Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Bio Char Options

3,481 views

Published on

How we make carbonized products from our waste stream on the farm

Published in: Science
  • Be the first to comment

Bio Char Options

  1. 1. Open Area  Not to windy  Access for truck deliveries  Exhaust won’t disturb people or livestock Low Tech Methods for Making Biochar Metal Needed Method 1 Drum Drum 2 GI or tin cans Stoves- gasifier/rocket 3 GI Sheet/steel plates Metal cone - Clean Kiln Designs -FC flame cap / flame curtain (FC) -Top Fed Open Draft FC units 4 Drums/GI Furnace/ ovens/ retorts 5 Steel matting/cage Top Light Up Draft Cage [TLUD] 6 Optional Open Rice Hull (Ipa) Piles 7 None Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique [Also TLUD]
  2. 2. Biochar is the result of Pyrolysis [fire – separating]
  3. 3. Terra Preta Dark Earth Amazonian Dark Earths "Terra Preta de Indio" Indian Black Earth is the local name for certain dark earths in the Brazilian Amazon region. Unknown methods of biochar production where utilized via pyrolysis in the forest: some form of “sustainable” slash and char developed huge areas for food production. These dark earths occur in several countries in South America and Europe and Eastern USA. In the Amazon it was created by pre-Columbian Indians from 500 to 2500 years B.P. and abandoned after the invasion of Europeans.
  4. 4. 1658 Johann Rudolf Glauber confirmed that the acid contained in pyroligneous water was the same acid contained in vinegar (Emrich, 1985; Klark, 1925). 1661 The separation of a spirituous liquid from volatile products of wood distillation was described by Robert Boyle (Klark, 1925).
  5. 5. To build or to dig…
  6. 6. To build or to dig…
  7. 7. http://www.familiamission.org/blog/activated-biochar
  8. 8. LIGNIN The complex amorphous organic component of wood that acts as the binder between cells and is responsible for its rigidity. It decomposes very slowly by microbial action.
  9. 9. Wood that has been seasoned for 9-12 months still contains about 20-25% moisture, most of which is wood resins. These resins play an important part in the three stages of wood combustion.
  10. 10. Wood that has been seasoned for 9-12 months still contains about 20-25% moisture, most of which is wood resins. These resins play an important part in the three stages of wood combustion. Stage 1 - the kindling fire warms up the fresh load of wood and any remaining water content is removed by evaporation and vaporization. Seasoned Wood
  11. 11. Wood that has been seasoned for 9-12 months still contains about 20-25% moisture, most of which is wood resins. These resins play an important part in the three stages of wood combustion. Stage 1 - the kindling fire warms up the fresh load of wood and any remaining water content is removed by evaporation and vaporization. Stage 2 - As the wood reaches 500 degrees the resins begin to break down chemically, and volatile gases are released which squirt out through the wood fiber and ignite, boosting the temperature of the fire to around 1,100 degrees and producing 50-60% of the heat value from that load of wood. Seasoned Wood
  12. 12. Wood that has been seasoned for 9-12 months still contains about 20-25% moisture, most of which is wood resins. These resins play an important part in the three stages of wood combustion. Stage 1 - the kindling fire warms up the fresh load of wood and any remaining water content is removed by evaporation and vaporization. Stage 2 - As the wood reaches 500 degrees the resins begin to break down chemically, and volatile gases are released which squirt out through the wood fiber and ignite, boosting the temperature of the fire to around 1,100 degrees and producing 50-60% of the heat value from that load of wood. Stage 3 - As the gases burn away, the flames finally attack the wood fiber itself, and extract the remaining heat value through the process known as charcoaling. Seasoned Wood Heat + charcoal
  13. 13. Wood that has been seasoned for 9-12 months still contains about 20-25% moisture, most of which is wood resins. These resins play an important part in the three stages of wood combustion. Stage 1 - the kindling fire warms up the fresh load of wood and any remaining water content is removed by evaporation and vaporization. Stage 2 - As the wood reaches 500 degrees the resins begin to break down chemically, and volatile gases are released which squirt out through the wood fiber and ignite, boosting the temperature of the fire to around 1,100 degrees and producing 50-60% of the heat value from that load of wood. Stage 3 - As the gases burn away, the flames finally attack the wood fiber itself, and extract the remaining heat value through the process known as charcoaling. Seasoned Wood Heat + charcoal More heat + ash
  14. 14. If your firewood has dried to the point where it has lost its resin content, your fire will go directly from Stage 1 (warming up to combustion temperature) to Stage 3 (charcoaling), skipping Stage 2 and missing out on 50-60% of the heat (and burn time) you'd expect to get from that load of wood
  15. 15. A. C. A. P. Biochar: Activated Charged Aged Piled (or bagged)
  16. 16. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating". Biochar is the result of Pyrolysis [fire – separating]
  17. 17. 1792 England commercialized luminating gas manufactured from wood (Klark, 1925). 1812 Taylor showed that methyl alcohol was present in the liquid obtained from the distillation of pyroligneous water (Klark, 1925). 1819 The first pyrolysis oven to transfer heat through its metal walls was designed by Carl Reichenbach (Klark, 1925).
  18. 18. “A Dictionary Of Modern Gardening”, by George William Johnson, David Landreth, 1847. Charcoal Soot, a chief constituent of which is charcoal, has long been known as a very effective fertilizer; https://turkeysong.wordpress.com/2012/05/18/some-citations-on-biochar-in-europe-and-america-in-the-19th-century/
  19. 19. https://turkeysong.wordpress.com/2012/05/18/some-citations-on-biochar-in-europe-and-america-in-the-19th-century/
  20. 20. 1835 Methyl alcohol, an isolated product of crude wood spirit, was discovered by Jean Baptiste Andre Dumas and Eugene Peligot which confirmed Taylor’s ideas on the nature of pyroligneous acid (Klark, 1925). 1850 Horizontal retorts (1 meter diameter, and 3 meters long) were used mainly by Germany, England, and Austria, while the French were becoming more inclined to the use of vertical retorts made portable by Robiquete (Klark, 1925). 1856 An increase in demand for methyl alcohol was a result of Sr. William H. Perkin’s patent on aniline purple (Klark, 1925). 1864 The discovery of iodine increased the demand for wood spirits (Klark, 1925). 1870 Early investigations performed by Tobias Lowitz resulted in a new, chemically pure acetic acid (Klark, 1925).
  21. 21. The American wheat culturist: a practical treatise on the culture of wheat … 1868 Charcoal Dust As A Fertilizer. Charcoal is composed almost entirely of pure carbon; and when small fragments are exposed to the influences of the weather, they undergo very little change during a long term of years. Still the roots of growing plants will lay hold of the small pieces of charcoal, and appropriate the substance contained in the coal to the growth and development of the stems, leaves, and seeds of grain, fruit, and vegetables. Experienced chemists assure us, charcoal, and particularly charcoal dust, has the power of attracting and fixing large quantities of ammonia, a substance which enters largely into the formation of useful plants, and of retaining this fertilizing material when buried in the soil, until the fine fibres of the roots of growing plants require it for promoting their growth. https://turkeysong.wordpress.com/2012/05/18/some-citations-on-biochar-in-europe-and-america-in-the-19th-century/
  22. 22. 1870 The rise of the celluloid industry and the manufacture of smokeless powder increased the demand for acetone (Klark, 1925). 1880 The wood distillation industry began to expand (Klark, 1925). 1920-1950 The rise of the petroleum industry caused a decline in wood distillation (Klark, 1925). 1970 Oil Crisis gave rise to the need for alternative liquid fuels. 1970-90s Development of new pyrolysis reactors occurred side by side with the understanding of the fundamentals of biomass pyrolysis reactions (Boroson et al., Bridgwater et al., 1994; 1989 a, b; Evans et al., 1987 a, b; Mottocks, 1981, Piskortz et al., 1988a, b; Scott et al., 1984, 1988).
  23. 23. Thai Charcoal Kiln Charcoal As A Manure 1860……….. Liebig gives the results of a series of experiments by Lukas on the use of charcoal as a manure, which seem to corroborate his opinion. From the facts which these chemists, however, adduce, it is evident that the beneficial action of charcoal, as a fertilizer, depends upon the presence of other substances besides carbon. Liebig notes (Organic Chem., p. 62) that “plants thrive in powdered charcoal, and may be brought to blossom, and bear fruit, if exposed to the influence of the rain and the atmosphere. Plants do no not, however, attain maturity under ordinary circumstances in charcoal powder when they are moistened with pure distilled water instead of rain or river water. Rain water must, therefore, contain within it one of the essentials of vegetable life; and it has been shown that this is the presence of a compound containing nitrogen; the exclusion of which entirely deprives humus and charcoal of their influence on vegetation. It is ammonia, to https://turkeysong.wordpress.com/2012/05/18/some-citations-on-biochar-in-europe-and-america-in-the-19th-century/
  24. 24. Thai Charcoal Kiln
  25. 25. Clean Kiln Designs Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  26. 26. Clean Kiln Designs Appropriate Technology Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  27. 27. Clean Kiln Designs Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  28. 28. Clean Kiln Designs Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  29. 29. Clean Kiln Designs
  30. 30. Clean Kiln Designs
  31. 31. Clean Kiln Designs
  32. 32. To build or to dig…
  33. 33. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Lumber yard waste
  34. 34. Lumber yard waste
  35. 35. Clean Kiln Designs Bent and bolted GI sheet Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  36. 36. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  37. 37. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  38. 38. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  39. 39. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  40. 40. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  41. 41. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  42. 42. Clean Kiln Designs Top Feed Metal Cone Top Fed Open Draft FC units
  43. 43. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique Appropriate Technology T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  44. 44. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up DraftAppropriate Technology Make Fuel Cube H = L = W
  45. 45. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Wind baffle
  46. 46. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Water moisture removal
  47. 47. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  48. 48. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  49. 49. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  50. 50. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft
  51. 51. T.L.U.D. Top Light Up Draft Harvest
  52. 52. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique Appropriate Technology T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn Make Fuel Cube H = L = W
  53. 53. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique
  54. 54. Details of this BioChar Burn: Material: young douglas fir and ponderosa pine saplings 2-5” in diameter Moisture content: estimated 20-50%. Sat on ground for one year. Date burned: May 4, 2014 Size of pile: about 5 feet square cube, estimated 2000 lb Biochar yield: about 60 gallons(8 cu ft) http://www.technorcalnotes.com/biochar Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique
  55. 55. Cut and carry goat feed Legume trees and shrubs
  56. 56. Cut and carry goat feed
  57. 57. Cut and carry goat feed
  58. 58. Cut and carry goat feed
  59. 59. Cut and carry goat feed
  60. 60. Cut and carry goat feed
  61. 61. Cut and carry goat feed Low smoke, high yield: 1. Uniform diameter 2. Uniform length 3. Cubical (H = L = W) 4. Keep fire on top
  62. 62. Cut and carry goat feed
  63. 63. 1 2
  64. 64. Cut and carry goat feed
  65. 65. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Conservation burn T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  66. 66. Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Conservation burn Very little smoke T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  67. 67. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft Conservation burn Very little smoke T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  68. 68. Still very little smoke T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  69. 69. Douse with water T.L.O.B. Top Light Open Burn
  70. 70. Charge with: EME FAA Compost tea W.S.C.
  71. 71. 10:02 AM TLOB Migratory Pyrolytic Front (MPF)
  72. 72. 10:13 AM TLOB Migratory Pyrolytic Front (MPF)
  73. 73. Pyrolysis @ 700º C 10:25 AM TLOB Migratory Pyrolytic Front (MPF)
  74. 74. Pyrolysis @ 700º C 10:32 AM TLOB Migratory Pyrolytic Front (MPF)
  75. 75. 10:42 AM TLOB Activating with water
  76. 76. Pyrolysis @ 700º C
  77. 77. Charging with EM and compost tea 10:58 AM
  78. 78. Bagged and ready for raised beds 11:10 AM 1 cu M dead fall wood 280 L biochar
  79. 79. Add to soil
  80. 80. T.L.U.D. Top Light UpDraft
  81. 81. Wigwam method for termite infested wood cuts
  82. 82. Wigwam method for termite infested wood cuts
  83. 83. Wigwam method for termite infested wood cuts
  84. 84. Wigwam method for termite infested wood cuts
  85. 85. Wigwam method for termite infested wood cuts
  86. 86. Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique 1. Similar size materials 2. Top Light Up Draft 3. Proportional dimensions
  87. 87. High carbon Crop residues
  88. 88. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Migratory Pyrolytic Front (MPF)
  89. 89. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues Migratory Pyrolytic Front (MPF)
  90. 90. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Migratory Pyrolytic Front (MPF)
  91. 91. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues
  92. 92. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues
  93. 93. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage High carbon Crop residues
  94. 94. You can pyrolize anything
  95. 95. What’s next?
  96. 96. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  97. 97. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  98. 98. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  99. 99. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  100. 100. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  101. 101. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  102. 102. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  103. 103. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  104. 104. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  105. 105. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  106. 106. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk
  107. 107. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Cage Coco Husk char
  108. 108. Explosion? Accelerant?
  109. 109. Top light w/ newspaper
  110. 110. Brush char
  111. 111. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Coconut leaves/waste
  112. 112. Coconut leaves/waste
  113. 113. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Bamboo waste
  114. 114. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Roofing waste
  115. 115. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Cut and carry waste From goat farm
  116. 116. Traditional method: The nightly Sweep n’ Smolder 1. Wasteful 2. Inefficient 3. Legal
  117. 117. Illegal Squatter Pile 1. Wasteful 2. Inefficient 3. Illegal
  118. 118. Traditional method: Mound kiln 1. Wasteful 2. Inefficient 3. Labor intensive 4. Legal
  119. 119. Improved TLUD Mound kiln
  120. 120. Improved TLUD Mound kiln
  121. 121. Improved TLUD Mound kiln
  122. 122. Improved TLUD Mound kiln
  123. 123. Improved TLUD Mound kiln
  124. 124. 1. Wasteful 2. Inefficient 3. Legal Landfill method
  125. 125. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Lumber yard waste
  126. 126. Lumber yard waste
  127. 127. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Clean kiln design
  128. 128. Top Light Up Draft TLUD Pile Clean kiln design
  129. 129. Fertilizer from lumber yard waste
  130. 130. Sustainable agriculture: the efficient conversion of land’s by-products back into food.
  131. 131. “Modern agriculture: the use of land to convert petroleum into food.”
  132. 132. Frankenfood
  133. 133. Biochar Keith Mikkelson Mik@mozcom.com
  134. 134. Terra Preta Dark Earth Amazonian Dark Earths "Terra Preta de Indio" Indian Black Earth is the local name for certain dark earths in the Brazilian Amazon region. These dark earths occur in several countries in South America and Europe and Eastern USA. In the Amazon it was created by pre- Columbian Indians from 500 to 2500 years B.P. and abandoned after the invasion of Europeans.
  135. 135. Pyrolysis is a thermochemical decomposition of organic material at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen (or any halogen). It involves the simultaneous change of chemical composition and physical phase, and is irreversible. The word is coined from the Greek-derived elements pyro "fire" and lysis "separating".
  136. 136. More CO and CO2 than biochar Appropriate Technology?
  137. 137. surcosqochasAmphitheater terraces: SOUTH AMERICA
  138. 138. The sketch, of a small portion of the plateau, shows how the qochas were linked to one another, through an extensive network of canals. Twin circles are 'mother qochas'. (from: Erickson, 2000)
  139. 139. Micro Climates
  140. 140. Terra Preta 1. Typically, the ability of soils to retain cations in an exchangeable and thus plant-available form (cation exchange capacity [CEC]) increases in proportion to the amount of soil organic matter • Biochar has an even greater ability than other soil organic matter to adsorb cations per unit carbon due to its greater surface area, • greater negative surface charge • greater charge density 2. Biochar appears to be able to strongly adsorb phosphate, even though it is an anion, although the mechanism for this process is not fully understood. 3. These properties make biochar a unique substance, retaining exchangeable and therefore plant-available nutrients in the soil, and offering the possibility of improving crop yields while decreasing environmental pollution by nutrients considerably Radically transforms soils I.R.R.I. PhilRice
  141. 141. Industrial Biochar 50% of 50% is virtually permanent carbon fixation
  142. 142. SiteRice Hull  Open Area  Not too windy  Access for truck deliveries  Exhaust won’t disturb people or livestock 4 Low Tech Methods to Making Biochar 1. Open Rice Hull (Ipa) Piles 2. Stoves 3. Furnace ovens 4. Drum
  143. 143. Fertilizer/Feed-Grain Terms Grade Name Filipino Waste Source Carbon/Nitrogen • [D4] Rice Hull Ipa, From high - Labhang Dehusking carbon • [D3] Crushed Rice Magaspang from beltway high carbon/ Hull some nitrogen • [D2] Rice Bran Darak from cleaning some carbon/ some nitrogen • [D1] Rice Bran Tiki Tiki from polishing high protein- nitrogen D1 for feed $ $$ $$$ $$$$ D4 for uling
  144. 144. [D 2] is inferior to [D1] but can be supplemented with more fish meal Feed-Grain Selection [D 1] [D 3] [D 4][D 2] Puting Bigas – white rice Pinawa – Unpolished rice [D 4] [D 2] Kanin – white rice Palay PalaySmall Mill Large Mill Small Mill Remedy You can lose many Pesos without the right feed stock
  145. 145. Cooking charcoal as a by-product
  146. 146. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood
  147. 147. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother
  148. 148. Vent
  149. 149. =
  150. 150. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting
  151. 151. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting • Smother blackened hulls
  152. 152. CRH Production • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting • Smother blackened hulls
  153. 153. Extinguish
  154. 154. HARVESTING • Start core fire with wood • Add rice hull to smother • Watch for venting • Smother blackened hulls • Harvest by spraying water through pile
  155. 155. http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/ FS147E/FS147E.pdf
  156. 156. Natural Rice Hull Vinegar
  157. 157. Rice hull vinegar Production
  158. 158. Natural Rice Hull Vinegar
  159. 159. Anaerobic Waterless harvest
  160. 160. Thai Charcoal Oven
  161. 161. Operation of Charcoal Oven 14. Install bamboo pipe with wet cloth 15. Collect vinegar
  162. 162. Congratulations! Expect 20-22% recovery by weight
  163. 163. We know of no readily available in-field pyrolyzers that meet our specs. Warm Heart offers two: FU2: 3.4 m3 capacity, Type I or II feed stocks; moved and assembled by 2 men; fits in small pickup with room for quenching water tank and biochar; burn time corn stalk 15 minutes, cob 80 minutes; yield 18% FU3 prototype: Actual will have 7.7 m3 capacity, assumed to be Type II only, moved and assembled by 3 men; fits in pickup; anticipated yield, 25% Type II pyrolyzers
  164. 164. USES • Potting soil • Bokashi • Soil amendment • Livestock bedding • Livestock feed • Bokashi Bombs (Mud Balls) • Vermiculture Feedstock (They produce a natural pelletized Terra Preta)
  165. 165. Ancient Inoculation Method Sustainable Agriculture
  166. 166. Inoculation Comparison • Takes advanced management and time • No guarantee of results • Cultures can have contamination • P 60/ backpack sprayer • Simple management • Little time • Guaranteed results • Cultures will be pure • P 1/ backpack sprayer
  167. 167. • Potting soil
  168. 168. Soil Blocks •Save space •Minimize transplant shock
  169. 169. Potting House
  170. 170. Universal Mix 1/4 Soil 1/4 Sand 1/4 Vermicast 1/4 Uling na ipa
  171. 171. Soil amendment
  172. 172. • Bokashi
  173. 173. BOKASHI: Fermented Rice Hull Charcoal (EM, Kitchen Waste, etc)
  174. 174. Vermiculture Feedstock (They produce a natural pelletized Terra Preta)
  175. 175. Vermicast close up Vermiculture: The African Night crawler produces a natural pelletized Terra Preta
  176. 176.  Open Area  Not to windy  Access for truck deliveries  Exhaust won’t disturb people or livestock Low Tech Methods for Making Biochar Metal Needed Method 1 Drum Drum 2 GI or tin cans Stoves 3 GI Sheet/steel plates Metal cone - Clean Kiln Designs 4 Drums/GI Furnace/ ovens/ retorts 5 Steel matting Top Light Up Draft Cage [TLUD] 6 Optional Open Rice Hull (Ipa) Piles 7 None Peter Hirst's Conservation Burn technique [Also TLUD]

×