Hindu literature

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Topic HINDU LITERATURE

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Hindu literature

  1. 1. Hindu Literature GROUP V
  2. 2. India  World’s 7th largest country located in South Asia  Second most populous country.  About 3,000 km(1,865 mi) wide, shoreline about 7000 km (4,350 mi) along Bay of Bengal  India and Bharat are both official names.  Derives from Indus river used by Greek  India civilization grew up in the Indus Valley 4000 to 2500 BC.
  3. 3. Divided into three Main Topographic regions  Himalayan Mountain system on the North  Northern plain, drained by the Indus, Ganges and Bramaputra rivers in North Central India.  Peninsular India in the South
  4. 4. People  Over thousand years, countless group have migrated into the subcontinent and many of these groups have maintained distinctive cultures down through years.  The earliest Indians may have migrated from Australia and the Pacific Islands
  5. 5. Language  More than 200 languages are spoken in India  Four (4) major Languages are represented  Indo-Arab branch of the Indo- European group (the major Linguistic family in Europe)  Dravidian language group  Hindi, the fourth most widely spoken language in the world  Indo – Aryan language
  6. 6. Religion  Four major religious traditions have emerged from this area:  Hinduism – 83%  Jainism (and Islam)– 11%  Buddhism – less than 1%  Sikhism  Indian Caste system – major social system that groups people according to birth  Brahmins: priests, the highest caste  Kshatriyas: warriors and kings  Vaishyas: merchants  Shudras: manual labourers
  7. 7. Caste system  Some people do not fall into any caste; these are called dalits, or untouchables  Untouchables also known as Harijans  Dalits have traditionally been tasked with work such as cleaning streets and working with human and animal corpses and waste  Caste-based discrimination is now illegal in India, and affirmative-action policies aim to improve standards of living in lower castes, but inequalities persist
  8. 8. Education  1950 and 1988 – India literacy was doubled  Literacy is higher on man than woman  Free and open  8 years in primary  2 years in lower secondary  2 years in upper secondary  Compulsory in 6-14 years old.  University are large w/ cluster of affiliated colleges.
  9. 9. Government  Federal system with parliamentary form of government  Parliament consist of two houses  The Raiya Sabha (Council of states)  The Lok Sabha (House of the People)  Elected directly by eligible voters and sit 5 years unless Parliament is dissolved  Indian National Congress- party most identified remained control of the central government
  10. 10.  November 1989 election - Discontent with India’s leadership caused Congress to lose its parliamentary  1991 election- P.V Narasimha Rao succeeded Ravid Gadhi as party leader became prime minister in June 1991
  11. 11. History  The history of India as a sovereign state under its own constitutional government began on August 15, 1947, when the subcontinent was partitioned into the two states of India and Pakistan. Pakistan become an Islamic state while India opted to become a secular state.  Mahatma Gandhi the father of modern India was assassinated on January 20, 1948 by the militant Hindu who believed him to be too kind to Muslim. During Gandhi's first decade in office agriculture production increased. India exploded 1974 it's first nuclear weapon and Sikkim became state of India.
  12. 12.  In June 1975, Gandhi persuaded president Fakhuruddin Ali Ahmed to evoke as state of emergency that gave her near-dictatorial power opposition leads were jailed without trial and many constitutional freedom were curtailed.  In March 1977, Gandhi suddenly called new election, perhaps to legitimatize the powers she had taken under the emergency. Surprisingly, a coalition of parties ranging in ideology from socialist to conservative Hindus (the Janata party) won control of the Lok Sabha. Morarji Desai, a longtime opponent of Gandhi became prime minister. President Ahmed died that same year and Nelan Sanjavi Reddy was elected president. The Janata party almost immediately began to break apart and Desai resign as prime minister in July 1979.
  13. 13.  Gandhi was born in Pobandan India on October 2, 1869, his father was a chief minister for the maharaja of Porbandan, and the family came from traditional caste of grocers and moneylenders. His mother was a devout adherent Jainism, a religions in which ideas of nonviolence and vegetarianism. Gandhi stated that he was most influence by his mother. He married by arrangement at 13. He went to London to study law when his was18.He works for an Indian firm in South Africa. He experiences of overt racial discrimination. He assumed leadership of protest campaign and gradually developed his techniques of nonviolent resistance known as Satyagraha. Gandhi also fought to improve the status of the lowest classes of society, the castles untouchables, whom he called Harijans.
  14. 14.  He believed in manual labor and simple living. Non-violence or non-injury is a percept common to three faiths, HINDUISM,JAINISM, and BUDDHISM. 1. HINDUISM....adherent to the proscription against violence toward living things can escape from the cycle of rebirth and the doctrine also form a basis for vegetarian. 2.BUDDHISM.... non-violence is manifest in the Buddha's emphasis on compassion and is also part of the faith's moral codes. 3.JAINISM.... non-violence is a core religious duty and followed so strictly that the most Orthodox devotes cover their faces with mask to prevent accidentally harming insect.
  15. 15. Literature  Sanskrit Literature – Oral Tradition produced the Vedic holy text.  Mahabharata and Ramayana – two great books, sources for countless literary.  400 B.C. –PANINI produced his Sanskrit grammar  Second Century AD – Prakrits being used in literature  Middle Ages Sanskrit – used in religious context by priesthood  Ghazal – stylized form of lyrical folk song and notable exponents of the form  MACAULAY – established English-langauge schooling ofr Indians  Michael MADHUSUDAN DUTT and JAYASHANKAR PRASAD (1889 – 1937) introduced black verse in sonnet into Indian poetry
  16. 16.  ARUNACALA KAVI – developed a utilitarian prose style  MADHUSUDAN DUTT – wrote the first plays modeled on Western Drama  SIR RABINDRANATH TAGORE – introduced the short story to vernacular writing in India  LAKSMINATH BEZBARUA and MUHAMMAD IQBAL – major poets of the period  History of Indian literature falls into 2 periods; 1. The Vedic Period 2. Sanskrit Period
  17. 17. Religious works  Poetry  The Rig Veda: a book of sacred hymns  The Yajur Veda: a book of knowledge and melodies for the hymns  The Sama Veda: descriptions of the materials for sacrifice  The Atharva Veda: contains magic spells and other folk knowledge  The Brahmanas  The Upanishads  Maya  The Sutras
  18. 18. Secular works  Epics  The Mahabharata  Bhagavad gita  Nala and Damayanti  The Ramayana  Dramas  The toy clay cart  Sakuntala or the fatal ring  The Jatakas  The Panchatantra  Romanorum  The Hitopdesa  The Sukasaptati
  19. 19. Ganesh Brahma Shiva Vishnu
  20. 20. Karma and Reincarnation  Reincarnation is the belief that the soul repeatedly goes through a cycle of being born into a body, dying, and being reborn again in a new body.  Karma, a force that determines the quality of each life, depending on how well one behaved in a past life.  Hinduism says we create karma by our actions on earth. If you live a good life, you create good karma. If you live a bad life, you create bad karma.
  21. 21. Moksha  Each time a Hindu soul is born into a better life, it has the opportunity to improve itself further, and get closer to ultimate liberation.  This liberation is called Moksha.  One attains Moksha when one has "overcome ignorance", and no longer desires anything at all.  The ones who reach this state no longer struggle with the cycle of life and death.  The way to get to Moksha is to not create any karma.
  22. 22. Sacred Writings  The Vedas collections of Sanskrit hymns (written down 1200-900BCE, but based on older oral versions).  The Upanishads which means the inner or mystic teaching that were passed down from guru (teacher) to disciple (student).
  23. 23. Mahabharata  Mahabharata, Sanskrit for Great Story, is one of the great epic poems of ancient India.  It was written between 300 BC and AD. 300.  The story is about the battle of one family over a kingdom in northern India.  The Bhagavad Gita (Song of God) is contained in the Mahabharata. It is dialogue between Krishna and the hero Arjuna on the meaning of life.
  24. 24. Krishna and Arjuna
  25. 25. Ramayana  Ramayana was written in 3rd century BC, and tells story of Rama, and his wife, Sita.  Rama and Sita are generally seen as ideal examples of great manly heroism and wifely devotion.  Reciting the Ramayana is considered a religious act, and scenes from the epic are portrayed throughout India and Southeast Asia.
  26. 26. Rama and Sita
  27. 27. Hindu Life Goals  Hinduism is about the sort of life one should lead in order to be born into a better life next time and ultimately achieve liberation. There are 4 legitimate goals in life:  dharma (appropriate living)  artha (the pursuit of material gain by lawful means)  kama (delight of the senses)  moksha (release from rebirth).
  28. 28. Hindu Duties  Each Hindu has 4 daily duties:  Revere the deities  Respect ancestors  Respect all beings  Honor all humankind

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