Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
COLOR FOR
DATA VISUALIZATION
The fundamental uses of color in information
design (are): to label, to measure, to represent
or imitate reality, to enliv...
Is this a good or bad use of color?
Particularly avoid Roy G. Biv (red, orange,
yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet), the color
spectrum of the rainbow.
THE F...
BASIC COLOR THEORY
How humans think about color How computers process color
COLOR PERCEPTION
A constant increase in brightness is not perceived as linear,
and this response is different for red, gre...
A color scale should vary consistently across the entire range of values, so
that each step is equivalent, regardless of i...
Combine a linear, proportional change in lightness with a simultaneous
change in hue and saturation to achieve the perfect...
For divergent data, use palettes that are composed of two sequential
palettes merged with a neutral color.
This type of pa...
A sequential palette that varies uniformly in lightness will still be readable by
someone with color deficient vision (or a...
Instead of representing proportional relationships, color is used to separate
areas into distinct categories. The palette ...
If you need to display double-digit categories, it’s best to group similar
classes together.
>12 CATEGORIES
A grouped colo...
RESOURCES FOR
SELECTING COLORS
Pros: Very easy to use, all palettes here are “safe”, available on D3
Cons: Limited color palettes to choose from
COLOR BR...
NASA AMES COLOR TOOL
CHROMA.JS
HCL PICKER BY TRISTEN BROWN
LAB, LCH, RGB, AND HSV COLOR PICKER
I WANT HUE
For categorical palettes
COLOR GUIDELINES
FROM TUFTE
Color spots against a light gray or muted field
highlight and italicize data.
A magnetogram is a map of magnetic
fields, in ...
Use colors found in nature, especially those on the
lighter side.
The subtle colors in this bathymetric map
of Crater Lake...
The unnatural colors of the rainbow palette (left) are often difficult for novice viewers to interpret. A
more naturalistic...
Pure, bright or very strong colors have loud, unbearable effects when
they stand unrelieved over large areas adjacent to e...
Large area background or base-colors should
do their work most quietly, allowing the smaller,
bright areas to stand out mo...
LINKS
Slides based on:
http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/elegantfigures/2013/08/05/
subtleties-of-color-part-1-of-6/
A...
Color for Data Visualization
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Color for Data Visualization

1,638 views

Published on

How to use colours for data visualization. Guest lecture for the Data Visualization class at Ateneo de Manila University.

For more info see http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/elegantfigures/

Published in: Data & Analytics

Color for Data Visualization

  1. 1. COLOR FOR DATA VISUALIZATION
  2. 2. The fundamental uses of color in information design (are): to label, to measure, to represent or imitate reality, to enliven or decorate. COLOR
  3. 3. Is this a good or bad use of color?
  4. 4. Particularly avoid Roy G. Biv (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet), the color spectrum of the rainbow. THE FIRST RULE
  5. 5. BASIC COLOR THEORY How humans think about color How computers process color
  6. 6. COLOR PERCEPTION A constant increase in brightness is not perceived as linear, and this response is different for red, green, and blue. Look for tools and color palettes that describe colors in a perceptual color space, like CIE L*C*h or Munsell.
  7. 7. A color scale should vary consistently across the entire range of values, so that each step is equivalent, regardless of its position on the scale. A palette should also minimize errors from the color shifts introduced by nearby areas of differing color or lightness, a phenomenon known as simultaneous contrast.
  8. 8. Combine a linear, proportional change in lightness with a simultaneous change in hue and saturation to achieve the perfect palette for sequential data. SEQUENTIAL DATA
  9. 9. For divergent data, use palettes that are composed of two sequential palettes merged with a neutral color. This type of palette works because it takes advantage of pre attentive processing: our visual systems can discriminate the different colors quickly and without conscious thought. DIVERGENT DATA
  10. 10. A sequential palette that varies uniformly in lightness will still be readable by someone with color deficient vision (or a black and white print), regardless of the hue. But a divergent palette with matched lightness can be difficult or impossible to parse if the viewer can’t distinguish the hues. COLOR DEFICIENCY CAUTION
  11. 11. Instead of representing proportional relationships, color is used to separate areas into distinct categories. The palette should consist of colors as distinct from one another as possible. Due to the limits of perception, especially simultaneous contrast, the maximum number of categories that can be displayed is about 12 CATEGORICAL/QUALITATIVE DATA
  12. 12. If you need to display double-digit categories, it’s best to group similar classes together. >12 CATEGORIES A grouped color scheme allows the USGS to simultaneously show 16 different land cover classes in a single map of the area surrounding Portland, Oregon.
  13. 13. RESOURCES FOR SELECTING COLORS
  14. 14. Pros: Very easy to use, all palettes here are “safe”, available on D3 Cons: Limited color palettes to choose from COLOR BREWER
  15. 15. NASA AMES COLOR TOOL
  16. 16. CHROMA.JS
  17. 17. HCL PICKER BY TRISTEN BROWN
  18. 18. LAB, LCH, RGB, AND HSV COLOR PICKER
  19. 19. I WANT HUE For categorical palettes
  20. 20. COLOR GUIDELINES FROM TUFTE
  21. 21. Color spots against a light gray or muted field highlight and italicize data. A magnetogram is a map of magnetic fields, in this case on the surface of the Sun. A divergent palette suits this data because the north polarity (red) and south polarity (blue) are both measurements of the same quantity (magnetism), just with opposite signs. SDO HMI image adapted from the Solar Data Analysis Center.
  22. 22. Use colors found in nature, especially those on the lighter side. The subtle colors in this bathymetric map of Crater Lake are a direct descendent of the palettes created by Eduard Imhof. Map courtesy National Park Service Harper’s Ferry Center.
  23. 23. The unnatural colors of the rainbow palette (left) are often difficult for novice viewers to interpret. A more naturalistic palette for phytoplankton(more or less a type of ocean vegetation) trends from dark blue for barren ocean, through turquoise, green, and yellow for increasing concentrations of the tiny plants and algae.
  24. 24. Pure, bright or very strong colors have loud, unbearable effects when they stand unrelieved over large areas adjacent to each other, but extraordinary effects can be achieved when they are used sparingly on or between dull background tones. Screenshot from the BBC’s traffic accident visualization http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/ uk-15975724
  25. 25. Large area background or base-colors should do their work most quietly, allowing the smaller, bright areas to stand out most vividly, if the former are muted, grayish or neutral. DO NOT DO THIS
  26. 26. LINKS Slides based on: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/blogs/elegantfigures/2013/08/05/ subtleties-of-color-part-1-of-6/ A case study on color scales: http://datavisualization.ch/inside/how-we-created-color-scales/

×