Online Tv Music Channel

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Online Tv Music Channel

  1. 1. Online TV Music Channel Essay Project Lifecycle Methodologies Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments University of Westminster
  2. 2. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Table of Contents Page Overview 3 Introduction 4 Lifecycle 6 Waterfall Methodology 7 SSADM 8 UML 10 RAD 11 DSDM 13 Evolutionary Methodology 14 Throwaway Prototyping 15 Conclusion 16 Reference List 17 Bibliography 18 Appendix A 19 Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 2 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  3. 3. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Overview This essay presents a commercial multimedia project environment and discusses the importance of using a project lifecycle Methodology to redesign and extent it. In this essay, I discuss who are the stakeholders and their importance to the project, project lifecycle, methods for large projects (Waterfall, SSADM and UML) and prototyping methods (RAD, DSDM, Evolutionary and Throwaway prototyping). Finally, I conclude what should be the size of my tem and which methodology is better to use for the project to be successful. The project consists of an online TV music channel which content can be broadcasted online through a computer or a mobile device. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 3 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  4. 4. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Introduction This project presents a commercial multimedia environment that consists of an online TV music channel which content can be broadcasted online through a computer or mobile devices such as Apple iPhone, Android G1, Samsung i780, HTC Diamond, HTC Touch Cruise and ATT Tilt (but this will be subject to further study). The channel will broadcast video clips from unsigned electronic bands/artists and djs, festivals and other electronic music events from 3 capitals of Europe: London, Lisbon and Madrid, and interviews from the artists. For the content to be broadcasted the user needs to install first a plug-in before start using the service, preferably our own plug-in which is own file format but I do not discard the possibility in using plug-ins from third party companies such as Sopcast, TVU Networks and Veetle Networks, just to name a few. It would be useful for promoting the TV channel anyway. The artists can submit the files through a submission form in .mp4 and .mov file formats which will be converted into our own video format automatically or by a member of our team. So, who are the stakeholders? This is a very difficult question to answer because it will depend on the project but what it should seek is adjectives like power, responsibility and influence. Some times power equals to authority that usually is the budget holder but that is not our case. Note that the more people who have input on a stage, the more changes there will be in the project as a result. Doing an external analysis of who should be my stakeholder, I decided to include independent artists, record labels, mobile companies and music fans. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 4 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  5. 5. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Regarding an internal analysis the stakeholders are the project manager, a computer programmer and in a later stage of the project a graphic designer to discuss the graphical aspects of the interface. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 5 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  6. 6. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Lifecycle The project lifecycle consists of four stages, initiation, planning execution and closure. Initiation involves starting up the project, by documenting a business case, feasibility study and terms of reference, appointing the team and setting up a project office if necessary. Planning involves setting out the path and direction of the project by creating a project plan, resource plan, financial plan, quality plan, acceptance plan and communications plan. Execution involves building the deliverables and controlling the project delivery, scope, costs, quality, risks and issues. Closures involves twisting-down the project by releasing staff, handing over deliverables to the costumer, if there is one, and complete a post- implementation review of the project. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 6 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  7. 7. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Waterfall The waterfall method is the oldest and the traditional approach to project methodologies. It consists of discontinuous phases and the classical system development model (there are a few variances of the waterfall method) consists of creating a concept and research for the project requirements. After that, we enter into the design phase which includes a detailed design phase, the development stage of the concept, testing phase and the final phase of a waterfall methodology, the implementation phase. One of the strengths of using the waterfall methodology is that it minimizes planning overhead since it can be done up front. Another one is its own structure minimizes wasted effort, so it works well for technically weak or inexperienced staff to finish the project. For the other hand, waterfall methodologies are inflexible, only the final stage produces a non-documentation deliverable and backing up to tackle mistakes is difficult. The waterfall method performs well for products with clearly understood requirements or when working with well understood technical tools, architectures and infrastructures. Its weaknesses frequently make it inadvisable when rapid development is needed. In those cases, other models may be more effective. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 7 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  8. 8. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies SSADM An SSADM methodology stands up for Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method. It was developed in the early 80s for system analysis and application design and was widely used for governmental computing projects in the United Kingdom. SSADM consists of a combination of text and diagrams throughout the whole lifecycle of a project. The philosophy implemented on SSADM methodologies falls into 3 different techniques of modelling: Logical Data Modelling, Data Flow Modelling and Entity Behaviour Modelling. The first consists of indentifying, modelling and documenting the data requirements of the system being design. The data is separated into entities (recorded information) and relationships between the entities. Data Flow Modelling is the process of identifying, modelling and documenting how data moves around. It examines processes that transform data from one form to another, data storage, external entities (what sends data into a system or receives data from the system) and data flows. The third technique, Entity Behaviour Modelling, is the process of identifying, modelling and documenting the events that affect each entity and the sequence in which these events occur. (1) The SSADM classical system development model comprises five stages: feasibility study, requirements analysis, requirements specification, logical system specification and physical design. The feasibility study analyses the business area to determine whether a system can cost effectively support to the business requirements. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 8 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  9. 9. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Requirements analysis study the requirements of the system to be developed are identified and the current business environment is modelled in terms of the processes carried out and the data structures involved. Requirements specification identifies detailed functional and non- functional requirements and introduces new techniques to define the required processing and data structures. Logical system specification produces technical systems options to update the logical design, enquiry processing and system dialogues. Finally, the physical design stage implements a physical database design and creates a set of programme specifications using the logical system specification and the technical system. SSADM methods, like other methods, have their own weaknesses. It adopts a structures, rigorous, project led approach to the development of data structures and processes that fails to recognise that data structures are largely stable and many processes dynamic. Also, the requirements will not change during the development of a project and following each step can be time consuming and there may be a considerable delay between initiation and delivery of a project. (2) Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 9 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  10. 10. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies UML Unified modelling language is a modelling syntax aimed primarily at creating models of software-based systems, but can be used in a number of areas, for example for business modelling and design of web-based applications. It is a method of syntax only, it tells what model elements and diagrams are available and the rules associated with them. It can be used to model almost anything and it is designed to be user extended to fill any modelling requirement. UML is process independent, meaning the process by which the models are created is separate from the definition of the language but needs a process in addition to the use of UML itself. It leaves plenty of space for tool creators to be creative and add value to visual modelling with UML. It is well documented and its notation guide is available as a reference to all the syntax available in the language. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 10 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  11. 11. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies RAD Now let’s have a look in prototyping methods used in large and small projects such as RAD, DSDM, Evolutionary and Throwaway prototyping. Rapid application development projects call for the interactive use of structured techniques and prototyping to define user’s requirements and design the final system. It involves an iterative development, construction of prototypes and structured techniques which build preliminary data models. Than prototyping will help the analyst and users to verify those requirements and to formally refine a the data and process the models. It comprises four stages: planning, design, construction and implementation. The planning stage consists of a review of the areas immediately associated with the proposed system. This review produces a broad definition of the system requirements in terms of the functions the system will support. It delivers an outline system area model of the study, a definition of the scope and cost justification of the system. The design stage consists of a detailed analysis of the business activities related to the proposed system. Stakeholders define entity types associated with the system and following the consequent analysis, the design of the system is outlined and prototypes of critical procedures are built and reviewed. On the construction stage, a small team of developers finalizes the design and builds the system using a design-and-build steps in which the users have the opportunity to fine tune the requirements. The construction stage also delivers documentation and the necessary instructions necessary to operate the application, routines and procedures needed to put the system in action. a See slide number 18 at the Appendix A Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 11 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  12. 12. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies The implementation stage involves implementing the new system and managing the change from the old system environment to the new one. This may include implementing bridges between existing and new systems, converting data and training users. User acceptance is the end point of the implementation stage. (3) One of the positive aspects of using RAD methodologies on a project is that it promotes a strong collaborative atmosphere and gathers the requirements in a dynamic way. Another one is that the business owner actively participates in the prototyping process, writing and performing test cases. It suits interactive projects. For the other hand, RAD is not suitable for real-time, safety-critical or other applications where functional requirements have to be fully specified because RAD systems have a dependency on strong cohesive teams and individual commitment to the project, because success depends on disciplined developers and their exceptional technical skills and the decisions relies on the functionality and less on centralized engineering authority. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 12 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  13. 13. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies DSDM DSDM projects boast the best supported training and documentation of any of the prototyping methods. It favours the philosophy that nothing is built perfectly the first time and looks to project development as an exploratory challenge. The DSDM methodology focuses on 9 principles: 1. Active user involvement. 2. Enabled teams with authority to make decisions. 3. A focus on frequent delivery of products. 4. Using suitability for business purpose as the essential criteria for acceptance of deliverables. 5. Iterative and incremental development to ensure convergence on an accurate business solution. 6. Reversible changes during project development. 7. Requirements that are base lined at a high level. 8. Integrated testing throughout the lifecycle of the project. 9. Collaboration and cooperation between all stakeholders. But DSDM methodologies have their weaknesses and one of them is that it does not concentrate on the fundamental importance of corporate data management and like SSADM fails to recognise that data structures are largely stable and many processes dynamic. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 13 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  14. 14. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Evolutionary Methodology Evolutionary methodology phases consist of multiple iterations of requirements, gathering analysis, design and prototype development. When the first iteration is finished, the result is analysed by the costumer and their response creates the next level of requirements and defines the next iteration and so on. The strengths of using an evolutionary methodology is that costumers can see steady progress. This is useful when requirements are changing rapidly, when the costumer is reluctant to commit to a set of requirements, or when no one fully understands the application area. The weaknesses of using this method are that it is impossible to know at the outset of the project how long it will take and there is no way of knowing the number of iterations that will be required. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 14 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  15. 15. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Throwaway Prototyping Throwaway prototyping is a technical mechanism to reduce project risk by exploring critical factors to the project success. Usually, a practical implementation of the system is produced to help discover requirements and than discard them. It can be used anytime and by any person on a project, individual projects can realize some benefits by prototyping risky areas within their individual areas of responsibility. Its main risk is the inefficient use of prototyping time and not throwing it away. Then, the system can be developed using some other development process. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 15 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  16. 16. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Conclusion After researching about project methodologies, the first question that I want to answer is if I go for a solo project or a large team? My team will consist of 6 people: 3 programmers, a graphic designer, a person to manage the database and an accountant. Regarding this project and evaluating the different methodologies according to environment, cultural and technological development, we will use 3 different types of methodologies: Evolutionary methodology, rapid application development and throwaway prototyping. We will use the evolutionary methodology to delivery a working system to the users. It comprises 2 principal different iterations, the development of the plug-in and the implementation of the video format. The second iteration is the development of the website that we will just start once the first iteration is finished. The second methodology that we will use in this project is RAD because it is suitable for interactive applications like ours, with clear functionality at the user interface and a clear defined user group. We will use this method to create prototypes to define user’s requirements and use structured techniques to build the preliminary plug-ins. During the implementation of the plug-in and development of the new video file format we will use the throwaway prototyping to help discover requirements problems and for Testing the application. b b See slide number 31 at the Appendix A Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 16 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  17. 17. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Reference List (1) Webopedia. SSADM [Online]. Available at: http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/S/SSADM.html (2) Tim Hutchings. Chapter 4 - Introduction to Methodologies & SSADM[Online]. 20 February 1996 [cited 2008 Nov 22]; Available at: http://www.comp.glam.ac.uk/pages/staff/tdhutchings/chapter4.html#head7 (3) University of California. Rapid Application Development[Online]. 16 April 1997 [cited 2008 Nov 22]; Available at: http://sysdev.ucdavis.edu/webadm/document/rad_toc.htm Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 17 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  18. 18. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Bibliography CRaG Systems. The Unified Modelling Language - Part 1[Online]. 2004; Available at: http://www.cragsystems.co.uk/ITMUML/ CRaG Systems. The Unified Modelling Language - Part 2[Online]. 2004; Available at: http://www.cragsystems.co.uk/ITMUML/ Bennet S, McRob, S and Farmer R. Object-oriented Systems Analysis And Design Using UML. Edition: 3rd Edition, Berkshire (UK): McGraw-Hill Education; 2006. Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 18 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  19. 19. Online TV Music Channel - Project Lifecycle Methodologies Appendix A Miguel Rodrigues Student Number:11511645 19 Course: BSc Music Informatics Module: 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments
  20. 20. Online TV Music Overview Channel • The project consists of an online TV music channel which content can be broadcasted online with a computer or a mobile device like 2MIN504 - Commercial Environments Apple iPhone or the new phone from google Android G1 • The channel will broadcast Video clips from unsigned bands, as well as festivals and other music events from 3 capitals of Europe: Miguel Rodrigues Student Number: 11511645 London, Lisbon and Madrid. As well interviews from the artists. Stakeholders Power = Authority = Stakehoders Responsability • For the content to be broadcasted the user needs to install first a plug-in (i.e. Preferably our own plug-in but we can use other plug-ins such as sopcast, TVU Networks, Veetle Networks and so on) Budget holder Sometimes can be the • The artists can submit the files through a submission form in .mp4 Influence budget holder but not always or .mov movie file formats and they will be converted to our own video format Note: It is very important to understand what and how to communicate to each of the key stakeholders, making them feel confortable with the project and how it is progressing. Stakeholders Stakeholders External Analisys Internal Analisys Record Labels Programmer Independent Artists Consumers (music fans and mobile companies Grafic Designer (in a later stage of the implementation of the project)
  21. 21. Methods for large Lifecycle projects (SSADM, UML) Initiation Planning Execution Waterfall SSADM Closure UML Waterfall Waterfall This is the classical system development model Concept Strengths Weaknesses • Minimizes planning overhead • Inflexible Requirements Design since it can be done up front. • Only the final phase produces a • Structure minimizes wasted non-documentation deliverable. effort, so it works well for technically weak or inexperienced • Backing up to address mistakes Development Detailed design staff. is difficult. Testing implementation SSADM Tecniques SSADM 1. Logical Data Modelling Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method developed in the early 1980s for systems analysis and application 2. Data Flow Modelling design widely used for government computing projects in the United Kingdom. combination of text and diagrams throughout the whole life cycle of a system design 3. Entity Behaviour Modelling
  22. 22. SSADM SSADM This is the classical system development model Weaknesses Feasibility Requirements • Adopts a structured, rigorous, project led approach to the development of Analysis data structures and processes (fail to recognise that data structures are largely stable and many processes dynamic) Requirements Specification • requirements will not change during the development of a project Logical System Specification •Following each step of SSADM rigorously can be time consuming and there may be a considerable delay between inception and delivery (which is typically the first time the users see a working system). Physical Design UML Features of UML Methodology: UML Syntax only - UML is just a language Comprehensive Unified Modeling Language Language independent modeling syntax aimed primarily at creating models of Process independent software-based systems, but can be used in a number of areas. Tool independent Well documented It is a generic modeling language and needs to be adapted by the user to particular applications. RAD Prototyping methods for large and small projects invo lves iterative development RAD co RAD me ns tru rge DSDM ct io n Evolutionary Throwaway prototyping structured techniques prototypes
  23. 23. RAD - Stages RAD Planning Pros Cons Design • Promotes strong collaborative • Dependency on strong cohesive atmosphere and dynamic teams and individual commitment gathering of requirements to the project • Business owner actively • Success depends on disciplined Construction participates in prototyping, writing developers and their exceptional test cases and performing unit technical skills and ability testing • Decision making relies on the Implementation functionality and less degree of centralized engineering authority. DSDM DSDM 1. Active user involvement. 2. Empowered teams with authority to make decisions. 3. A focus on frequent delivery of products. Weaknesses 4. Using suitability for business purpose as the essential criteria for acceptance of deliverables. DSDM does not concentrate on the fundamental importance of corporate data management 5. Iterative and incremental development to ensure convergence on an accurate business solution. DSDM adopts a dynamic, project led approach to both data structures and processes 6. Reversible changes during development. 7. Requirements that are base lined at a high level. Like SSADM fails to recognize that data structures are largely stable and many processes dynamic 8. Integrated testing throughout the life cycle. 9. Collaboration and cooperation between all stakeholders. Evolutionary Evolutionary uses multiple iterations of requirements gathering and analysis, design and prototype development Strengths Weaknesses iteration Analysis design Customers can see steady It is impossible to know at progress. the outset of the project how long it will take. Next level of This is useful when requirements There is no way to know the requirements are changing number of iterations that will Prototype The result is analized by the costumer rapidly, when the customer be required. Costumer is reluctant to commit to a Development set of requirements, or when Nex no one fully understands the iteration application area.
  24. 24. Throwaway Prototyping Is a technical mechanism to reduce project risk by Solo project or large exploring critical factors to the project success team? Main Benefits Can significantly reduce risk Commit to throwing the prototype away 2/3 Programmers When to use Grafic Designer It can be used at any time and by any person on a project. TEAM: Individual projects can realize some benefit by prototyping Database Manager risky areas within their individual areas of responsability. Accountant Main Risks Not throwing it away Inefficient use of prototyping time Evolutionary Methodology – to deliver a working system to the users Which Methodology? RAD – because it promotes a strong collaborative atmosphere and dynamic gathering of requirements. Business owner actively participates in prototyping, writing test cases and performing unit testing RAD is suitable for applications which are interactive, with Selecting the most appropriate methodology the clear functionality at the user interface, have a clearly defined user group, are not computationally complex and pros and cons should be evaluated according have requirements which are not too detailed and fixed. to environment, cultural and technological development. It is possible, during the implementation of the plug-in and, mainly, on the development of the new Video format, to use a different methodology such as Throwaway methodology. Evolutionary Methodology TV channel upload Website Videos Development of the plug-in Database RAD Methodology Development of the new Compressed video format Always regarding compression/quality issues Use of the Throwaway Methodology & Testing

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