Have you guys ever had a question? Have you ever wanted to change some belief or thought? Have you ever wondered why something is the way it is? Have you ever had a thought that propelled you into thinking in a different way? Have you ever had questions that caused you to research something deeper and to explore an idea more?
Overtime Gilligan’s work has been inaccurately described as suggesting that women are more caring than men. Rather, she argues that women are more likely to make moral decisions based on issues of care, inclusion, and personal connection, rather than on a more abstract and distant notion of justice.
Different Voice is about why women felt like they couldn’t speak or when they did it came back to them not as they were meaning to sound at all, Gilligan noticed the absence of women from the psychology she was teaching, women seen as unintelligent because women are emotional and that’s ridiculous because men have emotions too and women think. “human development” was once based on a male model, but when combined with traits associated with women we see that those characteristics are shared by all humans: terms such as “emotional intelligence,” “relational self,” and “the feeling brain” are now used which shows that the whole paradigm has changed. Mapping the Moral DomainMeeting at the CrossroadsMaking ConnectionsBetween Voice and SilenceThe Birth of PleasureKyraThe Deepening Darkness: Patriarchy, Resistance, & Democracy’s Future
Erikson would say adolescence is the time between life-history and history. Hannah Arendt said adolescence is the time when the urge toward self display becomes pressingVirginia Woolf said a character asks “when the self speaks to the self, who is speaking?” and answers, “the entombed soul, the spirit driven in…the self that took the veil and left the world—a coward perhaps, yet somehow beautiful.
CarolGilligan …helping voices to be heard. American Feminist, ethicist, and psychologist.
Interview Activity• How would we understand the world if women were not included in general human development studies?• How are men and women different and how are they similar?• Have you ever been in a situation where you have been silenced and felt like you couldn’t say what you wanted to?
Questions She Asked• Are women and men different?• How can we get women and girls on the map?• A different voice• Towards a new understanding
Because of Carol Gilligan…• There is research and theory about gender differences that valued the voices of girls and women.• Women are more likely to make moral decisions based on issues of care, inclusion, and personal connection, rather than on a more abstract and distant notion of justice.• She interviewed mostly to conduct her research
Facts about Carol Gilligan• Born November 28, 1936• Family – Raised in Jewish family in New York City. – Father was a lawyer and mother was a nursery school teacher. – Married to fellow psychologist James Gilligan M.D. – Has three sons.• Interests – Literature and theatre arts – Piano – Pursued modern dance as an undergrad – Love and relationships
Career Information• Education – 1958 B.A. summa cum laude in English literature from Swarthmore College (some history) – 1960 M.A. Clinical Psychology form Radcliffe College – 1964 Ph.D. Social Psychology from Harvard University• Professions – 1967 began teaching at Harvard (psychology of moral development and adolescence) – 1992-1994 taught American History and Institutions at University of Cambridge – 2002 Professor at New York University in the School of Education and School of Law and is also a visiting professor at Cambridge• Notable mentions – 1996 Time Magazine- one of the 25 most influential Americans – 1997 appointed to the Patricia Albjerg Graham Chair in Gender Studies (Harvard’s 1st position in GS) – 1998 4th Annual Heinz Award in the Human Condition – Work with and against Lawrence Kohlberg – 1982 In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development
Meeting At The Crossroads (1992) Between Voice and Silence (1997) (1982) (1989)Kyra (2008) The Deepening Darkness: Patriarchy, (1992) Resistance, & Democracy’s Future (2009) (2002)
Influences and Other Theorists• Erik Erikson- “ego” psychoanalysis, identity crisis, 8 stages of moral development• Lawrence Kohlberg- Five stages of Moral Development, adolescent research• Mary Belenky- Five stages of Knowing, silence
Remembering Larry• In 1998 gave the Kohlberg Memorial Lecture• They met and became friends• They talked about• They co-taught• They differed in opinion back to her questions
Theories Applied to Education• Known for lectures integrating literature, mythology, biography, and history.• Women like to solve problems and do school work that involve relationships within the community, and “real-life” dilemmas.
Sources• Gilligan, C., Lyons, N. P., & Hanner, T. J. (1990). Making connections:the relational worlds of adolescent girls at emma willard school . Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Gilligan, Lyons & Hanner, 1990)• Brown, L. M., & Gilligan, C. (1992). Meeting at the crossroads: womens psychology and girls development. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Brown & Gilligan, 1992)• Hekman, S. J. (1995). Moral voices, moral selves: carol gilligan and feminist moral theory. University Park, Pennsylvania : The Pennsylvania State University Press. (Hekman, 1995)• Taylor, J. M., Gilligan, C., & Sullivan, A. M. (1995). Between voice and silence: women and girls race and relationship. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. (Taylor, Gilligan & Sullivan, 1995)
More Sources• Wikipedia. (2012). Carol gilligan In Retrieved from http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Carol_Gilligan• Gilligan, C. (1998). Remembering larry . Journal o Moral Education, 27(2), Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ582 803&site=ehost-live (Gilligan, 1998)• "Gilligan, Carol." International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences. 2008. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3045300927.html