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Historical Foundations of 
Curriculum 
Curriculum Development 
in the Philippines 
Karel Mie M. Prado
Historical Perspectives on Curriculum 
Development 
1. The religious; 
2. The political; 
3. The utilitarian; 
4. The mass education; 
5. The motive for excellence in Education
The Curriculum: Different Dimensions 
Traditional 
- defined curriculum as a group of subjects arranged 
in a certain sequence peculiar to the subject field 
itself for the purpose of the instruction. 
Modern 
- Consist of all experiences for learning which are 
planned and organized by the school.
Curriculum Planning and Curriculum 
Development 
Curriculum Plan 
- the advance arrangement of learning opportunities 
for a particular population of learners. 
- written curriculum is what we know as curriculum 
guide. 
Curriculum Planning 
- the process whereby these arrangement of 
curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created
Curriculum Planning and Curriculum 
Development (cont.) 
Curriculum Development 
- the process of selecting , organizing, executing and 
evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the 
needs, abilities and interest of learners and the nature of 
the society and community. 
- is a cooperative venture among teachers, 
supervisors, curriculum expert, learners, parents and non-school 
people.
Curriculum Planning and Curriculum 
Development (cont.) 
Considerations Factors: 
1. The nature of society which includes the cultural 
heritage, the needs and demands as well as the 
economic, social, political, cultural, moral and other 
problems of the people. 
2. The interests, the needs, previous experiences and 
problems of the learners, and 
3. The educational and psychological principles 
based on the findings of scientific studies and 
experimentations.
Curriculum Planning and Curriculum 
Development (cont.) 
Curriculum Laboratory 
- is a place or workshop where curriculum 
materials are gathered or used by teachers or 
learners. 
Resource Unit 
- is a collection or suggested learning activities 
and materials organized around a given topic or area 
which a teacher might utilize in planning, developing 
and evaluating a learning unit.
Curriculum Planning and Curriculum 
Development (cont.) 
- It consists of the following parts: 
1. Introduction or short explanation of the 
importance of the topic; 
2. Objective or anticipated outcomes; 
3. Content of the unit; 
4. Unit. Activities; 
5. Evaluation; and 
6. Bibliography of useful materials
Curriculum Planning and Curriculum 
Development (cont.) 
Course of Study 
- is an official guide prepared for use by the 
administrators, supervisors, and teachers of a 
particular school or school system as an aid to 
teaching a given subject or areas of study for a given 
level or grade, combinations of grades or other 
designated class or group of learners. 
1. Aims of the course; 
2. The expected outcomes; 
3. The scope and nature of materials to be studies;
Curriculum Planning and Curriculum 
Development (cont.) 
4. Suitable instructional aids; 
5. Textbooks; 
6. Supplementary activities; 
7. Teaching methods; and 
8. Techniques of evaluation of achievements.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Pre-Spanish Curriculum 
 They did not have an organized system of 
education 
 Ideas and facts were acquired through suggestion, 
observation, example and imitation. 
 The diaries of Fr. Chirino attest to the historical fact 
that “the inhabitants were civilized people, 
possessing their writing, laws and moral standards 
in a well-organized system of government.”
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Spanish- devised Curriculum 
 The Spanish Missionaries were the teachers during 
that time. 
 Spanish curriculum then consisted of the three R’s 
– reading, writing and religion, with undue 
emphasis on the last tools for perpetuating the 
colonial order.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Spanish- devised Curriculum (cont.) 
 According to Fr. Modesto de Castro, author of 
Urbana at Felisa(1877), the curriculum for the boys 
and girls was aimed to: 
1. teach young boys and girls to serve and love 
God. 
2. discover what is good and proper for one’s self, 
3. enable the individual to get along well with his 
neighbor.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The American-devised Curriculum 
 The public school system established and headed 
by an American until 1935, was to train the Filipinos 
after the American culture and way of life. 
 The curriculum was based on the ideals and 
traditions of America and her hierarchy. 
The primary curriculum prescribed in 1904 by the 
Americans for the Filipinos consisted of three grades 
provides training in two aspects.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The American-devised Curriculum (cont.) 
a. Body Trainings- singing, drawing, handwork, 
and physical education. 
b. Mental Training – English(reading, writing, 
conversation, phonetics, and spelling), nature study, 
and arithmetic. In Grade 3 geography and civic were 
added to the list of subjects.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The American-devised Curriculum (cont.) 
Intermediate Curriculum 
- Arithmetic, Geography, Science and English. 
Science included plant life, physiology and sanitation. 
Collegiate Level 
- normal schools were opened with a teacher’s 
training curriculum appropriate for elementary 
mentors.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Curriculum During the Commonwealth (1935- 
1946) 
 Considered as the period of expansion and reform 
in the Philippine curriculum. 
 The educational leaders expanded the curriculum 
by introducing courses in farming, trade, business, 
domestic science, etc. 
 The start of operation of the collegiate normal 
schools in 1939 and there was two years training 
beyond the high school.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Curriculum During the Commonwealth (1935- 
1946) cont. 
 Commonwealth Act 586, also known as Education 
Act of 1940, reorganized the elementary school 
system by eliminating Grade VII
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Japanese-devised Curriculum (1941-1945) 
 Nippongo and abolishing English as the medium of 
instruction and as a subject. 
 Causes a blackout in the Philippines education and 
impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Curriculum during the Liberation Period 
 1945, the liberation period, steps were taken to 
improve the curriculum existing before the war. 
a. restore the Grade VII 
b. abolish the double-single session 
c. adopt the modern trends in education taken 
from the United Sates. 
 However, their efforts remained in ideational stage.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic 
 Great experiments in the community school idea 
and the use of the vernacular in the first two grades 
in the primary. 
 School and community collaboration pioneered by 
Jose V. Aguilar. Because of the successful 
implementation it was given the official cognizance 
by the Bureau of Public schools in June 1949.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic (cont.) 
Instructional materials that will give emphasis on the 
following area: 
1. The improvement of home industries so that they 
will be patronized. 
2. The appreciation of the services of great men and 
women of our country. 
3. Preservation of our cultural heritage.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic (cont.) 
 The DEPED , attempts to keep up with the changing 
economic and social conditions of the country. The 
areas studied include social studies, health and 
science, language arts, arithmetic, arts and 
physical education and work education. 
 In the elementary level, vocational education was 
introduced, namely in the six major areas: 
agricultural education, business education, fishery, 
home economics, home industries and trade 
industrial education, including girls trade courses.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic (cont.) 
 Massive development of the working education. 
 Establishments of vocational schools. 
 Usage of media in teaching
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Soceity 
 “To guarantee that the educational system would 
be relevant and responsive to the challenges and 
requirements of national, provincial and local 
government.”, by Pres. Ferdinand Marcos pursuant 
to proclamation No. 1081 on Sept. 29. 1972, Decree 
No. 6 known as the Educational Development 
Decree of 1972, to take effect immediately. 
 Aims to make the school responsive to the needs 
of the New Society.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) 
 Has a 10 year program based on a number of 
principles: 
1. Improvement of curricular programs and quality of 
instructions at all levels by upgrading physical 
facilities; 
2. Adopting cost-saving instructional technology and 
training and retraining of teachers and administrators; 
3. Upgrading of academic standards through 
accreditation schemes, admission testing and 
guidance counseling
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) 
4. democratization of access to education by financial 
assistance to poor but deserving students, skills 
training programs for out of school youth and a 
continuing educational program for illiterate adults. 
 Teaching of land and agrarian reforms 
 Family Planning and the Philippine constitution 
subjects is compulsory in the collegiate level. 
 Alien schools will not be solely owned by the alien and 
must follow the basic curriculum of DEPED.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) 
The curricular redirection of the in the New Society can be 
briefly summarized as follows: 
1. The curriculum should be directed to place more stress 
on development of moral virtues particularly discipline, 
honesty, social responsibility, thrift, hard work, and 
obedience. 
2. As means of integrating education and life, the content 
of all subject areas at all levels shall be related to the 
conditions of the times, to the actual needs of the 
people and the country,
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) 
The curricular redirection of the in the New Society can be briefly 
summarized as follows: 
3. The curriculum should reflect the urgent needs and problems 
facing the country today and should therefore include: Population 
Education, Nutrition, Food Production, Wise conversation and 
Utilization of Natural resources, Tax Consciousness, Cooperative 
Education, Consumer Education and Buy-Filipino Movement. 
4. The curriculum should be viewed not in terms of facts or subjects 
matter to be mastered but in terms of learnings to be acquired and 
applied in meeting everyday situations.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) 
The curricular redirection of the in the New Society can be briefly 
summarized as follows: 
5. All teaching shall seek to develop comprehensive understanding 
of all the subjects, their interrelationship and their significance to 
everyday living. 
6. Co-curricular youth programs shall be restructured and enriched 
to channel youth activities to positive and productive endeavors. 
7. Non-formal education or extension services for the community 
shall be recognized and credited as part of the school curriculum.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Society (cont.) 
The reforms in teaching methodology are as follows; 
1. Objectives of instruction shall specify behavioral changes as 
primary outcomes of learning activities. 
2. More and more, teaching strategies that are inquiry –and – 
problem –oriented should be adopted in order to develop the 
ability to think, rationalize and make proper decisions. 
3. Guidance and research should be given greater emphasis. 
4. Courses should be restructured to allow testing in actual 
practice of theories learned in classrooms. 
5. More opportunity should be given to out-of-class room learning.
Curriculum Development in the 
Philippines 
Curriculum in The New Society (cont.) 
The reforms in teaching methodology are as follows; 
6. Evaluative methods should accordingly be revised. 
7. Inventive in the form of scholarship shall be provided for 
students to take technical and vocational courses.
The End

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Curriculum development in the Philippines by Karel Mie M. Prado

  • 1. Historical Foundations of Curriculum Curriculum Development in the Philippines Karel Mie M. Prado
  • 2. Historical Perspectives on Curriculum Development 1. The religious; 2. The political; 3. The utilitarian; 4. The mass education; 5. The motive for excellence in Education
  • 3. The Curriculum: Different Dimensions Traditional - defined curriculum as a group of subjects arranged in a certain sequence peculiar to the subject field itself for the purpose of the instruction. Modern - Consist of all experiences for learning which are planned and organized by the school.
  • 4. Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Development Curriculum Plan - the advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particular population of learners. - written curriculum is what we know as curriculum guide. Curriculum Planning - the process whereby these arrangement of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created
  • 5. Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Development (cont.) Curriculum Development - the process of selecting , organizing, executing and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities and interest of learners and the nature of the society and community. - is a cooperative venture among teachers, supervisors, curriculum expert, learners, parents and non-school people.
  • 6. Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Development (cont.) Considerations Factors: 1. The nature of society which includes the cultural heritage, the needs and demands as well as the economic, social, political, cultural, moral and other problems of the people. 2. The interests, the needs, previous experiences and problems of the learners, and 3. The educational and psychological principles based on the findings of scientific studies and experimentations.
  • 7. Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Development (cont.) Curriculum Laboratory - is a place or workshop where curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners. Resource Unit - is a collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilize in planning, developing and evaluating a learning unit.
  • 8. Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Development (cont.) - It consists of the following parts: 1. Introduction or short explanation of the importance of the topic; 2. Objective or anticipated outcomes; 3. Content of the unit; 4. Unit. Activities; 5. Evaluation; and 6. Bibliography of useful materials
  • 9. Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Development (cont.) Course of Study - is an official guide prepared for use by the administrators, supervisors, and teachers of a particular school or school system as an aid to teaching a given subject or areas of study for a given level or grade, combinations of grades or other designated class or group of learners. 1. Aims of the course; 2. The expected outcomes; 3. The scope and nature of materials to be studies;
  • 10. Curriculum Planning and Curriculum Development (cont.) 4. Suitable instructional aids; 5. Textbooks; 6. Supplementary activities; 7. Teaching methods; and 8. Techniques of evaluation of achievements.
  • 11. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Pre-Spanish Curriculum  They did not have an organized system of education  Ideas and facts were acquired through suggestion, observation, example and imitation.  The diaries of Fr. Chirino attest to the historical fact that “the inhabitants were civilized people, possessing their writing, laws and moral standards in a well-organized system of government.”
  • 12. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Spanish- devised Curriculum  The Spanish Missionaries were the teachers during that time.  Spanish curriculum then consisted of the three R’s – reading, writing and religion, with undue emphasis on the last tools for perpetuating the colonial order.
  • 13. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Spanish- devised Curriculum (cont.)  According to Fr. Modesto de Castro, author of Urbana at Felisa(1877), the curriculum for the boys and girls was aimed to: 1. teach young boys and girls to serve and love God. 2. discover what is good and proper for one’s self, 3. enable the individual to get along well with his neighbor.
  • 14. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The American-devised Curriculum  The public school system established and headed by an American until 1935, was to train the Filipinos after the American culture and way of life.  The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of America and her hierarchy. The primary curriculum prescribed in 1904 by the Americans for the Filipinos consisted of three grades provides training in two aspects.
  • 15. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The American-devised Curriculum (cont.) a. Body Trainings- singing, drawing, handwork, and physical education. b. Mental Training – English(reading, writing, conversation, phonetics, and spelling), nature study, and arithmetic. In Grade 3 geography and civic were added to the list of subjects.
  • 16. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The American-devised Curriculum (cont.) Intermediate Curriculum - Arithmetic, Geography, Science and English. Science included plant life, physiology and sanitation. Collegiate Level - normal schools were opened with a teacher’s training curriculum appropriate for elementary mentors.
  • 17. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum During the Commonwealth (1935- 1946)  Considered as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum.  The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing courses in farming, trade, business, domestic science, etc.  The start of operation of the collegiate normal schools in 1939 and there was two years training beyond the high school.
  • 18. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum During the Commonwealth (1935- 1946) cont.  Commonwealth Act 586, also known as Education Act of 1940, reorganized the elementary school system by eliminating Grade VII
  • 19. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Japanese-devised Curriculum (1941-1945)  Nippongo and abolishing English as the medium of instruction and as a subject.  Causes a blackout in the Philippines education and impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos.
  • 20. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum during the Liberation Period  1945, the liberation period, steps were taken to improve the curriculum existing before the war. a. restore the Grade VII b. abolish the double-single session c. adopt the modern trends in education taken from the United Sates.  However, their efforts remained in ideational stage.
  • 21. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic  Great experiments in the community school idea and the use of the vernacular in the first two grades in the primary.  School and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. Aguilar. Because of the successful implementation it was given the official cognizance by the Bureau of Public schools in June 1949.
  • 22. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic (cont.) Instructional materials that will give emphasis on the following area: 1. The improvement of home industries so that they will be patronized. 2. The appreciation of the services of great men and women of our country. 3. Preservation of our cultural heritage.
  • 23. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic (cont.)  The DEPED , attempts to keep up with the changing economic and social conditions of the country. The areas studied include social studies, health and science, language arts, arithmetic, arts and physical education and work education.  In the elementary level, vocational education was introduced, namely in the six major areas: agricultural education, business education, fishery, home economics, home industries and trade industrial education, including girls trade courses.
  • 24. Curriculum Development in the Philippines The Curriculum during the Philippine Republic (cont.)  Massive development of the working education.  Establishments of vocational schools.  Usage of media in teaching
  • 25. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Soceity  “To guarantee that the educational system would be relevant and responsive to the challenges and requirements of national, provincial and local government.”, by Pres. Ferdinand Marcos pursuant to proclamation No. 1081 on Sept. 29. 1972, Decree No. 6 known as the Educational Development Decree of 1972, to take effect immediately.  Aims to make the school responsive to the needs of the New Society.
  • 26. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.)  Has a 10 year program based on a number of principles: 1. Improvement of curricular programs and quality of instructions at all levels by upgrading physical facilities; 2. Adopting cost-saving instructional technology and training and retraining of teachers and administrators; 3. Upgrading of academic standards through accreditation schemes, admission testing and guidance counseling
  • 27. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) 4. democratization of access to education by financial assistance to poor but deserving students, skills training programs for out of school youth and a continuing educational program for illiterate adults.  Teaching of land and agrarian reforms  Family Planning and the Philippine constitution subjects is compulsory in the collegiate level.  Alien schools will not be solely owned by the alien and must follow the basic curriculum of DEPED.
  • 28. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) The curricular redirection of the in the New Society can be briefly summarized as follows: 1. The curriculum should be directed to place more stress on development of moral virtues particularly discipline, honesty, social responsibility, thrift, hard work, and obedience. 2. As means of integrating education and life, the content of all subject areas at all levels shall be related to the conditions of the times, to the actual needs of the people and the country,
  • 29. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) The curricular redirection of the in the New Society can be briefly summarized as follows: 3. The curriculum should reflect the urgent needs and problems facing the country today and should therefore include: Population Education, Nutrition, Food Production, Wise conversation and Utilization of Natural resources, Tax Consciousness, Cooperative Education, Consumer Education and Buy-Filipino Movement. 4. The curriculum should be viewed not in terms of facts or subjects matter to be mastered but in terms of learnings to be acquired and applied in meeting everyday situations.
  • 30. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Soceity (cont.) The curricular redirection of the in the New Society can be briefly summarized as follows: 5. All teaching shall seek to develop comprehensive understanding of all the subjects, their interrelationship and their significance to everyday living. 6. Co-curricular youth programs shall be restructured and enriched to channel youth activities to positive and productive endeavors. 7. Non-formal education or extension services for the community shall be recognized and credited as part of the school curriculum.
  • 31. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Society (cont.) The reforms in teaching methodology are as follows; 1. Objectives of instruction shall specify behavioral changes as primary outcomes of learning activities. 2. More and more, teaching strategies that are inquiry –and – problem –oriented should be adopted in order to develop the ability to think, rationalize and make proper decisions. 3. Guidance and research should be given greater emphasis. 4. Courses should be restructured to allow testing in actual practice of theories learned in classrooms. 5. More opportunity should be given to out-of-class room learning.
  • 32. Curriculum Development in the Philippines Curriculum in The New Society (cont.) The reforms in teaching methodology are as follows; 6. Evaluative methods should accordingly be revised. 7. Inventive in the form of scholarship shall be provided for students to take technical and vocational courses.