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- 1. Detecting EAS with TRASGOs -a simulation- G. Kornakov February, 2010, Santiago de Compostela
- 2. Extensive air shower (EAS) ● How does an EAS occur? -High energy primary cosmic rays interact at the high atmosphere with production of billions of secondaries and shower formation ● Why are they interesting? -Astroparticle Physics: – Where do they come from? – How are they accelerated? – How do they propagate? – and many other... -very high energy (up to 1020 eV), -understanding of formation process
- 3. The knee region 1 Partícle/m2-y 1 Partícle/km2-y 1 Partícle/km2-y Knee
- 4. EAS statistics in knee region Mass of the primary cosmic ray vs energy measured in different experiments [CCOU02] The scatter plot of the average logarithm of the nuclear mass number of the primary cosmic rays versus energy clearly shows the need for more input from accelerators.
- 5. EAS simulation Extensive showers detection on Earth surface Code: AIRES Simulations characteristics: -energy: 1015 eV (Knee region) -primary particles: P,C,Fe,Gammas -depth of first interaction:30g/cm2 -number of simulations: 100 for each case. -height of measurement plane: 1400 m
- 6. EAS simulation Variables simulated ● x,y, ● θ,φ ● time of arrival ● energy ● height of production of secondary part. ● id. of the secondary particle
- 7. EAS simulation Some results e μ
- 8. EAS simulation Some results e μ time time φ φ Difference between azimuthal angles of electrons and muons vs time
- 9. EAS simulation Some results e μ θ time r time θ r
- 10. Lateral distribution in a EAS induced by proton Lateral distribution of μ+e at different primary energies ~200m ~90m ~30m
- 11. EAS simulation We have started to analyse the answer of a single detector at different distances from the shower core: We assumed S=1m2 detectors 8 R=5particles/m2 9 7 R~30m for 101 5ev 3 proton R 10 4 1 2 6 5 11 13 12
- 12. RESULTS (time of arrival) 0m R/2~15 m R ~30m Iron Carbon
- 13. RESULTS (time of arrival) 0m R/2~15 m R ~30m Proton Gamma
- 14. RESULTS (zenithal angle) 0m R/2~15 m R ~30m Iron Carbon
- 15. RESULTS (zenithal angle) 0m R/2~15 m R ~30m Proton Gamma
- 16. RESULTS (Azimuthal angle in one detector) Iron Carbon Proton Gamma
- 17. NEXT STEPS
- 18. To define some secondary observables ● Number of particles <N>, <Ne>,<Nμ> ● Arrival Times: <T><Te><Tμ> ● Th <Th> and σ(Th) for e and μ at t=5ns, t=10ns, t=20ns. ● <Ph> and σ(Ph) as a function of position Analyse their behaviour, their correlations, their clusters...
- 19. One dream
- 20. Why multivariate analysis? ● A lot of information spread out in many observable variables (many dimensions problem) ● Some variables are strongly correlated and dependent on the primary cosmic ray characteristics (energy, mass, direction) ● Many multivariate techniques developed recently and not yet commonly used in astroparticle physics: clusters analysis, PAC analysis … Problems we expect: ● High fluctuations in different EAS from the same primary ● High statistical fluctuations inside a single shower Hope: ● To find some hidden relationship among all the observables informing us about the properties of the primitive cosmic ray
- 21. Still a lot of work
- 22. Acknowledgments especially want to thank R.Vázquez for his help with the simulations

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