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  1. 1. Expressing Necessity
  3. 3. a. All applicants must take an entrance examb. All applicants have to take an entrance Must and Have To both express necessity In (a) and (b): It is necessary for every applicant to take an entrance exam. There is no other choice. The exam is required
  4. 4. c. Im looking for Sue. I have to talk to her about our lunch date tomorrow. I can’t meet her for lunch because I have to go to a business meeting at 1pmd. Where’s Sue? I must talk to her right away. I have an urgent message to her in everyday statement of necessity, have to is used more commonly than must. Must is usually stronger than have to and can indicate urgency or stress importance. In (c): The speaker is simply saying, “ I need to do this and I need to do that.” In (d): The speaker is strongly saying, “This is very important!”
  5. 5. e. I have to be home by eightf. He has to go to a meeting tonightNote: Have to is usually pronounced “hafta” Has to is usually pronounced “hasta”
  6. 6. g. I have got to go now. I have a class in tenh. I have to go now. I have a class in ten minutesNote: Have got to also expresses the idea of necessity: (g) and (h) have same meaning. Have got to is informal and is used primarily in spoken English. Have to is used in both formal and informal english
  7. 7. i. I have got to goNote:Usual pronounciattion of “got to” is “gotta”.Sometimes have is dropped is speech: “I gotta do it”
  8. 8. j. PRESENT or FUTURE I have to/have got to/must study tonightk. PAST I had to study last nightNote:The idea of past necessity is expressed by had to. There is no other past form for must or have got to
  9. 9. ReferensiAzar, Betty Schrampfer. Understanding andUsing English Grammar. Prentush HallRegents.