The sectoral environmental responsibility is a general principle in the Norwegian Government’s environmental policy, and all governmental sectors are instructed to follow up on the 4 bullet points on the slide. The sectors are also instructed to provide information on the costs of planned or implemented actions to eliminate or mitigate negative environmental effects within each sector. The operational parts of the sectoral environmental responsibility are delegated to the different transport departments (roads, rails, airports and coast).
The Environmental Vision is decided upon by the Directors of all the 4 transport agencies: Norwegian Public Roads Administration (Vegvesenet) Norwegian National Rail Administration (Jernbaneverket) Avinor AS (a wholly state-owned limited company, responsible for planning, operation and maintenance of civil aviation infrastructure) The Norwegian Coastal Administration (Kystverket) The Environmental Vision is a parallel to the traffic safety 0-vision (Vision Zero); “Nobody shall be killed or severely injured in road accidents”.
The Sectoral Environmental Responsibility has, among other things, lead to recruitment and development of a broad spectre of environmental competence inside the NPRA, counting approx 150 employees on national, regional and local level. The NPRA has a close co-operation with the major education centres, as universities and polytechnic colleges. Research and development projects are actively carried out by the NPRA, or in co-operation with scientific agencies and companies. The NPRA has an extensive international activity, both on purely scientific basis and in connection with aid projects. Environmental issues are often included.
2006: The NPRA is responsible for approx. 28.000 km state roads and approx. 28.000 km county roads About 1.3 million people (out of 4.6 mill.) are exposed to road traffic noise levels exceeding 55 dBA outside their homes. 200 000 people are influenced by local air pollution (dust) above the limit. 150.000 tonnes of de-icing salt is used our roads each year, and it is increasing
The transport sector is responsible for 26% of the total Norwegian emissions of CO2. Road traffic is responsible for 18%. Industry approx. 30% Oil production 30%
The ecological effects of roads and road transport include habitat loss and degradation, pollution, and animal-vehicle collisions. In addition, roads impose movement barriers to many animals, barriers that together with our deep valleys, long fjords and high mountain ranges can isolate populations and lead to long-term population declines, and in the worst case, local extinction of species. The barrier effect is limited by a restrictive use of wildlife fences, building of over- and underpasses for animals, and adaptation or modification of pipes and culverts for handling water. Problem zones or -sites along the existing road network are now being registered, in order to mitigate or completely eliminate the negative impact on the ecology.
The presence of the moose gives us some special challenges when it comes to traffic safety and wildlife.
The NPRA has in cooperation with The Directorate of Cultural Heritage (Riksantikvaren) produced a protection plan for all roads and road related items of cultural importance from a national point of view. The items on the protection list includes about 350 ancient roads, highways, bridges and other relics associated with roads, and 26 buildings and 104 items of machinery. The items on the list are distributed throughout the whole country. The period in question covers the years from about 1537 until today. The principal purpose of the plan is to procure and provide information, and to safeguard – also for future generations – information about ancient highways and the environment regarding these. At the same time, the work will also add to the NPRA’s competence with regard to ancient monuments. The intention is to protect all governmentally owned items by law.
The EU directive 2002/49/EC Assessment and management of environmental noise is implemented in our legal framework as a part of a regulation to the Pollution Control Act. About 1.3 million people (out of 4.6 mill) are exposed to road traffic noise levels exceeding 55 dBA outside their homes. Road traffic accounts for about 78 per cent of the total noise annoyance in Norway. In Norway, indoor noise levels shall not exceed a 24 hours average level of 42 dBA.
Air quality measurements in the largest cities have shown that Norway have a challenge in fulfilling the EU-directives on local air quality. The main reason being the use of metal studded winter tyres. The most effective measure is to reduce the use by charging a fee on the use of studded tyres (NOK 30,- pr. day, NOK 400,- pr. month) in the three largest cities (Oslo, Bergen and Trondheim). The goal is to reduce the number of cars with studded tyres to less than 20%. In Oslo two main arterial roads have reduced speed limits (60 km/h) during winter. The reduction in small particles has been measured to 30-40%. Air quality is monitored in the larger cities, a website. Planning of new roads must be assessed with respect to air quality
EU directive is being implemented, pollution is assessed and plans for mitigating measures will be developed Sedimentary ponds are built along the largest roads, and in or outside tunnels, to reduce the pollution from run-off water. Use of studded tyres increase the amount of particles in the run-off water. Particle bound heavy metals and PAH are deposited to a certain degree, but up to now no ponds can handle dissolved heavy metal effectively. Some new ponds will be prepared for use of additional filter to clean dissolved pollutants more effective. The use of de-icing salt has been heavily increased the last years in Norway. (140.000 tonnes of salt/year). Salt will not deposit in sedimentary ponds. On some road stretches the use of de-icing salt has been stopped to protect sources for drinking water.
Alle sykkelbyene har nå en plan for sykkelvegnett - 2 hadde det ved oppstart.. Alle har inspisert, men er usikker på omfanget av utbedringer.. Alle har gjort noe mht til markedsføring - avisartikler, lokale arrangement, nettsider, &quot;sykkelglede (magasin) til alle husstander i byen - sendt ut fra regionen.. Nytt tilrettelagt - vet ikke ennå, men en del i Kongsberg og Sandefjord.. 30/40 - vet ikke.. FOU - tja - vi skal jo evaluere selv - med en form for sykkelregnskap...
Erfaringer har vist at tilrettelegging for økt sykling ikke er tilstrekkelig, dersom det samtidig legges like godt eller enda bedre til rette for øvrige transportmidler. Den enkelte velger til enhver tid det transportmiddel som er best egnet for den aktuelle reise. Valget bestemmes også av økonomi og tilgang til bil, kollektivtransport eller sykkel. Når det samtidig er et mål å øke andelen kollektivreiser og gange, betyr det at det er konkurranseforholdet til bilkjøring som må endres i sykkelens favør. Virkemidler som redusert vegkapasitet, en restriktiv parkeringspolitikk i byene, vegprising, rushtidsprising og parkeringsavgifter må også tas i bruk. Erfaringer fra andre land i Europa bekrefter det kreves en helhetlig innsats for å oppnå økt sykling. En rapport fra Nederland har sammenliknet sykling i byer i Nederland, Tyskland, Belgia og Danmark. Her er det beskrevet hvilke faktorer som har hatt størst betydning for høy andel sykling. Den viktigste forutsetningen er forskjell i reisetid mellom bil og sykkel, nivå på parkeringsavgifter for bil, kollektivandel, utbyggingsmønster (tetthet), topografi, klima og befolkningssammensetning (alder, religion, sivilstatus og arbeidsforhold). ( Kilde: Continuous and integral: The cycling policies of Groningen and other European cycling cities. 2006 ).
Med sykkkelfelt blir kjørebanen 8-9m og det kan være vanskelig få bilene til å holde farte som er lavere enn 40-50 km uten fysiske tiltak som fartshumper. Denne løsningen anbefales derfor der trafikken er moderat til farten opp til 60 km /t. For de trygghetssøkende syklistene, barn og eldre bør det i tillegg være fortau eller bakgater som kan brukes. På grunn av trafikksikkerheten er sykkelfelt den beste løsningen i by der det er tett med vegkryss, og langs innfartsårer
Sammeløsninger brukes i Danmark med gode erfaringer
Aesthetic values, residential environments, biological diversity and cultural monuments are all aspects that need to be incorporated into road planning. Roads are aligned and designed in accordance with two main principles; either as a positive contrast to the environment, or adapted to and anchored in it. For most roads the principle of adaptation will be the natural choice. The Norwegian landscape constitutes a significant challenge to road planners and engineers, and demands a multi-disciplinary approach in planning, construction, and maintenance of roads. The Road Director’s “Beautiful Roads Award” was established in 1989 in order to encourage high quality road architecture. The prize is now awarded every 2nd year. Norway have signed The European Landscape Convention, giving us a special responsibility to take landscape values into consideration in strategic planning, feasibility studies, detailed planning, and management of the roads.