Oceans

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Oceans

  1. 1. Oceans Chapters 15.2 – 15.3
  2. 2. Goal 1 Discuss the chemical and physical properties of seawater
  3. 3. <ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>Salts (see table 15-1 page 392) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity 35 ppt = 3.5% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salt ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulfate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Salinity Varies (figure 15-10 page 393) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High salinity (up to 37 ppt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Low salinity (down to 32 ppt) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High precipitation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater influx </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glacier melt </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>River mouth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Image credit: PD-gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Winkel-tripel-projection.jpg
  7. 7. <ul><li>Salinity affects Physical Properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More dense than freshwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freshwater = 1.00 g /mL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seawater = 1.02 g/mL to 1.03 g/mL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower freezing point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh water = 0° C </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seawater = -2° C </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Seawater absorbs light (see figure 15-14 page 396) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RYO (Long wavelengths) 50 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green to 100 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Average depth of oceans 3720 m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis occurs where?? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Goal 2 Explain ocean layering (See page 397)
  10. 10. <ul><li>Basis of ocean layering: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm water  less dense  floats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water  more dense  sinks </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Ocean is divided into 3 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermocline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Layers determined by temperature characteristics </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Temperature decrease with depth </li></ul><ul><li>Surface layer (top layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~ 100 m depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonexistent at poles </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Thermocline (middle layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature rapidly decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth location varies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonexistent at poles </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Bottom layer (bottom layer) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very cold <4° C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near freezing temps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth varies </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Image credit: PD-personal http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Thermocline.jpg Surface layer Thermocline Bottom layer
  16. 16. Goal 3 Explain deep water masses
  17. 17. <ul><li>Deep water mass formation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polar areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold Salty water = very dense </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salts do not freeze out of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sinks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Migrates toward equator </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Three major water masses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic Bottom Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing , salt concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Coldest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most dense </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Image credit: PD-gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Winkel-tripel-projection.jpg Antarctic Bottom Water
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>North Atlantic Deepwater </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greenland Winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Freezing, salt concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd Coldest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd most dense </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Image credit: PD-gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Winkel-tripel-projection.jpg North Atlantic Deep Water
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Antarctic Intermediate Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Antarctic winter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature decrease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Least cold deep water mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Least dense deep water mass </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Image credit: PD-gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Winkel-tripel-projection.jpg Antarctic Intermediate Water
  24. 24. <ul><li>Atlantic ocean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by all 3 deep water masses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affected by only 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which one does not ??? </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Goal 4 Understand movement of water via ocean currents
  26. 26. <ul><li>Density currents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cold, salty deep water currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Ocean Conveyor Belt </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Image credit: PD-gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Thermohaline_Circulation_2.png
  28. 28. <ul><li>Surface currents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by global wind systems </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Image credit: PD-gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ocean_surface_currents.jpg
  30. 30. <ul><li>Gyres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continents deflect surface currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemi = Clockwise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Hemi = Counterclockwise </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Image credit: PD-gov http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Oceanic_gyres.png
  32. 32. <ul><li>Upwelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold bottom water deflects up continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed out by winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West coasts & trade winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient rich = fish </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Image credit: PD-gov http://cordellbank.noaa.gov/images/environment/upwelling_470.jpg

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