Bio Char 2

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How we make carbonized rice hull

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Bio Char 2

  1. 1.  Open Area  Not to windy  Access for truck deliveries  Exhaust won’t disturb people or livestock Low Tech Methods for Making Biochar Metal Needed Method 1 Drum Drum 2 GI or tin cans Stoves 3 GI Sheet/steel plates Metal cone - Clean Kiln Designs 4 Drums/GI Furnace/ ovens/ retorts 5 Steel matting Top Light Up Draft Cage [TLUD] 6 Optional Open Rice Hull (Ipa) Piles 7 None Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique [Also TLUD]
  2. 2. “A Dictionary Of Modern Gardening”, by George William Johnson, David Landreth, 1847. Charcoal Soot, a chief constituent of which is charcoal, has long been known as a very effective fertilizer;
  3. 3. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating". Biochar is the result of Pyrolysis [fire – separating]
  4. 4. The American wheat culturist: a practical treatise on the culture of wheat … 1868 Charcoal Dust As A Fertilizer. Charcoal is composed almost entirely of pure carbon; and when small fragments are exposed to the influences of the weather, they undergo very little change during a long term of years. Still the roots of growing plants will lay hold of the small pieces of charcoal, and appropriate the substance contained in the coal to the growth and development of the stems, leaves, and seeds of grain, fruit, and vegetables. Experienced chemists assure us, charcoal, and particularly charcoal dust, has the power of attracting and fixing large quantities of ammonia, a substance which enters largely into the formation of useful plants, and of retaining this fertilizing material when buried in the soil, until the fine fibres of the roots of growing plants require it for promoting their growth.
  5. 5. Thai Charcoal Kiln Charcoal As A Manure 1860……….. Liebig gives the results of a series of experiments by Lukas on the use of charcoal as a manure, which seem to corroborate his opinion. From the facts which these chemists, however, adduce, it is evident that the beneficial action of charcoal, as a fertilizer, depends upon the presence of other substances besides carbon. Liebig notes (Organic Chem., p. 62) that “plants thrive in powdered charcoal, and may be brought to blossom, and bear fruit, if exposed to the influence of the rain and the atmosphere. Plants do no not, however, attain maturity under ordinary circumstances in charcoal powder when they are moistened with pure distilled water instead of rain or river water. Rain water must, therefore, contain within it one of the essentials of vegetable life; and it has been shown that this is the presence of a compound containing nitrogen; the exclusion of which entirely deprives humus and charcoal of their influence on vegetation. It is ammonia, to
  6. 6. Thai Charcoal Kiln
  7. 7. Clean Kiln Designs Appropriate Technology
  8. 8. Clean Kiln Designs
  9. 9. Clean Kiln Designs
  10. 10. Clean Kiln Designs
  11. 11. Clean Kiln Designs
  12. 12. Clean Kiln Designs
  13. 13. Clean Kiln Designs
  14. 14. To build or to dig…
  15. 15. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Lumber yard waste
  16. 16. Lumber yard waste
  17. 17. Clean Kiln Designs Bent and bolted GI sheet
  18. 18. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone
  19. 19. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone
  20. 20. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone
  21. 21. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone
  22. 22. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone
  23. 23. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone
  24. 24. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone
  25. 25. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique Appropriate Technology T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  26. 26. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up DraftAppropriate Technology Make Fuel Cube H = L = W
  27. 27. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Wind baffle
  28. 28. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Water moisture removal
  29. 29. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  30. 30. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  31. 31. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  32. 32. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  33. 33. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Harvest
  34. 34. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique Appropriate Technology T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn Make Fuel Cube H = L = W
  35. 35. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique
  36. 36. Details of this BioChar Burn: Material: young douglas fir and ponderosa pine saplings 2-5” in diameter Moisture content: estimated 20-50%. Sat on ground for one year. Date burned: May 4, 2014 Size of pile: about 5 feet square cube, estimated 2000 lb Biochar yield: about 60 gallons(8 cu ft) http://www.technorcalnotes.com/biochar Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique
  37. 37. Cut and carry goat feed Legume trees and shrubs
  38. 38. Cut and carry goat feed
  39. 39. Cut and carry goat feed
  40. 40. Cut and carry goat feed
  41. 41. Cut and carry goat feed
  42. 42. Cut and carry goat feed
  43. 43. Cut and carry goat feed Low smoke, high yield: 1.Uniform diameter 2.Uniform length 3.Cubical (H = L = W) 4.Keep fire on top
  44. 44. Cut and carry goat feed
  45. 45. 1 2
  46. 46. Cut and carry goat feed
  47. 47. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Conservation burn T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  48. 48. Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Conservation burn Very little smoke T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  49. 49. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Conservation burn Very little smoke T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  50. 50. Still very little smoke T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  51. 51. Douse with water T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  52. 52. Charge with: EME FAA Compost tea W.S.C.
  53. 53. 10:02 AM TLOB
  54. 54. 10:13 AM TLOB
  55. 55. Pyrolysis @ 700º C 10:25 AM TLOB
  56. 56. Pyrolysis @ 700º C 10:32 AM TLOB
  57. 57. 10:42 AM TLOB Activating with water
  58. 58. Pyrolysis @ 700º C
  59. 59. Charging with EM and compost tea 10:58 AM
  60. 60. Bagged and ready for raised beds 11:10 AM 1 cu M dead fall wood 280 L biochar
  61. 61. Add to soil
  62. 62. High carbon Crop residues
  63. 63. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage
  64. 64. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues
  65. 65. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage
  66. 66. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues
  67. 67. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues
  68. 68. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues
  69. 69. You can pyrolize anything
  70. 70. What’s next?
  71. 71. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  72. 72. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  73. 73. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  74. 74. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  75. 75. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  76. 76. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  77. 77. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  78. 78. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  79. 79. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  80. 80. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  81. 81. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  82. 82. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk char
  83. 83. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Coconut leaves/waste
  84. 84. Coconut leaves/waste
  85. 85. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Bamboo waste
  86. 86. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Roofing waste
  87. 87. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Cut and carry waste From goat farm
  88. 88. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Lumber yard waste
  89. 89. Lumber yard waste
  90. 90. Fertilizer from lumber yard waste
  91. 91. Sustainable agriculture: the efficient conversion of land’s by-products back into food.
  92. 92. “Modern agriculture: the use of land to convert petroleum into food.”
  93. 93. Frankenfood
  94. 94. Biochar Keith Mikkelson Mik@mozcom.com
  95. 95. Terra Preta Dark Earth Amazonian Dark Earths "Terra Preta de Indio" Indian Black Earth is the local name for certain dark earths in the Brazilian Amazon region. These dark earths occur in several countries in South America and Europe and Eastern USA. In the Amazon it was created by pre- Columbian Indians from 500 to 2500 years B.P. and abandoned after the invasion of Europeans.
  96. 96. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen). It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating".
  97. 97. More CO and CO2 than biochar Appropriate Technology?
  98. 98. surcosqochasAmphitheater terraces: SOUTH AMERICA
  99. 99. The sketch, of a small portion of the plateau, shows how the qochas were linked to one another, through an extensive network of canals. Twin circles are 'mother qochas'. (from: Erickson, 2000)
  100. 100. Micro Climates
  101. 101. Terra Preta 1. Typically, the ability of soils to retain cations in an exchangeable and thus plant-available form (cation exchange capacity [CEC]) increases in proportion to the amount of soil organic matter • Biochar has an even greater ability than other soil organic matter to adsorb cations per unit carbon due to its greater surface area, • greater negative surface charge • greater charge density 2. Biochar appears to be able to strongly adsorb phosphate, even though it is an anion, although the mechanism for this process is not fully understood. 3. These properties make biochar a unique substance, retaining exchangeable and therefore plant-available nutrients in the soil, and offering the possibility of improving crop yields while decreasing environmental pollution by nutrients considerably Radically transforms soils I.R.R.I. PhilRice
  102. 102. Industrial Biochar 50% of 50% is virtually permanent carbon fixation
  103. 103. SiteRice Hull  Open Area  Not too windy  Access for truck deliveries  Exhaust won’t disturb people or livestock 4 Low Tech Methods to Making Biochar4 Low Tech Methods to Making Biochar 1.1. Open Rice Hull (Ipa) PilesOpen Rice Hull (Ipa) Piles 2.2. StovesStoves 3.3. Furnace ovensFurnace ovens 4.4. DrumDrum
  104. 104. Fertilizer/Feed-Grain Terms Grade Name Filipino Waste Source Carbon/Nitrogen • [D4] Rice Hull Ipa, From high - Labhang Dehusking carbon • [D3] Crushed Rice Magaspang from beltway high carbon/ Hull some nitrogen • [D2] Rice Bran Darak from cleaning some carbon/ some nitrogen • [D1] Rice Bran Tiki Tiki from polishing high protein- nitrogen D1D1 for feedfor feed $ $$ $$$ $$$$ D4D4 for ulingfor uling
  105. 105. [D 2] is inferior to [D1] but can be supplemented with more fish meal Feed-Grain Selection [D 1] [D 3] [D 4][D 2] Puting Bigas – white rice Pinawa – Unpolished rice [D 4] [D 2] Kanin – white rice Palay PalaySmall Mill Large Mill Small Mill Remedy You can lose many Pesos without the right feed stock
  106. 106. Cooking charcoalCooking charcoal as a by-productas a by-product
  107. 107. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood
  108. 108. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother
  109. 109. Vent
  110. 110. =
  111. 111. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting
  112. 112. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting • Smother blackened hulls
  113. 113. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting • Smother blackened hulls
  114. 114. Extinguish
  115. 115. HARVESTING • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting • Smother blackened hulls • Harvest by spraying water through pile
  116. 116. US expert on Biochar production and characterization Dr Hugh McLaughlin Prof Stephen Joseph Australian expert on biochar production and use Dr Paul Taylor Physicist, author of ”The Biochar Revolution” Dr Paul Anderson US expert on Micro gasification and TLUD stoves Pure molecular carbon vs. Volatile oils
  117. 117. Natural Rice Hull Vinegar
  118. 118. Rice hull vinegar Production
  119. 119. Natural Rice Hull Vinegar
  120. 120. Anaerobic Waterless harvest
  121. 121. Thai Charcoal Oven
  122. 122. Operation of Charcoal Oven 14. Install bamboo pipe with wet cloth 15. Collect vinegar
  123. 123. Congratulations! Expect 20-22% recovery by weight
  124. 124. We know of no readily available in-field pyrolyzers that meet our specs. Warm Heart offers two: FU2: 3.4 m3 capacity, Type I or II feed stocks; moved and assembled by 2 men; fits in small pickup with room for quenching water tank and biochar; burn time corn stalk 15 minutes, cob 80 minutes; yield 18% FU3 prototype: Actual will have 7.7 m3 capacity, assumed to be Type II only, moved and assembled by 3 men; fits in pickup; anticipated yield, 25% Type II pyrolyzers
  125. 125. USES • Potting soil • Bokashi • Soil amendment • Livestock bedding • Livestock feed • Bokashi Bombs (Mud Balls) • Vermiculture Feedstock (They produce a natural pelletized Terra Preta)
  126. 126. Ancient Inoculation MethodAncient Inoculation Method Sustainable Agriculture
  127. 127. Inoculation Comparison • Takes advanced management and time • No guarantee of results • Cultures can have contamination • P 60/ backpack sprayer • Simple management • Little time • Guaranteed results • Cultures will be pure • P 1/ backpack sprayer
  128. 128. • Potting soil
  129. 129. Soil Blocks •Save space •Minimize transplant shock
  130. 130. Potting House
  131. 131. Universal MixUniversal Mix 1/4 Soil1/4 Soil 1/4 Sand1/4 Sand 1/4 Vermicast1/4 Vermicast 1/4 Uling na ipa1/4 Uling na ipa
  132. 132. Soil amendment
  133. 133. • Bokashi
  134. 134. BOKASHI: Fermented Rice Hull Charcoal (EM, Kitchen Waste, etc)
  135. 135. Naturally Pelletized Earthworm Castings Vermiculture Feedstock (They produce a natural pelletized Terra Preta)
  136. 136. Naturally Pelletized Earthworm Castings
  137. 137. Vermicast close up Vermiculture: The AfricanVermiculture: The African Night crawler produces aNight crawler produces a natural pelletized Terra Pretanatural pelletized Terra Preta
  138. 138.  Open Area  Not to windy  Access for truck deliveries  Exhaust won’t disturb people or livestock Low Tech Methods for Making Biochar Metal Needed Method 1 Drum Drum 2 GI or tin cans Stoves 3 GI Sheet/steel plates Metal cone - Clean Kiln Designs 4 Drums/GI Furnace/ ovens/ retorts 5 Steel matting Top Light Up Draft Cage [TLUD] 6 Optional Open Rice Hull (Ipa) Piles 7 None Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique [Also TLUD]

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