Minerals and Microbes


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Blend your own mineral mix based on a plan for your soil type

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Minerals and Microbes

  1. 1. A Soil Balance Plan for the TropicsMicrobial and Cation Balance
  2. 2. General Steps for SuccessIn Tropical Soils1. Start a Microbial health program2. Start composting3. Remineralize4. Meet Fertilizer needs5. Soil Test6. Balance Cations7. Balance nutrients
  3. 3. Three aspects of soil fertility (mechanical) Good Soil Structure
  4. 4. Three aspects of soil fertility y e or s Th ion m izat ea on R fI n O a tio ur Dr. C Sat Tiro CE se Ba (ch Dr. Ba Ing Higa ht h Dr. c lan em re od Alb ram alt b rec Al eth l) he ce ht M ica dN l bia Humus og utr c ro ol from ica ien i (b Mi Organic matter l) ts (mechanical) Good Soil Structure
  5. 5. Soil Components Good Soil Structure 25% 5% 50% 45% 25%25% Air 25% H2O 5% O.M. 45% Minerals
  6. 6. 1860 Law of the Minimum1828 - Carl Sprengel formulates the Law of the Minimum stating that growth is limited not by the total of resourcesavailable, but by the scarcest resource. •Justus von Liebig (1803 - 1873) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. •As a professor, he devised the modern laboratory- oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the greatest chemistry teachers of all time. •He is known as the "father of the fertilizer industry" for his discovery of nitrogen as an essential plant nutrient, and his formulation of the Law of the Minimum which described the effect of individual nutrients on crops. •The nutrient in the soil that is most deficient or “the NPK mentality” lacking the necessary level for plant growth will be the limiting factor for the yield of a particular crop
  7. 7. K BoronLowest Stave prevents P N Calcium Zink filling the barrel
  8. 8. The Law of the Minimum160 Mg140120 Na100 N P K Ca Mg Su Na Cu Zn N Su Cu80 P Zn K60 Ca4020 0 N P K Ca Mg Su Na Cu Zn Needed % Actual %
  9. 9. Law of the Maximum•Elements in the soil above and beyond certain levels willlimit yields•The prominent French chemist and farmer, Andre Voisin getsthe credit for this concept. Neal Kinsey, in his book, Hands onAgronomy (pg. 54) states the case best; Andre Voisin...distilledhis years of research into the Law of the Maximum.•It means that if you put on too much of a given nutrient, it isgoing to tie up something else that is needed. He found that ifyou put on too much potassium, it ties up boron.•If you put on too much phosphorus, it ties up zinc and copper.•If you put on too much nitrogen, it ties up copper andsometimes some of the other elements, even zinc.•If you put on too much calcium [as with over- liming], it couldtie up all the other nutrients, depending on their presence.•Nature also invokes the law of the maximum. “The living organism is a biological photograph •High N will restrict Copper of the environment” •High P limits Zink uptake •High K ties up Boron, Manganese
  10. 10. OPTIMUMpH
  11. 11. Nutrient Balance Problems• In compost C/N • In soil C/N• Too much carbon • Too much carbon• Slow process, seeds and • Locks up nitrogen, pathogens not eliminated stunts growth• Stunted small worms• Too much nitrogen Too much nitrogen• Runs hot • Microbial bloom eats• Fails to maximize carbon storehouse of surplus nutrients in soil• Wasted resource (loss of humus)• Kills worms
  12. 12. Nutrient Needs I NS C. HOPK café oo d ) (Mighty G CoMn CuZn MoBe C HOPKINS café (Mighty Good)Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Potassium(K), Iodine, Nitrogen, Sulfer, Calcuium, Iron (Fe), Magnesium (Mg) Come in Cousin Moby CoMn CuZn MoBe Cobolt, Manganese, Copper, Zinc. Molybdinum, Berillium
  13. 13. Na+ Ca + 2 Al3+Mg2+ C.E.C. Cation Exchange Capacity K+• Cations are positively charged ions• Soil, clay and Humus are negatively charged• All soils have ion sites, a nutrient holding capacity for cations only (CEC is in milliequivalents Units or ME)• You can fill up the sites with the good guys• It’s called Base Saturation, the soils ratio or percentages of nutrients held out of solution• If your base saturation is out of balance, insects and disease are a problem
  14. 14. Adsorbtion•Colloids are the smallestparticles of soil or Organic Matter•Colloids are a docking stationfor cations through Adsorbtion•They are released through Root hairs and microbesmicrobial activity•Certain fungi accompanied by Mg++rootlets will release thesenutrients through weak acidexudates Na+- - - Colloid - K+ - - These 4 cations have a Ca++ special relationship to each other and effect plant health
  15. 15. Soil Sampling• Never touch soil for testing• Use stainless steel - not iron• Store in soil bag or plastic bag• Get a composite sample from similar areas• Pull separate samples from High/low, wet/dry etc.
  16. 16. Stainless Steel Soil Sampler
  17. 17. Stainless Steel Soil Sampler
  18. 18. Soil Testing Methods Strength User• Commercial • Strong Acid • Government Labs• Water Extract • Water Soluble • Fertilizer Industry• Morgan Extract • Weak Acid • Biological Farmers Solution, LaMotte soil testing method CEC Test w/Base Saturation The test of choice for Dr. Reams and International Ag Labs is the weak acid test. This test uses a chemical extract that was patterned after the exudates that roots give off. It is called the Morgan Extract. The Morgan extract is a "universal" extractant, meaning all major nutrients (including phosphorus) and many micronutrients can all be measured in the one extract. Dr. M.F. Morgan developed the Morgan extract in the 1930s and 40s at the University of Connecticut.
  19. 19. Four pH adjusters 1. Calcium 2. Magnesium 3. Potassium 4. Sodium Oxisols Low C.E.C. H+ Soil TypeCalcium more than 70% base saturation Mg < 15% Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Ca Magnesium more than 20% base saturation Ca < 60% Sandy soils improve with mg++ (dolemite)
  20. 20. Oxisol profileOxisols are best known for their occurrence in tropical rain forest, 15-25degrees north and south of the Equator. The main processes of soilformation of oxisols are weathering, humification and pedoturbation due toanimals. They are defined as soils containing at all depths no more than 10percent weatherable minerals, and low cation exchange capacity.Oxisols are always a red or yellowish color, due to the high concentration ofiron(III) and aluminum oxides and hydroxides. The word "oxisol" comes from"oxide" in reference to the dominance of oxide minerals such as bauxite. Inthe FAO soil classification, oxisols are known as ferralsols.As rainfall passes through the litter on the forest floor the rain is acidified andleaches minerals from the above soil layers. This forces plants to get their nutritionfrom decaying litter as oxisols are quite infertile due to the lack of organicmatter and the almost complete absence of soluble minerals leached by the wet andhumid climate.Oxisols are often used for tropical crops such as cocoa and rubber. In some cases, riceis grown on them. Permanent cropping of oxisols in low-income areas is very difficultbecause of low cation exchange capacities and high phosphorus fixation.However, many oxisols can be cultivated over a wide range of moisture conditions. Onthis account, oxisols are intensively exploited for agriculture in some regions whichhave enough wealth to support modern agricultural practices (including regularadditions of limestone and chemical fertilizer).Oxisols are divided into the following suborders:Aquox - oxisols with a water table at or near the surface for much of the yearPerox - oxisols of continuously humid climates, where precipitation exceeds evapotranspiration in all monthsTorrox - oxisols of arid climates. Because the present climate can never produce enough weathering to produce oxisols,torrox soils are always paleosols formed during periods of much wetter climates. They occur mainly in Southern Africa.Ustox - oxisols of semiarid and subhumid climatesUdox - oxisols of humid climates
  21. 21. 1. Ultisols are strongly leached, acid forest soils with relatively low native fertility. They are found primarily in humid temperate and tropical areas of the world, typically on older, stable landscapes.2. Intense weathering of primary minerals has occurred, and much Ca, Mg, and K has been leached from these soils. Ultisols have a subsurface horizon in which clays have accumulated, often with strong yellowish or reddish colors resulting from the presence of Fe oxides.3. The red clay soils of Palawan are examples of Ultisols.
  22. 22. Inceptisols profile1. Inceptisols are widely distributed and occur under a wide range of ecological settings. They are often found on fairly steep slopes, young geomorphic surfaces, and on resistant parent materials2. Land use varies considerably with Inceptisols.3. A sizable percentage of Inceptisols are found in mountainous areas and are used for forestry, recreation, and watershed.
  23. 23. Vertisols profile1. Clay soils with unusual and interesting properties. They cover more than 350 million hectares of land in the world and in tropical Africa alone there are over 100 million hectares.2. Because of their very small particle size and high surface area, these soils have higher physical and chemical reactivity than other soils.3. Their interaction with agrochemicals/industrial wastes, has been, increasingly, the subject of research especially in the last two decades. Vertisols create special problems when used for engineering purposes.4. They are difficult to manage for agriculture. If they are tilled when dry, then they can form large clods that are difficult to break down. On the other hand, if tilled when too wet, they smear and become impenetrable to water and plant roots.5. The high CEC/clay ratio suggests montmorillonitic and mixed mineralogy. Calcium (Ca) should be the dominant cation followed by magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) in all the soil profiles. Meq. can range from 30-50+
  24. 24. 84 M ollisols Albolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime with an eluvial horizon Aquolls — wet soils; aquic soil moisture regime Cryolls — cold climate; frigid or cryic soil temperature regime Gelolls — very cold climate; mean annual soil temperature <0° C Rendolls — lime parent material Udolls — humid climate; udic moisture regime Ustolls — subhumid climate; ustic moisture regime Xerolls — Mediteranaean climate; xeric moisture regime Soils which are in most ways similar to Mollisols but contain either continuous or discontinuous permafrost and are consequently affected by cryoturbation are common in the high mountain plateaux of Tibet and the Andean altiplano. Such soils are known as Molliturbels or Mollorthels and provide the best grazing land in such cold climates because they are not acidic like many other soils of very cold climates. Other soils which have a mollic epipedon are classed as Vertisols because the presence of high shrink swell characteristics and relatively high clay contents takes precedence over the mollic epipedon. These are especially common is parts of South America in the Parana River basin that have abundant but erratic rainfall and extensive deposition of clay-rich minerals from the Andes. Mollic epipedons also occur in some Andisols but the andic properties take precedence.take precMollisols form in semi-arid to semi-humid areas, typically under a grassland cover. They are most commonly found latitudinally in a band of 50 degrees north ofthe equator, although there are some in South America, South-Eastern Australia (mainly South Australia) and South Africa. Their parent material is generallylimestone, loess, or wind-blown sand. The main processes that lead to the formation of grassland Mollisols are melanisation, decomposition, humification andpedoturbation.Mollisosls have deep, high organic matter, nutrient-enriched surface soil (A horizon), typically between 60-80 cm thick. This fertile surface horizon, known as amollic epipedon, is the defining feature of Mollisols. Mollic epipedons result from the long-term addition of organic materials derived from plant roots, andtypically have soft, granular, soil structure. Mollisols occur in savannahs and mountain valleys (such as Central Asia, or the North American Great Plains). It wasestimated that in 2003, between 14 and 26 percent of grassland ecosystems still remained in a relatively natural state (that is, they werent used for agriculturedue to the fertility of the A horizon). Globally, they represent ~7% of ice-free land area. Because of their productivity and abundance, the Mollisols represent oneof the more economically important soil orders.Mollisols are geologically by far the youngest soil order in USA Soil Taxonomy. Their development is very closely associated with the cooling and drying of theglobal climate that occurred in the past.
  25. 25. Cation Balance- Use all the buffers1. Calcium2. Magnesium3. Potassium4. SodiumDrives off Hydrogen Ca CaH Ca ++ ++ ++ Ca HH H Ca Ca ++ + + H ++ + + H + + ++ HH + + HH Mg + + ++ Mg ++ Colloid H H K Na H K + Ca Ca Ca H + + + ++ ++ + HH HH H + + H ++ + + + + ++
  26. 26. • Plant Nutrients are needed from the soil, air or water• Foliar fertilizers can do 2 efficiently • Not a substitute for good soil program • A supplement only • Helpful in transition • Used when extra care is needed for raising brixº
  27. 27. Nutrient Dense Food BEYOND Organic• There is a movement for high quality food• High vitamins, high minerals, high sugar• This food has healing powers• Brixo as an indicator• The refractometer
  28. 28. The Brix Scale A relative index of food quality Within a given species of plant, the crop with the higher refractive index will have a: •higher sugar content •higher mineral content •higher protein content •greater specific gravity or density This adds up to sweeter taste,Poor Average Good Excellent higher mineral density and more nutrition as well as food with6 8 10 12 lower nitrate and water content, a lower freezing point, and better storage attributes.
  29. 29. Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity ORAC rating is a laboratory analysis that provides an overall measure of a foods antioxidant activity. The higher the ORAC score, the greater is the foods antioxidant capacity. ORAC tests are often used to compare theantioxidant activities of different foods (fruits, vegetables, juices, wines, etc.). Specific Minerals $$$ Tissue testing…
  30. 30. High quality milk is:Raw (unpasturized)Fresh (not stale)Good Brix (>10º)From Grass Fed cows (no soy or grain)
  31. 31. Got High Brix?
  32. 32. Brix BoosterFAA, Kelp/Sea Weed extract, compost tea, F.F.E., Sea Solids
  33. 33. Cation Balance- fill your “Gas Tank” according to soil test1. Calcium 70%2. Magnesium 15% Once you reach these3. Potassium 6% quantities you can refill the4. Sodium 5% “gas tank” as needed5. Hydrogen 4% Root hairs and microbes Long term storage in soil Weak acid exudates H K H Mg Na H K Na H H Mg H Ca H H Ca Ca Ca Ca H K Ca Rain proof fertilizers K H Ca Ca H Ca Ca Ca Ca Mg Ca K Mg Ca Ca K
  34. 34. Gas Tank Size [capacity]• Vertisols have High CEC (30-50+)Higher cost to balance these soils if abused by modern farming techniques, but once balanced perform very well and require less monitoring• Oxisols have Low CEC (5-15)Lower cost to balance, but need more frequent “refilling” of the nutrient gas tank
  35. 35. Aloha Test Results - June 2008 - 03a Tropical Oxisols 24.4 meq. • C.E.C. 3%+ 3.55% • Organic matter Base Saturation 60-70% 57% • Ca 10-20% 36% • Mg 2-5% 6.9% • K 1-3% 0.9% • Na pH? pH 6.8
  36. 36. Aloha Test Results - June 2009 Tropical Oxisols Old beds New beds Lower Potting Base Saturation
  37. 37. Sea Solids90+ elementsa mixture of 90+ elementsin the sea’s perfectproportions. CalciumThe lightest elements 3.6(calcium, magnesium, Magnesiumpotassium and sodium) are Sulfurtotally balanced with thetrace elements (copper, Boronchromium, zinc, Coppermanganese, selenium, Zinkcobalt, molybdenum, etc.) Manganese Chromium 96.4
  38. 38. Sea Solids90+ elementsa mixture of 90+ elementsin the sea’s perfectproportions. CalciumThe lightest elements 3.6(calcium, magnesium, Magnesiumpotassium and sodium) are Sulfurtotally balanced with thetrace elements (copper, Boronchromium, zinc, Coppermanganese, selenium, Zinkcobalt, molybdenum, etc.) Manganese Chromium 96.4
  39. 39. Why Mineralize?Silicates are necessary in building plant protein and in the synthesis of certain vitamins inplants. Silicates function as a vital element in protecting plants against insects and fungiattack, strengthening qualities and have been found to influence other minerals useful inplant metabolism.Calcium - Plants need calcium for normal cell division, as a component of cell walls, as acomponent of the salts inside the cells and as a part of the genetic coding materials.Magnesium is a key component of the chlorophylls, the green colored cells in the plant. It istherefore vital as chlorophylls are the cells which perform photosynthesis. Also, plants needmagnesium before they can make use of phosphorous and magnesium also activates severaldifferent enzyme systems.Iron is a constituent of many compounds in plants that regulates and promotes growth. Itis especially important to the function of chloroplasts, the plant cells that contain chlorophyll,which are the particles that perform photosynthesis.Potassium strengthens plant stalks and helps undo the stress induced by excess nitrogen.Phosphorus is the "Go" food for plants. 1. Potassium - stalk strength 2. Phosphorous - Cellular growth 3. Calcium - Insect resistance, trucker of all minerals 4. Magnesium - cell formation 5. Sulfur - N utilization 6. Sodium - Potassium pump 7. Boron - N uptake 8. Zinc - Germination 9. Copper - Anti fungal, Prevents disease
  40. 40. •Within silicate rocks are a broad spectrum of up to 100 minerals and trace elementsnecessary for the well being of all life and the creation of fertile soils.•Glacial moraine or mixtures of single rock types applied to soils create a sustainableand superior alternative to the use of ultimately harmful chemical fertilizers,pesticides and herbicides.•SR has been shown in scientific studies to increase yields as much as two to fourtimes for agriculture and forestry (wood volume), and to have immediate results andlong term effects with a single application
  41. 41. Dr. Julius Hensel (1894)•This book was the first work toattack Von Liebig’s salt fertilizerthesis.•Translated from the German, thebook introduced people to the ideathat plants require healthy food inorder to flourish, just as a humanbeing does.•It describes a then new and rationalsystem for fertilization which hasbecome science today — fertilizingwith stone dust.•Hensel went searching for food forplants and found it in the rocks. Fedon such foods, plants will yieldhealthy, wholesome and lifesustaining food that escapes diseaseand parasites.
  42. 42. Chemical Percent Weight in EarthsElement Symbol Crus tOxygen O 46.60Silicon Si 27.72 Al 8.13AluminumIron Fe 5.00Calcium Ca 3.63 Na 2.83SodiumPotassium K 2.59Magnesium Mg 2.09
  43. 43. Percent in Atomic Percent in Percent inElement Symbol Human Number Universe Earth BodyHydrogen H 1 91 0.14 9.5Helium He 2 9 Trace TraceCarbon C 6 0.02 0.03 18.5Nitrogen N 7 0.04 Trace 3.3Oxygen O 8 0.06 47 65Sodium Na 11 Trace 2.8 0.2Magnesium Mg 12 Trace 2.1 0.1Phosphorus P 15 Trace 0.07 1Sulfur S 16 Trace 0.03 0.3Chlorine Cl 17 Trace 0.01 0.2Potassium K 19 Trace 2.6 0.4Calcium Ca 20 Trace 3.6 1.5Iron Fe 26 Trace 5 Trace
  44. 44. Mineral Mix Gravel dust 33% Gypsum Carbonized hull 11% Livestock Lime Bokashi Ag LimestoneAg Limestone Gravel dust 21% Gypsum Bokashi 5% Carbonized hull Livestock Lime 24% 6%
  45. 45. Aloha approx. P otting Volume Weight moisture comments S OI L Liters Kilos content Carbonized hull 200 80 30.0% rained on Sand 200 130 10.0% usually dry Vermicast 200 170 25.0% normal Soil 200 200 25.0% screened Bat gauno 4.0 4 dry dusty Ag. Limestone 2.0 2 dry dusty Bokashi 2.0 1 30.0% moist TOTAL 808 587 Kilos Kilos Kilos approx. WEIGHT/ per per per moisture comments VOLUME LITER 2L Scoop 20L Pail contentIwahig Carbonized hull 0.40 0.8 8.0 30% rained onConst/beach Sand 1.30 2.6 26.0 10.0% usually drySelf Vermicast 0.65 1.3 13.0 25% normalLocal Soil 0.85 1.7 17.0 25% screenedTimbancaya Bat gauno 1.00 2.0 20.0 dry dustyPal. Poultry Limestone 1.00 2.0 20.0 dry very dustySelf Bokashi 0.40 0.8 8.0 30% moistNew Market Sea Salt 1.10 2.2 22.0 40%? very moistMarcelo Gravel dust 1.25 2.5 25.0 30% rained onOlympic Gypsum 1.00 2.0 20.0 dry dusty
  46. 46. I w ahig Carbon ppm 78.84 63.27 2.40 42.912,200.00 2,000.00 Manganese Iron Copper Zinc Nitrogen(N) Phosphate (P2O5) Potash (K2O) Carbon ppm 2,800.00 Manganese 78.84 Iron 63.27 Copper 2.40 Zinc 42.91 NPK % Nitrogen(N) 2,000.00 0.20 Phosphate (P O ) 2,800.00 2 5 0.28 2 Potash (K O) 2,200.00 0.22
  47. 47. S abang B at Guano ppm 440.00 3,800.00 5,191.00 36.00 206.00 Manganese 2,800.00 Iron Copper Zinc Nitrogen(N) Phosphate (P2O5) Potash (K2O) 18,100.00B at Gauno ppmManganese 440.00Iron 5,191.00Copper 36.00Zinc 206.00 NPK % Lbs/1000gal. K/1000L Lbs/ton k/tonNitrogen(N) 2,800.00 0.28 23.00 2.75 5.54 2.52Phosphate (P O ) 18,100.00 2 5 1.81 150.00 17.94 36.22 16.46 2Potash (K O) 3,800.00 0.38 31.00 3.71 7.58 3.45
  48. 48. Aloha B okashi ppm 50.99 175.00 3.37 28.178,100.00 7,600.00 Manganese Iron Copper Zinc Nitrogen(N) Phosphate (P2O5) Potash (K2O) 5,000.00 B okashi ppm Ca 1.41 Ca/Mg Manganese 50.99 Mg 0.16 8.81 Iron 175.00 Copper 3.37 Zinc 28.17 NPK % Nitrogen(N) 7,600.00 0.76 Phosphate (P2O5) 5,000.00 0.50 2 Potash (K O) 8,100.00 0.81
  49. 49. Aloha Vermicast ppm 110.55 677.93 6.45 2,500.00 206.00 5,100.00 Manganese Iron Copper Zinc Nitrogen(N) Phosphate (P2O5) Potash (K2O) 8,200.00B at Gauno ppmManganese 440.00Iron 5,191.00Copper 36.00Zinc 206.00 NPK % Lbs/1000gal. K/1000L Lbs/ton k/tonNitrogen(N) 2,800.00 0.28 23.00 2.75 5.54 2.52Phosphate (P O ) 18,100.00 2 5 1.81 150.00 17.94 36.22 16.46 2Potash (K O) 3,800.00 0.38 31.00 3.71 7.58 3.45
  50. 50. SourceRice hull charcoal you can makeFiner crushed powder, faster actingAloha All Around Formula from book, any formula is fineCoarser, longer actingWaste from gravel crushing, Sometimes called Gravel sandAlso called Plaster of Paris, found in hardware stores
  51. 51. 0.7 1.5 Mineral Mix 2 2.0 0.4 Carbonized hull Livestock Lime Bokashi Ag Limestone 0.3 Gravel dust Gypsum 3.3Mineral Mix 2 Pails Source Carbonized hull 1.5 Rice hull charcoal you can make Livestock Lime 0.4 Finer crushed powder, faster acting, Calcium Carbonate Bokashi 0.3 Aloha All Around Formula from book, any formula is fine Ag Limestone 3.3 Coarser, longer acting, Calcium Carbonate Gravel dust 2.0 Waste from gravel crushing, Sometimes called Gravel sand Gypsum 0.7 Also called Plaster of Paris, found in hardware stores, Calcium Sulphate
  52. 52. Calcium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. Calcium oxide (called lime or quicklime) is mixed, or "slaked" with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, builders lime, slack lime, cal, or pickling lime. pH below 6 Calcium carbonatepH above 6 High Calcium Limestone CaCO3Calcium Sulphate 32% CaSO4 Limestone Gypsum Sea Shells Egg shells Coral 40%-50% sugar Microbial growthMg++ Dolomite H + Magnesium carbonate pH 6.0-7.0 Mg++ CaMg(CO3)2 Good for Most Ag Ca 22% Mg 12% Mg++ Mg++ Mg++
  53. 53. $225.00
  54. 54. Mineral Primer -pressure - Metamorphic -heat - Igneous - erosion - Sedimentary
  55. 55. Identification of Igneous Rockshttp://geology.about.com/library/bl/blrockident_tables.htm
  56. 56. Rock Formation Factors Basalt
  57. 57. Palawan Rocks
  58. 58. Palawan Powdered RocksFeldspar? GraniteSedimentary Quartz
  59. 59. Gravel and sand must be very dry otherwise it becomes sedimentary rock
  60. 60. 1,500 Watts
  61. 61. Quartz
  62. 62. Quartz
  63. 63. 1,500 Watts x 70 min.=1,650 watt hours x 6.17 kwh= P10/batch P10/batch/6K/batch = P1.6/K + 0.48P material = P2.08/K (granite tailings)
  64. 64. Extra Fine “graphite” 1 hour machine time1/2 hour machine time Powderizes Charcoal too! Coarse
  65. 65. CaCO3Calcium Carbonate Sea Shells Dead Coral
  66. 66. 11.33% boron content Magnesium sulfate hydrate (MgSO4*7H2O). It is white, looks like table salt, has 9.8% magnesium and 13% sulfur.Start with 8 kilos/hectare
  67. 67. Aloha Mineral Mix
  68. 68. opRi s ce cr Organic Trials an rn ttu ot ce Be CoRoLe Control 1X10 m 1 kilo Bokashi 1 kilo/bed = 1 ton/h 1 kilo Bokashi, 1 kilo minerals 2 kilo Bokashi, 1 kilo minerals 3 kilo Bokashi, 1 kilo minerals X 1 kilo Bokashi, 2 kilo minerals X X X 1 kilo Bokashi, 3 kilo mineralsX X X X 3 kilo Bokashi, 2 kilo minerals X 3 kilo Bokashi, 3 kilo minerals 4 kilo Bokashi, 1 kilo minerals
  69. 69. Nutrient Density in Brixº 14 12 10 8Brixº 6 4 2 0 lettuce cucumber tomatoe onion 1kilo bokashi Minerals 1kilo Minerals 2kilo Minerals 3 kilo Minerals 4 kilo
  70. 70. Directly improves livestock Better quality animal productsUltimately improves your health
  71. 71. Phosphorus should be equal to Potassium (actual P=actual K), whichmeans phosphate (P2O5) should be 2x potash (K2O).Sulfur should be 1/2 of Phosphorus, up to around 400 lbs per acre.More is usually not needed except in soils that start out alkaline, i.e.pH greater than 7.Chlorine should be equal to Sodium, and not more than 2x Sodium.Nitrogen will generally take care of itself for most crops if the soilorganic matter content is 4% or above. Some N loving crops like corn(maize) or onions may need some supplemental Nitrogen.Boron: 1/1000th of Calcium, but not more than 4ppm (parts per million) or 8 lbs per acre.Iron: 100-200 ppm (200-400 lbs/acre)Manganese: 1/2 of Iron, but more than 50ppm is not necessary.Zinc: 1/10 of PhosphorusCopper: 1/2 of Zinc Reams Calcium: 2,000-4,000 lbs Magnesium: 285-570 lbs Phosphate: 400 lbs Potash: 200 lbs Nitrate Nitrogen: 40 lbs Ammonium Nitrogen: 40 lbs Sulfate: 200 lbs Sodium: 20-70 ppm
  72. 72. General Steps for SuccessIn Tropical Soils1. Start a Microbial health program2. Start composting3. Remineralize4. Meet Fertilizer needs5. Soil Test6. Balance Cations7. Balance nutrients