
Network Programming

• Soap Operas (38 daily in
  1939)
• Comedy such as Amos
  & Andy (75% market
  share at high)
• Game...
The Nation Enters the ‘30s

Entering the 1930s           Approaching the 1940s
• 2,000 daily newspapers     • Radio spread...
Music

• Programming targeted to
  national audience

• Similar to today’s TV blocks.

• Did not want recorded
  programs
A Radio Broadcast Day

•   Sept. 21, 1939
•   WSJV
•   Washington, D.C.
•   Music
•   News
•   Game Shows
•   Commentary
•...
Power of Broadcasting

1. Presidential Election – 1932

2. Lindbergh Baby Kidnapping – 1932

3. Hindenburg – 1937

4. Orso...
Radio News

• Only 4 network
newscasts 1933

• 1930s crisis in Europe
created market for news

•CBS received enormous
prai...
War of the Worlds

• On the night of October 30, 1938, families
  everywhere were gathered around their
  radios for anoth...
Competitive Environment
Newspapers Face Competition


We fight the growing encroachment
of our field by radio, only to have the
news organizations...
Newspapers React


We cannot keep on selling news if we encourage others to give it
away.
Newspaper Radio War
American Newspapers
Publisher Association
Convention - 1933
Stopped providing
newspapers with bulletin...
The War Years
The War Years

Edward R. Murrow
D-Day
Golden Age of Radio Fades


 In 1950s, more turning to TV for entertainment

 The “leftovers”

 Tried various strategies t...
Mass Media Market - 1950

     Competing for Consumer Attention




                                           Magazines
T...
Business Headlines

• 1951 – Business Week – Radio Rates
  Start to Crack
• 1952 - TV Is Hot on Radio’s Heels
• 1954 – Rad...
Course Winter 09 Radio
Course Winter 09 Radio
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Course Winter 09 Radio

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Course Winter 09 Radio Broadcasting

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Course Winter 09 Radio

  1. 1. Company Radio Broadcasting LOGO The Golden Age 1930 – early 1950s
  2. 2. Progress of Radio Early Golden Early Broadcasting Experimental Age Era 1890 - 1910 1900 - 1920 1920 - 1930 1930 – 1953 Radio is Pioneer Scientists Military dominant Broadcast Researchers Government entertainment Stations Universities Maritime Universities Hobbyists
  3. 3. Mass Media Market Newspapers Magazines/Books Phonograph 1930s Mass Media Market 1877 Movies 1904 Radio
  4. 4. Radio Station Growth
  5. 5. Radio Stations - 1922 •
  6. 6. AM Radio Stations - 1946
  7. 7. FM Radio Station - 1958
  8. 8. Radio Stations - 2006
  9. 9. Rapid Growth • 1922 – 100,000 sets sold; avg cost $50 • 1929 – Avg cost $100 – 4 weeks salary • 1930 – Over ½ half of homes have a set
  10. 10. Ideas for Financing Radio • Tax on radios • Public tax • Wealthy Contributors • 1922 AT&T – Proposed a network supported by advertisers • Toll Broadcasting – Would pay a few to broadcast • WEAF (1922) 15 minute program pitching apartments
  11. 11. It Cost Money to Run a Station • Radio News (1922) – “Advertising by radio cannot be done; it would ruin the radio business; for nobody would stand for it • Herbert Hoover – “It is inconceivable that we should allow so great a possibility to be drowned in advertising chatter.” • Radio Broadcast – (1924) $500 for best essay – “Who is to pay for broadcasting and how?”
  12. 12. Major Source for Entertainment • 1934 – 593 broadcast stations in U.S. • 1935 – 67% of homes had radio sets; grows to 81% by 1940 • Networks provided 24 hours programming • Daytime – soaps, children’s Shows, music • Primetime – dramas, comedies, quiz shows, specials & music
  13. 13. Networks • David Sarnoff (RCA) suggested a co. specializing in programming • Through negotiations got AT & T to get out of broadcasting and provide connections • RCA would manufacture receivers • 1926 NBC goes on air with 4 hours of programming; 25 stations hooked up • Two networks (NBC – Red & NBC - Blue
  14. 14. Other Networks • Agents wanted to organize talent to NBC • When shunned, they formed CBS (1927). • WGN Chicago formed Mutual Broadcasting Network - 1936
  15. 15. Network Programming • Soap Operas (38 daily in 1939) • Comedy such as Amos & Andy (75% market share at high) • Game & talk shows • Variety • Political • News
  16. 16. The Nation Enters the ‘30s Entering the 1930s Approaching the 1940s • 2,000 daily newspapers • Radio spreading hard reached about 40-million news readers • Newsreels provided • 10,000 weekly visuals newspapers • 1934 -- advertising • Advertising revenue revenue ½ of 1929 high approached $900-million • 1939 a number of dailies • Seen as a necessity & weeklies disappeared
  17. 17. Music • Programming targeted to national audience • Similar to today’s TV blocks. • Did not want recorded programs
  18. 18. A Radio Broadcast Day • Sept. 21, 1939 • WSJV • Washington, D.C. • Music • News • Game Shows • Commentary • Baseball
  19. 19. Power of Broadcasting 1. Presidential Election – 1932 2. Lindbergh Baby Kidnapping – 1932 3. Hindenburg – 1937 4. Orson Welles' Broadcast of War of the Worlds – 1938 5. Trouble in Europe
  20. 20. Radio News • Only 4 network newscasts 1933 • 1930s crisis in Europe created market for news •CBS received enormous praise for broadcasts from war torn Europe
  21. 21. War of the Worlds • On the night of October 30, 1938, families everywhere were gathered around their radios for another episode of CBS’s Mercury Theater On The Air. The evening’s episode was a radio adaptation of the H.G. Wells classic War Of The Worlds, in which the Earth is invaded from outer space. The story was familiar to many, but was about to be presented in a way that had never been heard before.
  22. 22. Competitive Environment
  23. 23. Newspapers Face Competition We fight the growing encroachment of our field by radio, only to have the news organizations to which we belong turn around and help the radio thumb its nose at our honest effort. Every bulletin we printed in our extra was second hand. The radio with the assistance of the Associated Press scooped us miserably. – Editor & Publisher 1928
  24. 24. Newspapers React We cannot keep on selling news if we encourage others to give it away.
  25. 25. Newspaper Radio War American Newspapers Publisher Association Convention - 1933 Stopped providing newspapers with bulletins and printing schedules. Biltmore Agreement Two 5-minute newscasts daily No spot news Press described it as a complete defeat for broadcasters
  26. 26. The War Years
  27. 27. The War Years Edward R. Murrow
  28. 28. D-Day
  29. 29. Golden Age of Radio Fades In 1950s, more turning to TV for entertainment The “leftovers” Tried various strategies to off TV’s impact In Dec. 1955, Nielsen ratings did not list one evening radio program in top ten How could radio survive Portability Innovative programming Recorded music Top 40 format
  30. 30. Mass Media Market - 1950 Competing for Consumer Attention Magazines TV Newspapers Radio Theatres & Books
  31. 31. Business Headlines • 1951 – Business Week – Radio Rates Start to Crack • 1952 - TV Is Hot on Radio’s Heels • 1954 – Radio Network Revenue Down, Down, Down

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