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15[1].3 Lecture


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15[1].3 Lecture

  1. 1. Ocean Waves, Tides & Currents Chapter 15.3
  2. 2. Goal 1 Explain waves in terms of energy movement versus molecule movement
  3. 3. Wave Characteristics <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Energy movement </li></ul><ul><li>Crest </li></ul><ul><li>Trough </li></ul><ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long = fast </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Wave movement animation <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Note the direction of energy movement and the movement of water molecules </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Wave height </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetch (size of body of water) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Breaking waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friction slows trough (bottom) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crest (top) collapses forward </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Goal 2 Discuss how tides form
  8. 8. <ul><li>Tides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Varies by location, topography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravitational and Centrifugal forces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon, Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Bay of Fundy Tide Video <ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Spring tide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full / new moon = highest high tide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neap tide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First / last quarter = lowest high tide </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Spring and Neap Tides <ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. Goal 3 Understand movement of water via ocean currents
  13. 13. <ul><li>Ocean currents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep water / bottom currents </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Deep Ocean Currents <ul><li> </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Surface currents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Driven by global wind systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade winds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prevailing westerlies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar easterlies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Gyres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continents deflect surface currents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Circular motion & Coriolis force </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemi = Clockwise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Hemi = Counterclockwise </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Major Ocean Currents <ul><li>US Navy Oceanographic Office </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Upwelling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cold water deflects up continents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed out by winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West coasts & trade winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient rich = fish </li></ul></ul>