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 Definition
 salinity could be defined as the
presence of minerals at high levels
(cations: Na, K, Mg, Ca and anions: Cl...
salanity
 . It is well-known that salinity is a
common stress factor in agricultural
areas as a result of extensive irrig...
Extent of salinity problems at
national levels
 In Pakistan, out of 20 million hectares of
agriculture land 6.67 million ...
Extent of salinity problems at
global levels
 More than 800 million hectares of land throughout
the world are saltaffecte...
Effect of salinity on plant
growth
 Salanity effect the plant growth in three
main ways
1. Osmotic potential
2. Specific ...
Osmotic potential
 Reduction in growth under saline conditions
apparently occurs as a result of a very negative
solute po...
Specific ion toxicity
 Toxicity occurs as a result of uptake and
accumulation of certain toxic ions from
the irrigation w...
Specific ion toxicity
 . It is different from salinity problem and
may occur even when the salinity is low.
These toxic c...
Mechanisms of salt stress
Regulation
 Since NaCl is the most soluble salt, plants species
have developed several differen...
Mechanisms of salt stress
Regulation
 Another strategy that plants have to
tolerate salinity is the synthesis of
organic ...
Importance of maize
 Maize or corn (Zea mays L.) occupies a key position
as one of the most important cereals both for hu...
Importance of maize
 The crop is Maize is an annual plant
belonging to the grass family (Poaceae).
 The kernel of maizec...
Importance of maize
 In Pakistan, maize is the third most important crop
after wheat and rice. Being an important crop, m...
Objectives
 The research was conducted to
determine the effect of different levels of
salinity (NaCl) on the germination ...
. MATERIALS AND METHODS
 The research work was conducted to
evaluate the performance of maize
under the different levels ...
Seed source, Collection of soil
and Surface sterilization
 The experimental studies were conducted on maize
kernels (Var....
Laboratory experiments
 Morphologically uniform and healthy seeds of maize were
soaked and allowed to germinate in petrip...
Pot culture experiments
 Pot culture experiments were conducted in a greenhouse
environment in the lawn of Botnay Departm...
 Libortry experiment data
Germination response to salt
stress

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Germination%
Salt t...
Effect of salt solutions on
root length of maize
0
5
10
15
20
25
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Rootlength(Cm)
...
Effect of salt solutions on
shoot length of maize
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Sh...
Effect of salanity on seedling
mass (fresh and dry) of maize
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 ...
Effect of salanity on seedling
mass (fresh and dry) of maize
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM...
Effect of salanity on shoot fresh
weight of maize
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Shootfreshweig...
Effect of salanity on shoot dry
weight of maize
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Shootd...
Effect of salt stress on number
of leaves of maize
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
No.ofl...
Effect of salt stress on length of
leaves of maize
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Leaf...
Effect of salt stress on width
of leaves of maize
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
LeafWi...
Comparison of 50mM and
control
Comparison of 100mM and
control
Comparison of 150mM and
control
Comparison of 200mM and
control
Comparison of 250mM and
control
Pot culture
experiment
Effect of salanity on shoot
length of maize
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Shootlength(C...
Effect of salt stress on
number of leaves of maize
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
No.ofl...
Effect of salt stress on length
of leaves of maize
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
Leaf...
Effect of salt stress on width
of leaves of maize
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM
LeafWi...
conclusion
CONCLUSION
 On the basis of present study it can be concluded that Zea
mays L. (Var. AZAM)is sensitiveto NaCl salinity.
...
Salanity
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Salanity

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the presentation is about effect of sodium chloride on maize growth is a whole story of my research in gpgc kohat

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Salanity

  1. 1.  Definition  salinity could be defined as the presence of minerals at high levels (cations: Na, K, Mg, Ca and anions: Cl, NO3, HCO3, SO4) in water and soil.
  2. 2. salanity  . It is well-known that salinity is a common stress factor in agricultural areas as a result of extensive irrigation with saline water and fertilizer application .  Salinity is one of the serious environmental problems that cause osmotic stress and reduction in plant growth and crop productivity in irrigated areas of arid and semiarid regions
  3. 3. Extent of salinity problems at national levels  In Pakistan, out of 20 million hectares of agriculture land 6.67 million hectares are salt affected . The canal irrigation system extends over about 62,400 km and is mainly confined to Indus plain.  Although irrigation covers only about 15% of the cultivated land in Pakistan, yet irrigated land has at least twice the productivity of rain- fed land, and may therefore produce one-third of the world’s food.  The reduced productivity of irrigated lands due to salinity is, therefore,it is a serious issue .
  4. 4. Extent of salinity problems at global levels  More than 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are saltaffected, either by salinity (397 million hactor) or the associated condition of sodicity (434 million hactor) .  This is over 6% of the world’s total land area. Most of this salinity, and all of the sodicity, is natural. However, a significant proportion of cultivated agricultural land has become saline because of land clearing or irrigation.  Of the 1500 million ha of land farmed by dry land agriculture, 32 million ha (2%) are affected by secondary salinity to varying degrees. Of the current( 230 million hactor) of irrigated land, 45 million ha are salt-affected .
  5. 5. Effect of salinity on plant growth  Salanity effect the plant growth in three main ways 1. Osmotic potential 2. Specific ion toxicity 3. Nutritional imbalance
  6. 6. Osmotic potential  Reduction in growth under saline conditions apparently occurs as a result of a very negative solute potential in the soil solution, which causes the overall water potential to also be quite negative, thus resulting in a decrease in the water uptake by the plant .  When the salt concentration of the soil solution increases, water potential decreases, the turgor potential of plant cells declines, and cells ultimately cease to grow.  Under these water stress conditions, in general, stomata close resulting in the reduction of photosynthesis.  Protein breakdown is enhanced and plants show poor growth.
  7. 7. Specific ion toxicity  Toxicity occurs as a result of uptake and accumulation of certain toxic ions from the irrigation water, within a crop itself.  . It is different from salinity problem and may occur even when the salinity is low. These toxic constituents include mainly sodium, chloride and sulphate. They can reduce crop productivity and eventually cause crop failures.
  8. 8. Specific ion toxicity  . It is different from salinity problem and may occur even when the salinity is low. These toxic constituents include mainly sodium, chloride and sulphate. They can reduce crop productivity and eventually cause crop failures.  Alternatively, they might build up in the cell walls and dehydrate the cell .
  9. 9. Mechanisms of salt stress Regulation  Since NaCl is the most soluble salt, plants species have developed several different mechanisms to regulate its accumulation.  Some species avoid the toxic effect of Na+ actively transporting Na+ through tonoplast and accumulating it in the vacuole against a high electrochemical gradient of Na+.  Another strategy that plants have to tolerate salinity is the synthesis of organic solutes known as osmolytes. Compounds such as sugars, proline and glycine betaine do not interfere with the cell metabolism at high concentrations but they participate in retaining water, which allows the plant to maintain its physiological functions
  10. 10. Mechanisms of salt stress Regulation  Another strategy that plants have to tolerate salinity is the synthesis of organic solutes known as osmolytes. Compounds such as sugars, proline and glycine betaine do not interfere with the cell metabolism at high concentrations but they participate in retaining water, which allows the plant to maintain its physiological functions .
  11. 11. Importance of maize  Maize or corn (Zea mays L.) occupies a key position as one of the most important cereals both for human and animal consumption.  It is not only a food product, maize-derived products have been used in various aspects in our daily life. Maize is in the third rank after wheat and rice and isgrown under diverse environmental conditions compared to other important grain crops .  The worldwide production of maize is 785 million tons. Being highly cross pollinated, maize has become highly polymorphic through the course of natural and domesticated evolution and thus contains enormous variability in which salinity tolerance may exist .
  12. 12. Importance of maize  The crop is Maize is an annual plant belonging to the grass family (Poaceae).  The kernel of maizecontainabout 80- 85% endosperm by weight .  The major component of the grain is starch. Starch is the basis for almost all industrial uses of the maize grain. Corn has a remarkable diversity of vegetative types and is grown in a wide range of environmental conditions.
  13. 13. Importance of maize  In Pakistan, maize is the third most important crop after wheat and rice. Being an important crop, maize is grown on about one million hectares with a total yield of about 2 million tones and an average yield of 1882 kg ha-1.  In view of its increasing importance, improvement in agronomic characteristics of maize has got considerable attention in Pakistan .  Maize (Zea mays L.) is an important crop in Pakistan, which is used as food and corn oil for human consumption, feed for livestock and poultry and raw material for agro-based industries.
  14. 14. Objectives  The research was conducted to determine the effect of different levels of salinity (NaCl) on the germination of seeds of maize.  To investigate other morphological attributes (Root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, number of leaves and length and width of leaves) of maize under different levels of sodium chloride stress.
  15. 15. . MATERIALS AND METHODS  The research work was conducted to evaluate the performance of maize under the different levels of salinity (NaCl) in Department of Botany, Government Post Graduate College Kohat, during the period March – June, 2015. These studies were carried out in petri plates and pot culture.
  16. 16. Seed source, Collection of soil and Surface sterilization  The experimental studies were conducted on maize kernels (Var. AZAM), obtained from Agriculture Research Station, Sarai Naurang, Khyber Pakhtunkhw.  Loamy soil was collected from the lawn of Govt. Post Graduate College Kohat for pots culture experiments.  Before treating the maize kernels with salt concentrations in both Petri plates and pots experiments, they were surface sterilized in 70% ethyle alcohol for five minutes, then rinsed in distilled water for three times in order to avoid the chemical effects of ethanol and then put on a sterilized filter paper.
  17. 17. Laboratory experiments  Morphologically uniform and healthy seeds of maize were soaked and allowed to germinate in petriplates (110 mm diameter, 9 mm height) containing nutrients free washed sand.  For each treatment, three replications with ten (10) seeds per replication were used. Five different concentrations (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM, 200 mM and 250 mM) of salt solution were prepared.  The seeds in Petri-dishes allocated to the control were moistened with 30 millilitres of distilled water while that of the Petri-dishes allocated to the other treatments were moistened with 30 millilitres of the appropriate concentrations of the salt solution.  The Petri dishes were incubated at room temperature in the dark and were treated with appropriate quantity of distilled water and salt concentrations every second day.
  18. 18. Pot culture experiments  Pot culture experiments were conducted in a greenhouse environment in the lawn of Botnay Department, Government Post Graduate College Kohat. Earthenware pots were filled with loamy soil.  Healthy seeds of maize washed with sterilized distilled water and soaked in water for 4-5 hours.  The kernels were sown at 2cm depth.  Each experiment was replicated three times with 5 seeds per pot. The planted seeds were irrigated with distilled water different levels of salt solutions (50 mM, 100 mM, 150 mM, 200 mM and 250 mM).  Pots were irrigated every second day with respective solutions. After 40 days, maize plants were harvested and their following morphological attributes were measured and noted.
  19. 19.  Libortry experiment data
  20. 20. Germination response to salt stress  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Germination% Salt treatment 48h 72h 96h * * *
  21. 21. Effect of salt solutions on root length of maize 0 5 10 15 20 25 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Rootlength(Cm) Salt treatment ** * * *
  22. 22. Effect of salt solutions on shoot length of maize 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Shootlength(Cm) Salt treatment * * * *
  23. 23. Effect of salanity on seedling mass (fresh and dry) of maize 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Rootfreshweight(g) Salt treatment * * * *
  24. 24. Effect of salanity on seedling mass (fresh and dry) of maize 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Rootdryweight(g) Salt treatment * * * *
  25. 25. Effect of salanity on shoot fresh weight of maize 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Shootfreshweight(g) Salt treatment * * * * *
  26. 26. Effect of salanity on shoot dry weight of maize 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Shootdryweight(g) Salt treatment * * * * *
  27. 27. Effect of salt stress on number of leaves of maize 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM No.ofleaves Salt treatment * ** **
  28. 28. Effect of salt stress on length of leaves of maize 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Leaflenght(Cm) Salt treatment *
  29. 29. Effect of salt stress on width of leaves of maize 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM LeafWidth(Cm) Salt treatment
  30. 30. Comparison of 50mM and control
  31. 31. Comparison of 100mM and control
  32. 32. Comparison of 150mM and control
  33. 33. Comparison of 200mM and control
  34. 34. Comparison of 250mM and control
  35. 35. Pot culture experiment
  36. 36. Effect of salanity on shoot length of maize 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Shootlength(Cm) Salt treatment * * *
  37. 37. Effect of salt stress on number of leaves of maize 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM No.ofleaves Salt treatment * ** **
  38. 38. Effect of salt stress on length of leaves of maize 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM Leaflenght(Cm) Salt treatment *
  39. 39. Effect of salt stress on width of leaves of maize 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 Control 50 mM 100 mM 150 mM 200 mM 250 mM LeafWidth(Cm) Salt treatment
  40. 40. conclusion
  41. 41. CONCLUSION  On the basis of present study it can be concluded that Zea mays L. (Var. AZAM)is sensitiveto NaCl salinity.  The study indicates that the saline growth medium had an adverse effect on germination and other growth attributes of maize.  The growth inhibitory effect of NaCl were more pronounced in concentrated solutions (150 mM, 200mM and 250 mM of NaCl as compared to the 0mM, 50mM and 100 mM of NaCl.  Application of NaCl significantly decreased the morphological attributes of maize such as seed germination, root and shoot length of seedlings, fresh and dry weights of roots and shoots, number of leaves and leaf length and width of maize, especially at higher concentrations, in both laboratory and pot culture experiments.

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