What makes our teaching effective?
How do we know that we are effective
What do effective teachers do?
“I’m an eclectic teacher.”
“My class is very communicative.”
“I use task-based teaching.”
“I always support my students.”
“I use authentic activities and materials.”
“My classes are student-centered.”
“I promote autonomous learning.”
“My activities are very engaging.”
“I never use Filipino in my classroom.”
“My students like my classes.”
“I teach my students learning strategies.”
“My English is very good.”
“I always plan my classes.”
“I studied at University [Insert Name].”
Are my students learning?
What do my students know?
What can my students do?
What are my students’ strengths and
What can I do to help my students learn the
Language assessment is any process used to
gather information about student learning to
improve or facilitate language learning.
Assessment plays a key role in the teaching
and learning of a second or foreign language.
It is the only means teachers have to verify
that their students are actually learning.
Through classroom assessment we can:
Integrate teaching and learning.
Improve student learning.
Language assessment is a very useful process
that has the power to inform and the power to
They provide information.
They can generate changes.
They can guide the decision-making
Language assessment provides valuable
information about different aspects of the
Language assessment has the potential to
generate changes in individuals’
Language assessment provides guidance on
the decisions teachers need to make in the
what to do next
what to reinforce
when to move on
Assessments are even more powerful if they
are the only criteria used to make critical
decisions that could have an impact in the
educational system and its stakeholders.
Tests and testing systems are subject to abuse
because test scores and test interpretations
are put to a host of different uses.
Tests are used unethically for other purposes
than they were originally intended for.
To avoid abuses, the purpose of any test
should be made explicit and public.
To exercise power and control
to control attendance
to control discipline
Assessment of learning
Assessment for learning
Assessment as learning
Assessment is summative in nature.
It is used for accountability purposes.
It documents how much the students have
The main goal of assessment is to assign a
Assessment is formative in nature.
It is used to improve the language learning
It provides information about what students
have to learn, how much they have learned,
and what they need to do to improve.
Assessment is an integral part of the
Each assessment provides the learners an
opportunity to continue learning.
Assessment provides students with an
opportunity to use the language in “real-life”
Gather information about what students know
and can do.
Use different ways to collect information.
Quantify the information if needed.
Interpret and judge the information.
Make decisions based on these
Assessment: to gather information about
students, about student learning
Testing: one way to gather information
Measurement: quantify the information
Evaluation: judge the information
There seems to be a disconnect between
theory and practice when it comes to
What teacher believe is not exactly what
Most language assessment practices are not
There is a lack of teacher education and
teacher training in language assessment.
There is a lot of emphasis on language
teaching, but not necessarily on language
There is a generalized negative perception
There is a tendency to simply equate
assessment to grades.
National Bilingual Program
2008:The year of evaluation
Reflect on how you are currently using
Make an effort to train yourself on using
language assessment appropriately.
Make language assessment
1. The assessment process is
Democratic assessment is an assessment process in
which all stakeholders participate actively.
It’s a process that is people-centered.
It’s a way to empower stakeholders.
It’s a process where students have control of their
It’s a process that allows students to reflect on their
own learning (i.e. self-assessment and peer-
assessment) in order to improve.
2. The assessment process must be
The purpose of the assessment
What to assess
How you assess
When to assess
How to score the assessment
How to interpret the assessment
How the assessment is used
3. Give appropriate instructions
Instructions should be clear.
The language of the instructions should
match the language level of the
All students must have a clear
understanding of what they have to do
to demonstrate their knowledge,
abilities or competence.
4. Make assessment an ongoing
Teachers assess at the beginning of the teaching-
learning process (diagnostic assessment).
Teachers assess during the process (formative
Teachers assess at the end of the process
5. Assess using different criteria
Different assessment instruments.
Different types of tasks.
Different ways to interpret
6. Use “authentic” assessments
It allows teachers to make valid
inferences about your students.
It will enhance the students ability to
A form of assessment in which students are
asked to perform ‘real-world’ tasks or ‘real-
classroom’ tasks that demonstrate
meaningful application of essential
knowledge and skills.
6. Contextualize assessments
It gives the assessment task a
It will allow students to make
It will allow students to apply their
• Decontextualized:Write three sentences
• Contextualized:The school wants people to
get to know our beautiful country. For this
reason, the principal is asking students to
write sentences to describe Colombia.Write
three sentences about Colombia and post
them in the bulleting board .
7. Use appropriate tasks
The level of the tasks should be appropriate
according to the students’ needs and interests.
Tasks should reflect the students’ language
level, age, interests, and cognitive
The tasks should give all students the
opportunity to demonstrate all their language
knowledge and abilities.
Tasks should be engaging and fun for students.
8. Use integrated assessments
Do not assess skills (e.g. reading, listening,
writing, speaking, grammar, vocabulary,
pronunciation) in isolation.
Use tasks that require students to use more
than one skill or sub-skill in order to
It’s more authentic.
9. Have clear scoring procedures
Teachers must have a clear systematic scoring
These scoring procedures should allow
teachers to consistently score students’
This scoring scheme should inform teachers
and students where the students should be,
where they are, and what they need to do get
10. Align assessments to instruction
Assessment tasks should aligned to instruction.
Tasks should be similar to the tasks that are
done in class.
The cognitive level of the assessment tasks are
similar to the ones on the classroom tasks.
This allows students to transfer what they are
learning in class during the assessment.
11. Empower your students
Students are the central part of the
Students should accept this responsibility
and take control of their learning process.
Make assessment a democratic process.
Use self-assessment and peer-
12. Provide feedback to your
students (formative assessment)
Teachers should provide guide and feedback
that will allow students to enhance the learning
Feedback is immediate and ongoing.
Feedback highlights the students’ strengths
Students should make sense of the feedback.
Provide qualitative feedback (descriptive).
12. Assessment should be fair.
The assessment should provide all students an
equal opportunity to demonstrate what they
Assessment items or tasks should be free of any
bias and should not offend anyone.
The items/tasks should not favor any specific
group of language learners (female/male,
The assessment should provide all students
an equal opportunity to demonstrate what
they have learned.
Assessment items or tasks should be free of
any bias and should not offend anyone.
The items/tasks should not favor any
specific group of language learners
(female/male, old/young, etc.).
Describe your favorite basketball team.
Write a paragraph describing your last
Describe what you do with your father on
Write an essay explaining why men are better
Make sure that you are trained on how to use
language assessments appropriately.
Contribute changing the negative
perceptions that people have about
Start first by making sure you have a positive
perception about assessment.
Use an assessment system that is truly