Sustainable Building: EARTH 1

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PART 1: Alternative building techniques- we use on site materials to keep costs low, clay subsoil, 50% rice hull for high R walls, which requires a stabiliser. Pneumatic tampers can work also, moist clay and sand become in effect sandstone, no stabiliser needed, but less insulation.

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Sustainable Building: EARTH 1

  1. 1. Sustainable Building: EARTH Part 1
  2. 2. Qty Unit Item Particulars 30sacks Screened High Clay Earth red 30sacks Screened High Clay Earth brown 10sacks plastering sand 3sacks whole straw 1sacks chopped straw 2sacks rice hull 2sacks CRH-carbonized rice hull 2sacks Portland Cement 1sack Ag. Lime 1sack builders lime hydrated-slaked 200liters water drum 2020 liter pails 22liter scoops 24liter pails 2pcs float plastic 2pcs Hawk wood 1pc brick form adobe 1pc Larry hoe with holes 3pcs trowel various 2pcs mixing tubs plastic 1liter tung oil 1liter slate sealant 2bowls ferrocement practice 1pc English hiking stick wood 4pcs sealed rock 2pcs 2'x4' forms 6pcs dowels/clamps/nuts 2pcs ends/keys 2pcs rams wood 1pc ram steel 2pcs bamboo 1set Strapping set stainless
  3. 3. Aloha Ranch and Organic Farm An Eco Village Half way to the Underground River Aloha House An Orphanage on an Organic Farm Aloha Kitchen Artisan Farmstead Cheeses, Salsas, Jams and more 2 hectares 5 acres 13 rai 31 dou 7 hectares 17 acres 43 rai 108 dou
  4. 4. Aloha House Inc. Registered with SEC Non-profit, non-stock NGO Accredited by the DSWD Orphanage Christian Ministry Mother’s Program Train Progressive Organic Farmers
  5. 5. Earth as a building material comes in a thousand different compositions, and can be variously processed. Loam, or clayey soil, as it is referred to scientifically, has different names when used in various applications, for instance rammed earth, soil blocks, mud bricks or adobe.
  6. 6. African Lodge
  7. 7. Mushroom Culture House Bench EH 3 The Nebraska House Tool shed Retaining walls EH 2 Charcoal kilns EH 1 Cow shed
  8. 8. Sustainable Building: Rammed Earth
  9. 9. Sustainable Building: Rammed Earth
  10. 10. Sustainable Building: Rammed Earth
  11. 11. Sustainable Building: Rammed Earth The “secret” of loam lies in the lamellar structure of the various clay minerals and their internal electrical attraction, which is activated only by water and movement. This means that by kneading loam in a plastic state, the clay minerals are able to come together in a denser, parallel layered packing, achieving greater binding force, and when dry, higher tensile and compressive strength.
  12. 12. Heat sink wall Heat sink walls Small overhang shade Uneatable landscape Impermeable surfaces Venting ineffective
  13. 13. Benefits of Sustainability Principles Reduced Energy Requirements Improved Indoor Environment Minimized Impact Of Material Use Reduced Water Requirements Reduced Impact On Site Improved Cycle Cost Improved Health, Performance And Productivity
  14. 14. LEED certification provides independent verification of a building or neighborhood’s green features, allowing for the design, construction, operations and maintenance of resource-efficient, high-performing, healthy, cost-effective buildings. LEED is the triple bottom line in action, benefiting people, planet and profit. LEADERSHIP IN ENERGY & ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN
  15. 15. Energy Design Strategies Optimize Siting/Orientation East-West Access For Passive Solar Access Airflow Corridor Microclimates- berms, swales, extend season, watch thermal mass Reduce Size Insulation/Envelope Design Landscape Shade Minimize Pug Load
  16. 16. Part of your sector analysis: PCMDP
  17. 17. Macarascas, Palawan Soil Audit: 40% clay clay silt sand
  18. 18. In late 2013, the International Code Council (ICC) approved two new appendixes: one for straw bale construction (Appendix S) and one for light straw-clay construction (Appendix R). These appendixes are included in the 2015 Residential Code for one- and two-family dwellings. http://codes.iccsafe.org/app/book/content/2015-I-Codes/2015%20IRC%20HTML/Appendix%20S.html
  19. 19. Energy Audit  On site materials  Portland reduction  Labor efficiency  Fuel spent  Resources wasted  Trees eliminated  Wildlife destroyed  Electricity used  Kilometers traveled
  20. 20. Sod House  On site materials  Portland reduction  Labor efficiency  Fuel spent  Resources wasted  Trees eliminated  Wildlife destroyed  Electricity used  Kilometers traveled
  21. 21. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Willingness to Share Knowledge Willingness to Share Knowledge Zero Knowledge Little Knowledge Some Knowledge Growing Knowledge “Advocacy” Mount Stupid Actual Experience and growing success
  22. 22. Multi-Level non-farming Con Men
  23. 23. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Willingness to Share Knowledge Willingness to Share Knowledge Mount Stupid Actual Experience and growing success
  24. 24. Aloha Ranch Loam has three disadvantages when compared to common industrialized building materials: 1. Loam is not a standardized building material 2. Loam mixtures shrink when drying 3. Loam is not water- resistant Loam has many advantages in comparison to common industrial building materials: 1. Loam balances air humidity 2. Loam stores heat (or cold) 3. Loam saves energy and reduces environ- mental pollution 4. Loam is always reusable 5. Loam saves material and transportation costs 6. Loam is ideal for do-it- yourself construction 7. Loam preserves timber and other organic materials 8. Loam absorbs pollutants
  25. 25. Aloha Ranch Loam has three disadvantages when compared to common industrialized building materials: 1. Loam is not a standardized building material 2. Loam mixtures shrink when drying 3. Loam is not water- resistant Loam has many advantages in comparison to common industrial building materials: 1. Loam balances air humidity 2. Loam stores heat (or cold) 3. Loam saves energy and reduces environ- mental pollution 4. Loam is always reusable 5. Loam saves material and transportation costs 6. Loam is ideal for do-it- yourself construction 7. Loam preserves timber and other organic materials 8. Loam absorbs pollutants 4. Production order requires proper planning a. Curing/shrinkage/moisture b. Protection of surfaces c. Wall/column/roof assembly
  26. 26. Plaster finish Normal lime plaster usually consists of 1 part hydraulic lime and 3 to 4 parts sand. Since it is commonly used in construction worldwide, it is not discussed further in this book.
  27. 27. Neil and Su have so many projects going on right now. Neil calls it "project creep," where you start something small and end up with something unmanageable. They bought their house a few years ago and are doing massive renovations.
  28. 28. Kyle Holzhueter
  29. 29. Rammed earthen floor EH 3
  30. 30. Rammed earthen floor EH 3 Troweled Oiled Waxed
  31. 31. Choosing the right steel for you depends on your purpose: Jigane is unfired forged iron. Whereas a hard carbon steel tends to slide over a plaster, "soft" jigane iron will push and pull material, making it excellent at distributing plaster on wall. By "soft", we refer to the quality of the steel, not the flexibility of the trowel. Because Jigane is a soft steel, Jigane trowels tend to be thick, stiff and heavy. Jigane is suitable for scratch and brown coats of earthen or lime plaster. Hanyaki is fired once after forging. Hanyaki is suitable for all coats, and can also be used for cement based plasters as well. Abarayaki is steel that is forged, coated with oil, and then fired twice. It is harder than hanyaki and suitable for compressing plaster for a glossy finish. Honyaki is made in a similar fashion to abarayaki, but is fired at a higher temperature. Being a very hard carbon steel, it is suitable for earthen or lime finish coats and cement based plasters. Stainless steel is the hardest steel but can be produced so thin as to be flexible as well. It is used to apply thin coats and to smooth trowels marks.
  32. 32. Gernot Minke Building with Earth Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture https://ia700503.us.archive.org/11/items/Gernot_Minke-Building_With_Earth/Gernot_Minke-Building_With_Earth.pdf
  33. 33. Gernot Minke Building with Earth Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture
  34. 34. “With the technology, an average Nigerian can afford to build a house with 10 bags of cement, and with just 10 bags of cement, you easily get three-bedroom bungalows. “You use the old maiden earth, that is, the soil; you use a proportion of the soil with the cement, adding little amount of water under a prefabricated form. “With some timing and technical concentration, you erect a wall and after 24 hours, you remove the form and go to the next wall and do the same,’’ he said.
  35. 35. Dango: hikaru doro dango by Kyle Holzhueter The art of polished clay balls, known as hikaru nendo dango or hikaru doro dango in Japanese, first began in Japan in the 1980’s. Shinkichi Enomoto-san, a renowned plasterer in Tokyo famous for his modern Otsu finish (polished earth-lime plaster), is held as the originator of polished clay balls. Due to its simple and beautiful nature, the art of polishing clay balls is becoming popular throughout the world.
  36. 36. Dango: hikaru doro dango
  37. 37. Dango: hikaru doro dango
  38. 38. Dango: hikaru doro dango 1 6 8 2 3 1. Hydrate 2. Form 3. Rest 4. Reshape 5. Rest 6. Compress 7. Rest 8. Polish 4
  39. 39. Tadelakt, freely translated, means "to rub in". The specific Stone-effect is attained by polishing the lime plaster with a stone.
  40. 40. Earth Terms Loam as it is referred to scientifically, (clayey soil) has different names when used in various applications, for instance rammed earth, soil blocks, mud bricks or adobe.
  41. 41. Macarascas, Palawan Soil Audit: 40% clay clay silt sand
  42. 42. Earth Terms Adobe Blocks of earth (loam) produced manually by throwing wet earth into a formwork are called adobes or mud bricks or sun- dried earth blocks. Also can be used to plaster or Wattle and daub
  43. 43. Thai earthen homes
  44. 44. Cob: Chopped straw and earth “The word cob comes from an old English root meaning a lump or rounded mass. Cob building uses hands and feet to form lumps of earth mixed with sand and straw.”
  45. 45. Cob: Chopped straw and earth
  46. 46. Wattle and daub
  47. 47. Earth Terms Soil Blocks are compressed unbaked bricks Gernot Minke Building with Earth Design and Technology of a Sustainable Architecture https://ia700503.us.archive.org/11/items/Gernot_Minke-Building_With_Earth/Gernot_Minke-Building_With_Earth.pdf
  48. 48. Earth Terms Stabilized Soil Blocks are compressed unbaked bricks w/ Portland etc.
  49. 49. Soil blocks
  50. 50. Compressed stabilized soil blocks Sand, Portland and limestone
  51. 51. Compressed stabilized soil blocks Sand, Portland and limestone
  52. 52. Compressed stabilized soil blocks Sand, Portland and limestone
  53. 53. Compressed stabilized soil blocks Sand, Portland and limestone
  54. 54. Compressed stabilized soil blocks Sand, Portland and limestone
  55. 55. Earth Terms Stabilized Rammed Soil Blocks are compressed unbaked bricks that use a stabilizer (hydrated lime, Portland etc.)
  56. 56. Rammed Earth in the UK
  57. 57. Pneumatic Compaction Rammed Earth
  58. 58. S.I.R.E. Stabilized Insulated Rammed Earth
  59. 59. Stacked shuttering
  60. 60. Stacked shuttering
  61. 61. ClickForAnimation.skp
  62. 62. Test blocks Manual ram
  63. 63. Earth Terms Stabilized Rammed Earth Walls are compressed walls that use loam and a stabilizer (hydrated lime, Portland etc.) The French call rammed earth construction pisé de terre.
  64. 64. High labor costs Multiple handling of materials High material costs Trucked into site from quarry High embedded energy Carbon intensive production High heat gain High U value Rammed Earth Vs. Hollow block Lower labor costs Efficient use of materials Lower material costs Local materials, on site Low embedded energy Stores more carbon than produced No solar gain High R value
  65. 65. High labor costs Multiple handling of materials Foot mixing Material is blended manually Advanced lead time Bricks must be cured and load bearing Additional grout required for building Rammed Earth Vs. Adobe Brick Lower labor costs Efficient use of materials Single handling Mixer is used No lead time for curing Forms are moved immediately Stronger/longer lasting Monolithic pour
  66. 66. The laundry list of volatile chemicals used in tires is alarming: · Benzene inhalation causes cancer · Toluene inhalation causes cognitive disfunction · Arsenic inhalation causes organ failure · Acetone inhalation causes irritation of the throat and lung plus heavy metals that include · Nickel inhalation causes sinusitis and cancer · Copper inhalation causes nausea and suppressed liver function · Cadmium inhalation causes kidney disease and an increased frequency of kidney stone formation Organic compounds in tires break down more quickly than the vulcanized rubber. Criteria which determine breakdown rate include: heating, friction (from movement), water trapping and freezing, and evaporation of plasticizers.
  67. 67. STABILIZED RAMMED EARTH A lightweight husk loam for Rural Housing With a high Insulative rating for tropical conditions
  68. 68. Aloha Ranch
  69. 69. Earth Terms Rammed Earth walls - compacted within a formwork
  70. 70. 1 Binder 2 clay soil 3 Ricehull 5-10 liters water
  71. 71. Australia has the potential to produce over a million tons of rice annually, and our rice farmers have shown themselves to be very efficient in its cultivation, using 50 per cent less water for the crop than the global average. Rice needs to be hulled to remove the outer husk from the eatable inner grain. The waste generated in the process is significant - it has been calculated that in excess of 100,000,000 metric tons of rice hulls are created globally.
  72. 72. These little shells, which make up approximately 20 per cent of the weight of harvested rice, have shown themselves to have rather remarkable properties. They are considered to be naturally flame retardant, requiring no chemical additives to provide their self extinguishing characteristics, partly due to their high silica content. They resist the growth of fungi and mould. In the USA, rice husks have been classified as Class A insulation material for their high thermal resistance value.
  73. 73. Binder - termite barrier 10 liters CRH/RHA 10 liters agri lime stone 20 liters Portland cement
  74. 74. Binder - termite barrier 10 liters CRH/RHA/ STICKYRICE 10 liters agri lime stone 20 liters Portland cement 'The inorganic component is calcium carbonate, and the organic component is amylopectin, which comes from the sticky rice soup added to the mortar. Moreover, we found that amylopectin in the mortar acted as an inhibitor: The growth of the calcium carbonate crystal was controlled, and a compact microstructure was produced, which should be the cause of the good performance of this kind of organic-organic mortar.' https://home-building.wonderhowto.com/news/secret-ingredient-indestructible-1-500-year-old-chinese-architecture-0116678/
  75. 75. Binder - termite barrier 10 liters CRH/RHA/ STICKYRICE 10 liters agri lime stone 20 liters Portland cement 'The inorganic component is calcium carbonate, and the organic component is amylopectin, which comes from the sticky rice soup added to the mortar. Moreover, we found that amylopectin in the mortar acted as an inhibitor: The growth of the calcium carbonate crystal was controlled, and a compact microstructure was produced, which should be the cause of the good performance of this kind of organic-organic mortar.' https://home-building.wonderhowto.com/news/secret-ingredient-indestructible-1-500-year-old-chinese-architecture-0116678/ amylopectin, a type of polysaccharide http://heritagesciencejournal.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2050-7445-1-26
  76. 76. Excavated on site clay soil Local Rice hull Carbonized Rice hull /ASH Stabilized Rammed Earth wall materials Light weight loam <600 kg/m3
  77. 77. Hybrid Earthen Homes Soil Audit: 40% clay EH 3 clay silt sand
  78. 78. Excavated clay soil Local Rice hull Light weight loam <600 kg/m3 RHA: Rice Hull ASH
  79. 79. Spanish barro apisonado or tapial German Stampflehmbau French terre pisé Rammed Earth Moist soil is poured into formwork in layers up to 15 cm thick and then compacted by ramming
  80. 80. Loam is a mixture of clay, silt and sand, and sometimes contains larger aggregates like gravel and stones.
  81. 81. A solid wall of rammed earth without straw or other light aggregates has nearly the same insulating effect as a solid wall of baked bricks.
  82. 82. A solid wall of rammed earth without straw or other light aggregates has nearly the same insulating effect as a solid wall of baked bricks. The lighter the material, the higher its thermal insulation. The greater its humidity level, the lower its insulating effect.
  83. 83. In comparison with wet loam techniques (see chapter 9), the shrinkage ratio of rammed earth is much lower, and strength much higher. In comparison with adobe masonry (see chapter 6), rammed earth – since it is monolithic – provides the advantage of longer life.
  84. 84. Earth, when used as a building material, is often given different names. Referred to in scientific terms as loam, it is a mixture of clay, silt (very fine sand), sand, and occasionally larger aggregates such as gravel or stones.
  85. 85. When speaking of handmade unbaked bricks, the terms ”mud bricks” or “adobes” are usually employed for earth; when speaking of compressed unbaked bricks, the term ”soil blocks” is used. When compacted within a formwork, it is called ”rammed earth”.
  86. 86. Rammed cow shed with ends protected by wood
  87. 87. Is this wall Finished? How? Rammed earth? Is this wall Structural?
  88. 88. Is this wall Finished? How? Rammed earth? Is this wall Structural? The reveal
  89. 89. Is this wall Finished? How? Rammed earth? Is this wall Structural? The reveal
  90. 90. Stabilized Rammed Earth
  91. 91. Stabilized Rammed Earth
  92. 92. Mixing stabilized lightweight loam
  93. 93. Rammed stabilized lightweight loam wall
  94. 94. Rammed Earth Next Hybrid Earthen Home Building Course January 2015 Aloha Ranch Earthquake and typhoon resistant Homes
  95. 95. Rammed Earth Hybrid Earthen Home Building Course November 2014 Aloha Ranch
  96. 96. Rammed Earth Hybrid Earthen Home Building Course November 2014 Aloha Ranch
  97. 97. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  98. 98. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  99. 99. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  100. 100. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  101. 101. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  102. 102. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  103. 103. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  104. 104. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  105. 105. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  106. 106. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  107. 107. Rammed Earth Mushroom Culture House
  108. 108. High R value insulation [Low U value] R value measures thermal resistance
  109. 109. Stabilized lightweight loam
  110. 110. Mushroom Culture House Bench EH 3 The Nebraska House Tool shed Retaining walls EH 2 Charcoal kilns EH 1
  111. 111. In late 2013, the International Code Council (ICC) approved two new appendixes: one for straw bale construction (Appendix S) and one for light straw-clay construction (Appendix R). These appendixes are included in the 2015 Residential Code for one- and two-family dwellings. http://codes.iccsafe.org/app/book/content/2015-I-Codes/2015%20IRC%20HTML/Appendix%20S.html
  112. 112. The Keyline Scale of Permanence: 1. Climate 2. Land Shape 3. Water 4. Roads 5. Trees 6. Buildings 7. Subdivision 8. Soil KEYLINE DESIGN Mark IV ‘Soil, Water & Carbon for Every Farm’ Building Soils, Harvesting Rainwater, Storing Carbon Abe Collins & Darren J. Doherty
  113. 113. Mixing stabilized lightweight loam
  114. 114. Rammed stabilized lightweight loam wall
  115. 115. Cob: Chopped straw and earth
  116. 116. Cob: Chopped straw and earth
  117. 117. Cob: Chopped straw and earth
  118. 118. Cob: Chopped straw and earth
  119. 119. Cob: Chopped straw and earth
  120. 120. Wattle and daub
  121. 121. The anxiety that mice or insects might live in earth walls is unfounded when these are solid. Insects can survive only provided there are gaps, as in “wattle-and-daub” walls. In South America, the Chagas disease, which leads to blindness, comes from insects that live in wattle-and-daub walls. Gaps can be avoided by constructing walls of rammed earth or mud bricks with totally filled mud mortar joints. Moreover, if the earth contains too many organic additives, as in the case of lightweight straw clay, with a density of less than 600 kg/m3, small insects such as wood lice can live in the straw and attack it. Common perceptions that loam surfaces are difficult to clean (especially in kitchens and bathrooms) can be dealt with by painting them with casein/lime, linseed oil or other coatings, which makes them non- abrasive. As explained on p. 132, bathrooms with earth walls are more hygienic than those with glazed tiles, since earth absorbs high humidity quickly, thereby inhibiting fungus growth. Gernot Minke Building with Earth Pg 16
  122. 122. The anxiety that mice or insects might live in earth walls is unfounded when these are solid. Insects can survive only provided there are gaps, as in “wattle-and-daub” walls. In South America, the Chagas disease, which leads to blindness, comes from insects that live in wattle-and-daub walls. Gaps can be avoided by constructing walls of rammed earth or mud bricks with totally filled mud mortar joints. Gernot Minke Building with Earth Pg 16 Martin Shkreli, the hedge-fund manager who became notorious for buying the rights to critical anti-parasite drugs used to treat HIV/AIDS patients and then jacking up the price by 5000% (from $13.50 to $750!) has found himself himself arrested by federal authorities for securities fraud. He recently acquired KaloBios Pharmaceuticals and is planning to raise the price of courses of benznidazole, used to treat a disease in Latin America known as “Chagas,” from $100 to $100,000
  123. 123. Sicsican mud house Marcus Swanepole Wattle and daub
  124. 124. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  125. 125. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  126. 126. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  127. 127. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  128. 128. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  129. 129. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  130. 130. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  131. 131. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  132. 132. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  133. 133. Sicsican mud house Wattle and daub
  134. 134. Evaluating Earthen Structures Wattle and daub Score card- critical and financial considerations  Material sources _______________  On-site – labor cost  Local – delivery cost  Trucked – delivery cost  Plinth height __________________  Plinth width__________________  Lintel height __________________  Window  Tie beam  Wall thickness width____________  Wall height ____________________  Structural support  Wall only h:w _____________  Columns  Material  Clay  Sand  Lignin  Stabilizer  Finish  Plaster  Painted clay  Raw  Roof material____________________  Roof overhang _______  Roof overhang ratio RO:WH _______  Roof slope ____________
  135. 135. Stacked shuttering U-shaped wall in greenhouse
  136. 136. Hybrid Earthen Homes U-shaped wall in greenhouse Ring beam next
  137. 137. U-shaped wall in greenhouse
  138. 138. U-shaped wall in greenhouse
  139. 139. Formwork slides up for Second layer on First layer
  140. 140. Hybrid Earthen Homes
  141. 141. 7m 5.2m 2.4m 2.7m h = (√3)s 4.6m d = 2s 5.2m a = (1.5√3)s² 19m2 206 sq ft. p = 6s Similarly, s = h/(√3) d = 2h/(√3) 19m2
  142. 142. Hybrid Earthen Homes Master pattern 6 Columns 1 meter floor extention
  143. 143. 20cm 86 cm Hybrid Earthen Homes Master pattern Column detailColumn strap detail 30cm 3 straps Below floor Dowels connect Below floor
  144. 144. Hybrid Earthen Homes Marking footings
  145. 145. Hybrid Earthen Homes One man bagging with tubular bag holder
  146. 146. Two men bagging with human bag holder
  147. 147. Hybrid Earthen Homes Ready for footings Hybrid Earthen Homes Holes 80cm x 80cm x 25cm steel 80cm x 80cm x 10mm
  148. 148. Hybrid Earthen Homes Digging footings Bagging excavated loam for rammed earth wall One man bagging with tubular bag holder
  149. 149. Plinth Footing Column Flooring 25cmdeep 80cm 40cm 30cm Hybrid Earthen Homes Foundation detail EH 1
  150. 150. Hybrid Earthen Homes Footing pad, dowels and column ready Footing hole 80cm x 80cm x 25cm 8mm 70cm x 70cm steel bar
  151. 151. Hybrid Earthen Homes Footing pad poured and plinth next, column ready
  152. 152. Plinth w/concrete, steel and rock infill
  153. 153. Hybrid Earthen Homes Column form detail 20cm 30cm Steel strap Wood form with key 30cm 40cm 2”x4” key Finished column Ready for ramming
  154. 154. Hybrid Earthen Homes Column form detail Wood form with key 2”x4” dovetail key Wing nut
  155. 155. Hybrid Earthen Homes Column form detail Column and rammed wall locked with key
  156. 156. First layer on plinth
  157. 157. First layer on plinth Slotted angle bar guides
  158. 158. Column key First layer on plinth Slotted angle bar guides
  159. 159. Column key First layer on plinth Slotted angle bar guides Formwork slides up for Second layer on First layer
  160. 160. Formwork slides up for Second layer on First layer
  161. 161. Hybrid Earthen Homes
  162. 162. Hybrid Earthen Homes
  163. 163. Hybrid Earthen Homes Improved formwork w/backsplash
  164. 164. Stacked shuttering
  165. 165. Stacked shuttering
  166. 166. Movable Plywood form
  167. 167. Hybrid Earthen Homes Must roof after final ram
  168. 168. Hybrid Earthen Homes Rainy season may require temporary roof
  169. 169. Hybrid Earthen Homes
  170. 170. Hybrid Earthen Homes
  171. 171. Hybrid Earthen Homes The Miller Bench
  172. 172. Hybrid Earthen Homes
  173. 173. Hybrid Earthen Home and Aquaponic Greenhouse
  174. 174. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Jalousie window Lentil / tie beam considerations
  175. 175. Lentil / tie beam considerations
  176. 176. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Lentil / tie beam considerations
  177. 177. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Lentil / tie beam considerations
  178. 178. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Lentil / tie beam considerations
  179. 179. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Lentil / tie beam considerations
  180. 180. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Removed Lentil / tie beam considerations
  181. 181. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Removed Lentil / tie beam considerations
  182. 182. Hybrid Earthen Homes Window Mold Removed Lentil / tie beam considerations
  183. 183. Hybrid Earthen Homes Sitting window
  184. 184. Hybrid Earthen Homes 1/2 height 14cm thick wall 6 mixers rammed lightweight loam Lentil / tie beam considerations
  185. 185. Finishing Options Raw Plaster Clays Binders
  186. 186. Interior wall 1 lime 3 fine sand ½ clay
  187. 187. Stay within a pallet range you like Finishing Options Raw Plaster Clay paints Binders
  188. 188. Finishing Options Raw Plaster Clay paints Binders
  189. 189. Raw poured earth Finishing Options Raw Plaster Clay paints Binders
  190. 190. Finishing Options Raw Plaster Clay paints Binders
  191. 191. Finishing Options Raw Plaster Clay paints Binders
  192. 192. Earth Paint 1. Bring 20 liters water to boil before mixing starch 2. Mix/dissolve 1 kg. Cassava starch w/ 1 liter cool water 3. Pour #1 into #2 and then remove from heat 3. Mix 1 part Clay and 3 parts Sand then add #3 ThaiMudBrick.DAT 11:57
  193. 193. Albuminate Finishing Options Raw Plaster Clay paints Binders
  194. 194. Sustainable Building: EARTH
  195. 195. Hybrid Earthen Homes Breathable Plaster Primer 1 part whey or powdered milk and 1 part hydrated lime Mix 2 minutes then stand 5 minutes then add 2 parts water run for 2 more minutes Lime, together with casein, forms a chemical waterproofing agent called calcium ALBUMINATE.
  196. 196. Hybrid Earthen Homes Plaster Preparation Whey, hydraulic lime and sand The lime has to be first intensively mixed into the whey to form a creamy paste without adding any water. After allowing the mix to rest for a while, water and sand should be added. For a thinner plaster that can be brushed on, with the proportion 1:6:25 In warm climates, some kitchen salt should be added to keep the lime plaster moist for a longer period, which improves curing.
  197. 197. Water Proof Breathable Colored Plaster 1 part whey to 1 part hydrated lime Machine Mix 2 minutes then stand 5 minutes then add 1 part clay for color, 3 parts sand for texture and 4 parts hydrated lime Machine Mix Set drill press to Lowest speed with 5 ½ ” boat prop 1 part whey to 1 part hydrated lime Machine Mix 2 minutes then stand 5 minutes
  198. 198. Hybrid Earthen Homes Water Proof Breathable Colored Plaster 1 part whey to 1 part hydrated lime Machine Mix 2 minutes then stand 5 minutes then add 1 part clay for color, 3 parts sand for texture and 4 parts water
  199. 199. Full height 14cm thick wall 12 mixers rammed lightweight loam Whey/ lime primer
  200. 200. ½ height 14cm thick wall 6 mixers rammed lightweight loam Whey/ lime clay and sand finish Coat 1
  201. 201. Building 1
  202. 202. Building 1
  203. 203. Building 1
  204. 204. Building 1
  205. 205. Building 1 Round columns
  206. 206. Building 1 Hybrid Earthen Homes
  207. 207. Building 1 Hybrid Earthen Homes
  208. 208. Building 1 Hybrid Earthen Homes
  209. 209. Building 1 Hybrid Earthen Homes
  210. 210. Building 1 Hybrid Earthen Homes
  211. 211. Aloha Ranch
  212. 212. ALOHA RANCH and ORGANIC FARM Macarascas
  213. 213. ALOHA RANCH Score card- critical and financial considerations  Material sources _______________  On-site – labor cost  Local – delivery cost  Trucked – delivery cost  Plinth height __________________  Plinth width__________________  Lintel height __________________  Window  Tie beam  Wall thickness width____________  Wall height ____________________  Structural support  Wall only h:w _____________  Columns h:w _____________  Material  Clay  Sand  Lignin  Stabilizer  Finish  Plaster  Painted clay  Raw  Roof material____________________  Roof overhang _______  Roof overhang ratio RO:WH _______  Roof slope ____________
  214. 214. 🇵🇭 4 1 2 35 Zone planning for efficient use
  215. 215. 🇵🇭 4 1 2 3 5 Zone planning for efficient use
  216. 216. 🇵🇭 4 1 2 5 Zone planning for efficient use 3
  217. 217. 4 5 Zone planning for efficient use 2 3 1 🇵🇭
  218. 218. 🐆 🐃 🐌 🌳 🌱 🌴 🌼 🍍 🌷 🇵🇭 🐜 🌵 🐈 🐿 🐂🐐 🌿 🌲 🍒 🍓🌾 🐟🐓 🐛 🐝 🐞 🐿 🍁🍂 🐿 🐿 🐓 🍋 🌾 🌾 🌾 🌾 Zone planning for efficient use

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