Training and Development in KAL


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Training and Development in KAL

  3. 3. Training and Development Programme in KAL Chapter 1 introduction Page | 1UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  4. 4. Training and Development Programme in KAL1. INTRODUCTION Human resource development is based on inherent potential in every human whichcan be manifested by giving management direction and orientation. Human resource is anunpredictable resource but it has unlimited potential. HRD process maximizes the use ofhuman resource by way of optimizing competence of future challenges and utilizingunemployed resource. The roles and activities of HRD mechanism being used andfacilities, opportunities provided. Thus the role of HRD starts from the analysis of theorganizational objectives /goals characteristics of available resources and desiredspecification. Manpower planning, recruitment, placement, performance appraisal,reward, punishments and maintenance of resource, organizational climate etc. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of employee for doing ajob. It is concerned with imparting specific skills for particular purposes. Training is notsomething that is given only once to new employees. All employees new and old learnreceive training throughout their stay in organization. This is so because in the process ofdirecting employees‟ efforts and administering rewards and punishments to them themanager continually shapes their behavior everyday whether consciously orunconsciously. Training program focused more on preparation for improved performancein a particular job. Most of the training used to be form operative levels like mechanicsmachine operators and other kind of skilled workers. When the problems of supervisionincreased the steps were taken to train. Supervisors for better supervision however theemployees was more on mechanical aspects. Page | 2UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  5. 5. Training and Development Programme in KAL1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY To study the effectiveness of training programs being undertaken in KAL. To measure the satisfaction level of employees about training at KAL. To evaluate various training methods and types of training programs offered by KAL from responses of its employees. To give any suggestion if required regarding the training program in KAL.1.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study was conducted in KAL. The scope of study is to evaluate the varioustraining methods and developments in KAL.1.3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research methodology is the way to systematically solve the research problem. Itmay be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. Thus it isnecessary to know not only the research method techniques but also methodology.1.3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN The research design adopted in this study is descriptive research design.Descriptive research includes survey and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. Themajor purpose of descriptive research is the description of the state of affairs as it existsat present. Page | 3UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  6. 6. Training and Development Programme in KAL1.3.2 RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Structured questionnaire1.3.3 DATA COLLECTION The methodology of the study is through collecting the primary and secondarydata.PRIMARY DATA The primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time andthus happen to be original in character. Primary data has been collected throughquestionnaire. Questionnaire is sent to the employees concerned with a request to answerthe questions and return the questionnaire.SECONDARY DATA The investigator makes use of data present in published and unpublished sourcesfor secondary data has been obtained from the records and journals provided by theorganization and from the website of the organization.1.3.4 SAMPLING METHOD USED IN THE STUDY The method selection was simple random sampling.1.3.5 SAMPLE DESIGN Sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population.Sample design may as well lay down the size of the sample. Out of 227 employees ofKAL, the questionnaires were circulated to 100 employees. Page | 4UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  7. 7. Training and Development Programme in KAL1.3.6 PERIOD OF STUDY The study was conducted for a period of 30 days from 16-1-2013 to 14-2-2013.1.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY Prejudice from the respondents might have caused errors. Time allotted to the data collection was only 30 days. The time is adequate only to conduct a narrow study on the topic. Page | 5UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  8. 8. Training and Development Programme in KAL CHAPTER -2 PROFILE Page | 6UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  9. 9. Training and Development Programme in KAL INDUSTRY PROFILE Page | 7UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  10. 10. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.1 INDUSTRY PROFILE The automobile industry in India has undergone drastic change in terms ofconsumer perception as well as technology. Automobile industry provides necessaryinfrastructure for economic development. In India development of automobile industrybegan as early as in 1950. In between 1960 and 1970 manufacturing of commercialvehicle take place. The main employees were in manufacturing public transport vehiclemedium and heavy duty vehicles agricultural tractors wheelers and 2 wheelers. Since1950 in India the output of automobile base was increased from 0.1% to 0.9% only. The government of India, liberalization policy made transformation of industrythrough modernization and technological up gradation. Automobile products India [API]established the 1st 3 wheeler industry in India 1966, but it was virtually monopolized byBajaj auto ltd which was established in 1970‟s the Kerala automobiles limited [KAL]was launched in 1978, now it is having a steady position in the 3 wheeler market.2.1.1 SEGMENT KNOW-HOW Among the 2 wheeler segment, motorcycled have major share in the market. HeroHonda contributes 50% motorcycles to the market. In it Honda holds 40% share inscooter and TVS makes 82% of mopeds in country. 40% of the 3 wheelers are used asgoods transport purpose piaggio holds 40% of the market share. Among the passengertransport Bajaj is the leader by making 68% of the s wheelers. Cars dominate thepassenger cars and are a complete monopoly holds 42% share. In commercial vehicle, Tata motors dominate the market with more than 60%share. Tata motors are also the world‟s 5th largest medium and heavy commercial vehiclemanufacturer. The automobile industry in India is the 11th largest in the world with an annualproduction of approximately 2 million units. India is expected to overtake china as theworld‟s fastest growing car market in terms of number of units sold and automobileindustry is one of the fastest growing manufacturer sectors in India. Because of its largestmarket {India has a population of 1.1 billion; the 2nd largest in the people} a low base ofcar ownership [7 per 1000 people] and surging economy India has become a hugeattraction for car manufactures around the world. Page | 8UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  11. 11. Training and Development Programme in KAL The automobile industry directly and indirectly employees 13 million individualsin India. The industry is valued at about US 34 billion contributing about 3.1% of India‟sGDP (nominal). India‟s cost competitive auto components industry is the 2nd largest inthe world. In addition India‟s motorcycle market is also the 2nd largest in the world withannual sales of about five million units. Though several major foreign units have their manufacturing bases in India theIndian automobile market is dominated by the domestic companies. Maruthi Suzuki isthe largest passenger vehicle company. Tata motors are the largest commercial vehiclecompany while hero Honda is the largest motorcycle company in India. Other majorIndian automobile manufacturers include Mahindra and Mahindra, ashok Leyland andBajaj auto. While automobiles were introduced to India in the late 1890‟s the manufacturingindustry only took off after independence in 1947. The protectionist economic policies ofthe government gave rise in the 1950‟s to the Hindustan motors ambassador based on a1950‟s Morris Oxford and is still running in the roads and highways of India. Hindustanmotors and a few smaller manufacturers such as premier automobiles, Tata motors, Bajajauto, and Ashok Nd standard motors held on oligopoly until India‟s initial economicopening in the 1980‟s. The liberalization of 1991 opened the flood gates of competition and growthwhich have continued up today. The high growth in the Indian economy has resulted inall major international car manufacturers entering the Indian market. General motors,fort, Toyota, Honda, Hyundai and others setup manufacturing plants. The Tata Nano isthe lower and of the price range costing approx us $ 2500.2.1.2 PIONEER INVENTORS German engineer Karl Benz, inventor of numerous car related technologies, isgenerally regarded as the inventor of modern automobile. The four stroke petrol internalcombustion engine that constitutes the most prevalent form of modern automotivepropulsion is a creation of the German inventor Nikolas Otto. The similar four strokediesel engine was also invented by a German, Rudolf diesel. The hydrogen fuel cell, oneof the technologies hailed as a replacement for gasoline as a source for cars wasdiscovered in principle by another German, Christian Schonbein, in 1838. The battery Page | 9UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  12. 12. Training and Development Programme in KALelectric car owes its beginnings to Anyos Jedik, one of the inventors of electric motor, andGaston planet, who invented the lead-acid battery in 1859.2.1.3 AUTOMOBILE DEALERS NETWORK IN INDIA In terms of car dealer networks and authorized service stations Maruti leads thepack with dealer networks and workshops across the country. The other leadingautomobile manufacturers are also trying to build up and are opening their servicestations and dealer workshops in all the meters and major cities of the country. MAJOR PLAYERS IN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY Bajaj auto ltd Scooter ltd Lucknow Sooraj automobiles ltd Sholapur Sitara automobiles ltd Hyderabad Piaggio greaves Ape Mahindra Vespa car company Greece garuda Page | 10UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  13. 13. Training and Development Programme in KAL COMPANY PROFILE Page | 11UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  14. 14. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.2 COMPANY PROFILE KAL incorporated in 1978 as a government of Kerala undertaking is setup in thepicturesque back drop 16 kilometers south of TVM in a tiny village called Aralumoodu inNeyyattinkara Taluk. The company manufacturers‟ three wheelers [diesel, petrol andCNG] suitable for passengers and good traffic in the brand name of Kerala and areconsidered as most eco-friendly vehicles. KAL started with a production of petrol engine 3 wheelers from 1988; it began toproduce diesel engine 3 wheelers. KAL is the first company to introduce diesel engine 3wheelers in the country. At present company is concentrating in diesel engineers only. The present product range comprises of auto rickshaw [three/six seat] andpollution free CNG fitted auto and load carriers etc. the strong highly motivatedworkforce in the technical and management cadres are working hand in hand for theprogress of the company. The ancillary units developed by the company around thefactory complex provide livelihood for hundreds of families. Since commencement of production in 1984 the company has manufactured andmarketed more than 85000 three wheelers. KAL has distinguished itself as force worthreckoning in the automobile industry in India. The company also exported a number of 3wheelers to Bangladesh, silence, Nepal, Sudan, Botswana, Nigeria, South Africa, Egyptand Guatemala [Central America]. The company could turn the corner for the first time in1993-94 and continued to keep the same trend at a higher level. The acceptability of KAL3 wheeler in the third world countries speaks for its utility and quality. KAL is alsomanufacturing sophisticated components to use in space programs of VSSC/ISRO. The company is getting all kind of support from the Govt of Kerala, without whichit would not have been possible to achieve the present level of promising state of affairs.KAL is awarded with LSO 9001:2000 certification envisaging TQM. It is unflinchingfaith of our customers, which has powered KAL into the path of progress and lookingforward for continued patronage at a higher rank. Date of incorporation : 15th march 1978 Address & registration : Athiyanoor, Aralumoodu TVM [Dist]; 695123 Phone&website : 2222640 Page | 12UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  15. 15. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.2.1 MISSION To provide value added service and product to the customers and to earn reasonable profit.2.2.2 VISION “To become top 3 wheeler in 10 years.”2.2.3 QUALITY POLICY The management & employees are committed to develop, manufacture, marketand service of 3 wheelers enhancing customer satisfaction through a process of continualimprovement of its quality management style.2.2.4 COMPETITORS2.2.4.1 MAJOR COMPETITORS OF KAL INCLUDE Bajaj automobile ltd Ape Piaggio greaves2.2.4.2 MINOR COMPETITORS OF KAL INCLUDE Sitara auto Devi auto Atul auto industries2.2.5 MARKET SHARE KAL has a share of 3-4% where as Bajaj ltd is leading with market share of 88%in India. Page | 13UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  16. 16. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.2.6 INFRASTRUCTURE2.2.6.1 PLANT Kerala automobiles limited [KAL] state – of the art factory is equipped with themost modern CNC machines to ensure dimensional accuracy of each component thefactory has highly sophisticated testing facilities to maintain vigorous quality control atevery stage. The proof of the high quality standards attained can be appreciated from thefact that KAL has the distinctive privilege of supplying critical components to the Indianspace research organization for India‟s sterling space program. QUALITY ASSURANCE At every stage of manufacturing excellent quality assurance is KAL primeobjective. This has been made possible using equipments such as universal testingmachines dynamometers exhaust analyzer, digital height master; ultrasonic crack detectoreddy current tester etc. quality assurance achieved through satisfied quality controlmethods has helped KAL to achieve ISO 9001: 2001 certification. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT KAL‟s product engineering department has the computerized design systems andtesting to ensure the international standards. Experienced engineers have transformed thebasic Italian reference to the latest evaluation of the design leading to fuel efficient eco-friendly KAL 3 wheeler ensuring stimulating quality system. The work of various new model are in progress of which models likely to belaunched immediately are 4 stroke petrol JUMBO the multipurpose 3 wheeler vehicleswith a higher load carrying capacity. KAL product range comprises of 3 wheelers[diesel, petrol & CNG] in the brand name of Kerala suitable for passengers and goodstraffic. ISO CERTIFICATIONKAL is a proud recipient of ISO 9001:2000 certification during the 1992, which clearlyindicates that the company delivers products of superior quality. Page | 14UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  17. 17. Training and Development Programme in KAL PRODUCT PROFILE Page | 15UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  18. 18. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.3 PRODUCT PROFILE2.3.1DIESEL MODEL 1. Diesel auto trailers: The production of this model was started in 1984. It is similar to petrol pick up van. It has a petrol option and has a mileage of 35 kmpl. 2. Diesel auto trailers: The production of this model was started in 1988.this was built with aim of transporting heavy cargos. The loading tray of this model is long bigger and open. 3. Diesel chassis: Diesel chassis of KAL comes in 3 different models. 1. 4360 chassis-self starts. 2. 4325 chassis-shorter rope starts. 3. Six seater chassis-provided with layered chassis. 4. Diesel six seated auto rickshaw jumbo This model is often referred as diesel limousine 3 wheeler. The chassis is 2 layered additional stock absorbs are provided for comfort audits mileage is 30 kmpl. 5. Kerala mx 400 This is the latest model of KAL. This model has the unique features such as bigger types- strong universal joint and axle assembly upgraded gears and G1400 engine. The fuel efficiency of this model is 30 kmpl in standard condition. Page | 16UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  19. 19. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.3.2 PETROL MODEL 1. Petrol auto rickshaw, regular 3 wheelers. In this model was the first born member of Kerala automobiles ltd group. Production of this model was started in 1984. It has the advantage of easy handling and has a fuel efficiency of 24.4 kmpl. 2. New look auto rickshaw The production of this model was started in 1998. It was mainly for export purpose this model has the features of more shortage space better efficiency of 24.2 kmpl. 3. Petrol delivery van Production of this model was started in 1984. Its chassis provided with a closed tray. 4. Petrol 3 wheeler chassis The production of this model was started in 1985. This has a portion of a closed tray or an open tray. The production of the available petrol models has stopped due to non-compliance of their vehicle with BSIL norms. 5. Petrol pickup van The production of this model was also started in 1984. The vehicle is mainly meant to transport items such as food materials and construction materials etc. Page | 17UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  20. 20. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.3.3 DEFIBERING MACHINE The defibering machine is completely designed and developed by the company.Defibering machine is used for making fiber from the coconut shell. It changed thetraditional method of fiber making from the coconut shell into a new efficient andeconomic method. This machine reduces the manpower and time consumption. Thus it iseconomic. The main component of the defibering machine is a rotor with horizontal andvertical bars and the rotor is connected to the motor. The crushing process is done byinserting the coconut shell into the rotor cabin in which the rotor is rotating with highrpm. The rotor is a mild steel pipe and the horizontal and vertical bars are insertedthrough the holes in the pipe. So we have to make the holes for inserting the bars. Thedrilling should be done in perpendicular and parallel to the cross section of the pipe. It issome more difficult process. Marking and holding the work piece may take long time. Torectify these difficulties have to find out an alternative way for perform the operation.The most economic and easy way to overcome drilling is to use a drill jig. Thus thedesign of drill jig is started. Equipment that can hold the work piece and guide the path of the toolsimultaneously is called a jig. A drill jig can hold the work piece and it can guide the drillbit over the job. It deals with design and manufacturing of drill jig with manual indexinghead.2.3.4 ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE A BOD constituted by the Govt of Kerala manages the company. Unless otherwisedetermined by the govt. according to the instruction from the Govt the number ofdirectors should not be less than 2 and not more than 9. The government appoints all thedirectors including the full time director. However the directors need not be shareholders.The Govt and full time appointed MD will select one among the director for this purpose. The organization structure of the company is of pyramid in shape with BOD onthe top position. They mainly frame the policies required for the company to achieve itsgoals. The MD shall execute the affairs of the company when the MD is no present and insuch situation he shall take decision in consolation with financial controller. Page | 18UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  21. 21. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.3.5 Board of directors The board of directors and the MD are appointed by the Govt of Kerala. The boardmembers and the MD may be different persons at different times according to the rulinggovt.The BODS consists of following persons: 1. The chairman. 2. The managing director 3. The representatives from trade union 4. The representatives from banks where KAL taken loan 5. Representatives from finance department 6. The consulting engineer Page | 19UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  23. 23. Training and Development Programme in KAL ORGANISATIONAL CHART BOD Chairman MD Finance HRD Administrative Marketing Purchase Sub-contract Vendor development Purchase Production DGM Manager Planning Fabrication Assembly Quality Production AssuranceResearch & Painting Maintenance Service & spares Heat treatmentdevelopmentStores Machine shop Tool room Generaldepartment Page | 21 UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  24. 24. Training and Development Programme in KAL EMPLOYEE PROFILE JANUARY 2013No. Category No. of employees Department 1 Managers 3 2 Asst. managers 4 3 Senior executives 7 4 Asst. administrative officer 1 5 Superintendent 2 6 Accounts officer 2 Officers 7 Asst. accounts officer 1 8 Accountant 2 9 Senior engineer 710 Junior engineer 511 Engineer 212 Asst. sales officer 113 Hr. executive 114 Computer programmer 1Total 3215 Senior assistant 516 Attender 317 Sr. computer operator 118 Jr. executive grade 1319 Office assistant 420 Assistant 221 Tr. Engineer grade 7022 Helper 523 Jr. grade helper 424 Jr. grade TM 3225 Senior TM 226 TM 4427 Dept. asst. grade II 128 Work assistant 229 Part time sweeper 430 Typist-cum–clerk 131 Gardener–cum-helper 132 Sr. time keeper 1 Total 195 Grand total 227 Page | 22UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  25. 25. Training and Development Programme in KAL2.3.6 DEPARTMENT PROFILE 1. HRD department 2. Administrative department 3. Planning department 4. Purchasing department 5. Sub-contract department 6. Stores department 7. Maintenance department 8. Marketing department 9. R &D department 10. Quality assurance department 11. Service and spares department 12. Production department 13. finance department2.3.6.1 HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT HR department is important branch of business management. It constitutes the keyto the managerial actions and its success. HRM comprises those activities that havealigned by a separate HRD department under the charge of a staff and service managerknown as HRD manager.The main functions are: planning personnel policy manpower planning Recruitment and selection Industrial rotations Page | 23UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  26. 26. Training and Development Programme in KALFunctions of HRD department The recruitment of labor is extensive in the manufacturing area in KAL.Estimation of work force recruitments is made through estimating productionrequirements. The company strives to maintain proper recruitment selection andutilization of workers to suit organization needs. The human resource of the company iscategorized into 3 manager supervisors and workers.a. Recruitment and selection: The types of recruitment options are three namely direct recruitment, throughemployee exchanges and through public notification. Direct recruitment is done throughadvertisement in newspapers and employment exchanges. It is because of the compulsorynotification. There is an interview board as committee for the purpose of selection ofcandidate. There is an interview board as committee for the purpose of selection ofcandidate. Then the merit list is prepared as per the class wise quotation from govt. thefinal list is published for the selected candidates. The first step of selection is written test applicable to all workers. Interview isconducted for those who succeed in it. Applicants of technical posts undergo trade testalso. Induction program is given to the candidates. They will provide on the job trainingand one year probation period. After that they are appointed permanently.b. Training and development Fixing the wage structure based on the wage survey is done at times ofincorporation of the company. The wages are given as per the agreement betweenmanufacturer and trade unions based on a long term agreement. In KAL the agreementwas made for 4 years from 1-4-2001 any revisions are made by the trade union andmanufacturer.c. Promotion The promotion for the worker is done as per the service rules of the workers. Aworker who completed 3 years of service is eligible for getting the promotion. The Page | 24UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  27. 27. Training and Development Programme in KALcriteria for promotions and the requirement of management should be satisfied. Thismay be relaxed for promotion every year. If the worker has less eligibility for promotionthere will be higher grade promotion for one year.d. Performance appraisal It is done according to certain factors such as job knowledge, job responsibility andquantity of work organizing ability punctuality and problem solving ability. Performanceappraisal goes through these steps; Issue of performance appraisal form to the employer Self- appraisal by the supervisor Review by department head Calculation and approval score of each employee in personal interview Counsel employees for improved performance.e. Industrial relation: The industrial relation in KAL is co-ordeal personnel department is responsible formaintaining good relation between unions and the manufacturer. The recognition fortrade union is obtained through referendums by declaring election. The main aim of thisis to reduce the number of trade unions in the organization. To recognize a trade unionthere must be at least 15% of employees under their belt. There are three four electedtrade unions at present namely KAL, CITU, INTUC & STU.f. Miscellaneous Stipend of trainees and apprentices trainees are unpaid employees. Forapprentices salary is decide on their qualification ITI : 1090/- Diploma : 1400/- Degree : 1970/- Page | 25UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  28. 28. Training and Development Programme in KALg. Time keeping A timekeeper is appointed for the purpose and it is registered in a book.h. Attendance In KAL attendance records are maintained by punching system. Salary is deductedfor every extra minutes of late coming as 240 minute exception is given for employeesper monthi. Communication The flow of information is from the top level to the bottom level. The employeeshave the permission to report their problems. A suggestion box to MD is placed in theproduction unit so the worker can inform in their suggestions and grievances directly tothe MD.Employees’ strength in KAL is 227 Page | 26UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  29. 29. Training and Development Programme in KAL Chapter 3 Review of Literature Page | 27UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  30. 30. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.1 HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTHuman resource management, (HRM), a relatively new term, that emerged during the1930‟s. Many people used to refer it before by its traditional titles, such as personneladministration or personnel management. But now, the trend is changing. It is nowtermed as human resource management (HRM). Human resource management encompasses those activities designed to provide forand co-ordinate the human resources of an organization. The human resources of anorganization represent its largest investment. In fact, government report shows thatapproximately 73% of national income is used to compensate employees. In addition towages and salaries, organizations often make other sizeable investment in their humanresources. Recruiting, hiring and training represent some of the more obvious examples.Human resource management is a modern term for what has traditionally been referred toas personnel administration or personnel management. Organizations are made up of functions through people. Without peopleorganization can‟t exist. The resources of men, material, money and organization ormachinery are collected, co-ordinate and utilized through people. These resources bythemselves can‟t fulfill the object of an organization. They need to be united into a team.It is through the complaint efforts of the people that material and monetary resources areattainment of a goal. All the activities of an organization are initiated and completed bythe persons who make up the organization. HRM may be defined as a set of policies, practices and programs designed tomaximize both personnel and organizational goal. It is the process of binding people andorganization together. So the objectives of each are achieved. According to Flippo “HRM is the planning, organizing, staffing, directing andcontrolling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenanceand separation of human resource them and that individual organizational and socialobjectives are accomplished”. According to national institute of personnel management of India, “HRM is thatpart of management concerned with people at work and with their relationship within theorganization. It seeks to bring together men and women who makeup an enterprise,enabling each to make his own best contribution to it success both as an individual and asa member of a working group”. Page | 28UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  31. 31. Training and Development Programme in KAL Sewot and others have defined as “HRM is that branch of management which isresponsible of a staff basis for concentrating on those of relationship of management toemployees and employees to employees and with the development of individual andgroup. The objective is to attain maximum individual development, describe workingrelationship between employers and employees and effective mounding of humanresources as contrasted with physical resources” The divisions included in HRM are recruitment, payroll, performance management,training and development, retention, industrial etc. out of all these divisions, one suchimportant division is training and development.3.2 TRAINING Training means to impart information and skills through instructions. It is themethod of increasing the knowledge, skills and aptitudes of an employee for performing aparticular job. Its purpose is to enable them to do their jobs better. Training makes newlyappointed worker fully productive with minimum time. A capable and competent personcannot do the best on his job unless he is systematically trained. Training is necessary fornew as well as existing employees. Training is concerned with imparting and developing specific skills for a particularpurpose. For example, Flippo has defined training as” the act of increasing the skills ofan employee for doing a particular job”. Thus training is a process of learning a sequenceof programmed behavior. This behavior being programmed is relevant to a specificphenomenon that is a job. “Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure bywhich non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skills for a definitepurpose”. Training may be defined as a planned programmer designed to improveperformance and to bring about measurable changes in knowledge, skills, attitude andsocial behavior of employees for doing a particular job. According to J.P.Campbell, “training is a short –term process utilizing asystematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technicalknowledge and skills for a definite purpose”. Page | 29UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  32. 32. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.2.1 NEED OF TRAINING Training is beneficial not only to the employers but also to the employees. Thesuccess or failure of an organization largely depends on the efficiency of the personnel inan organization. Training helps in sharpening and enhancing employees‟ skills, whichmake them more effective on their job. It reduces wastages and there by contributes toprofitability of the enterprise. The significance of training is as follows;1. Quick learning: Training helps to reduce the learning time necessary to attain an acceptable levelof performance. The employees need not learn by observing others or through a train anderror method if formal training programmers exist in the organization. The qualifiedinstructions will help the new employees to acquire the skills and knowledge to do aparticular job within a short span of time.2. Higher productivity:Enhance skills and competencies acquired through training usually helps in increasingboth quantity and quality of the output. Training is also of great help to the existingemployees. If helps them to increase their levels of performance on their present jobassignments3. Less supervision:If the employees are given adequate training the need for supervision is minimum.Training does not eliminate the need for supervision, but it reduces the need for detailedand constant supervision. A well trained employee is self reliant in his work because heknows what to do and how to do with reduced supervision, a manager can increase hisspan of management.4. Higher morale:The morale of the employee increases when they are given proper training. Morale is amental condition of an individual or group, which determines their willingness to co-operate. A common objective of any training programmers is to mould employees‟attitude to achieve support for organizational activity and to obtain better co-operationand greater loyalty. With the help of training, dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeismand labor turnover can be reduced. Page | 30UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  33. 33. Training and Development Programme in KAL5. Better management:A manager can make use of training to manage in a better way. Training the employeescan assist him in his managerial functions. For instance, maintaining higher standards ofquality building a satisfactory organizational structure delegating authority andstimulating employees are all made possible through an effective training plan.6. Economical operations:Training personnel will be able to make better and economical use of materials andequipments their by reducing wastage. In addition, the rate of accidents and damage tothe machinery and equipment will be minimum. These factors will minimize the cost ofproduction.7. Benefits to employees themselves:As employees acquire more knowledge from training, this increases their market valueand earning power. By securing such skills, they enhance their value to the employer andat the same time ensure job security for themselves. Training helps in securingpromotions and career growth.3.2.2 ADVANTAGES OF A TRAINING PROGRAM A systematic training program offers the following advantages to a company; 1. It helps in improving the quality and quantity of a worker‟s output. 2. It enables the worker to make the most economical and best use materials and equipments. This reduces spoiled work and damage to machinery. 3. It develops in the worker effective work habits and methods of work, their by reducing the accident rate and the need for close supervision. 4. It gives a sense of satisfaction to the worker and makes him feel the he is being properly cared for. As a result workers morale and his relations with superiors improve. 5. It instructs the worker towards better job adjustments and reduces the rate of labor turnover and absenteeism. 6. It helps the bright but dronish employees to formulate his goals. 7. It facilitates promotion of workers to higher jobs and increases their market value and earning power. Page | 31UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  34. 34. Training and Development Programme in KAL 8. It makes the worker committed and loyal to organization by educating him about the culture philosophy and policies of the organization. 9. It helps in creating a pool of trained personnel from which replacements can be draw to fill the loss key personnel at any time.3.2.3 TYPES OF TRAINING PROGRAMS All training programs can be of any one of the following types:1. Induction or orientation training: It is a training program used to induct a new employee into the new social setting ofhis work. The new employee is introduced to his job situation, and to his co-employees.He is also informed about the rules working conditions, privileges and activities of thecompany what the company does how it serves the community and other particularspertaining to the company. In some companies the complete induction program is dividing into two phases.The phase, induction is done by the personnel department which supplies to the newemployee all sorts of information relating to the company. In the second phase, inductionis done by the supervisor. He has the responsibility of seeing that both the new comer andthe work team accept each other. The induction training not only helps personnel adjustments of the new employee tohis job and work group but also promotes good morale in the organization. In view ofthese advantages, many large companies give much importance to induction training.2. Job training: The object of job training is to increase the knowledge of workers about their jobswith which they are concerned, so that their efficiency and skill of performance areimproved. In job training workers are enabled to learn correct methods of handlingmachines and equipment avoiding accidents removing bottlenecks minimizing waste etc. Page | 32UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  35. 35. Training and Development Programme in KAL3. Promotional training Many concerns follow a policy of filling some of the vacancies at higher levels bypromoting existing employees. This policy increases the morale of workers. They try toput up maximum efficiency so that they may be considered for promotion. When theexisting employees are promoted to superior positions in the organization they arerequired to shoulder new responsibilities. For this training has to be given to them so thatthey may not experience any difficulty to shoulder the responsibilities of the new positionto which they have been promoted.4. Refresher training: At the time of initial appointment employment are formally trained for their jobs.But with the passage of time they may forget some of the methods which were taught tothem or they may have become outdated because technological development andimproved techniques of management and production. Hence, refresher training isarranged for existing employees in order to provide them an opportunity to revive andalso to improve their knowledge. According to dale Yoder refresher training program‟sare designed o avoid “personnel obsolescence”.5. Corrective training: When an employee violates company rules or policies, such as by being absent oftenor by smoking in a “No smoking” area the manager needs to find a way to deal with theproblem. Sometimes he thinks that the solution to the problem is discipline but thetrouble with the word discipline is that it implies punishment. His aim should be not toget even with the employee but rather to reform the employee. In other he should handlethe problem with treatment that corrects rather than punishes. By its very naturecorrective training implies criticism. The manager should criticize his employee inprivate soon after the mistake but not before his own anger has cooled off. He shouldcriticize the act and not the individual and should explain to the employee why it isimportant to both the company and the employee that he should change his behavior. Page | 33UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  36. 36. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.2.4 TRAINING METHOD FOR MANAGERS Executive talent is the most important asset which a company can posses. Althoughit does not appear on the company‟s balance sheet but it produces more important effectson the company‟s progress its profit and the price of its stock than any other asset in itspossession. Research experimentation testing and experience have yielded a great varietyof training methods which are used in executive development programmes. Some ofthese methods are meant for newly recruited executives only their aim being to generatein these trainees a deeper understanding of managerial functions. Some other trainingmethods aim at increasing the problem solving skills of managers. Still others aim atchanging their attitudes. Observation assignment: Under this method the newly excited executive called understudy is made an assistant to the current job holder. He learns by experience observation and imitation. If decisions are discussed with him he is informed on the policies and theories involved. But if he is neglected by the current job holder the understudy does not learn much by this method. Moreover the methods tend to perpetuator mistakes and other deficiencies characteristic of existing managerial practice. Position rotation: Under this method the trainee executive is rotated among different managerial jobs. This not only broadens and riches his experience as a manger but also enables him to understand interdepartmental relations and need for coordination and cooperation among various departments. Serving on committees: Another important method of training an executive is to make him serve on a committee. While serving on a committee the executive comes to learn not only the various organizational problems and views of several senior and experienced members but also learns how a manager should adjust himself to the overall needs of the enterprise. Page | 34UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  37. 37. Training and Development Programme in KAL Assignment of special projects: Sometimes as a method of training some special project is assigned to a trainee executive. For example he may be asked to develop a system of cost allocation in the production of certain goods for which an order has been received by the company. While working on such projects the trainee not only acquires knowledge about them but also learns how to work with and relate to other people holding different views. Conferences and seminars: Often an executive is deputed to attend a conference seminar or workshop to receive a quick orientation in various areas of management with which he might be unfamiliar. On advantage of this type of training is that all the participants coming from different organizations got an opportunity to pool their ideas and experience in attempting to solve mutual problems. This attitude is one of joint exploration. This encourage cross fertilization of ideas. Case study: A case is a written account seeking to describe an actual situation. A good case is the vehicle by which a chunk of reality is brought into the classroom to be discussed over by the class and the instructor. Disunion on a case requires a capable instructor who can evoke and guide intelligent discussion and analysis so that meaningful learning experiences cues. There is no „right‟ answer or simple explanation in the comprehensive case. The advantages of this method are more depth of thinking more perception in a situation greater respect for and consideration for the opinion of others. Incident method: Developed at the Massachusetts institute of technology this method is an outgrowth of dissatisfaction felt by Paul and pagers with case method. In the usual method the entire problem is presented to the students whereas in the usual case method the entire problem is presented to the students whereas in the incident method only a brief incident is presented to provoke discussion in the class. The group then buts questions to the instructor to draw out of him the salient facts and additional information needed to arrive at a reasonable solution or resolution of the case. This method draws the participant into discussion with greater emotional involvement. A unique advantage of this method over the case method is the Page | 35UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  38. 38. Training and Development Programme in KAL procedure of obtaining information by questions one that often must take place in actual business situations. Role playing: In this method the instructor assigns parts taken from case materials to group members. The situation is usually one involving conflict between people. The role players attempt to act parts as they would behave in a real life situation working without a script or memorized lines and improving as they play the parts. The development of empathy and sensitivity is one of the primary objectives of role playing. Sensitivity training: This type of training is designed to increase the manager‟s understanding of himself and of his own impact on others. The training talks the form of group dissuasion and though a leader in the technique is present the group may decide on the subject of discussion or suggest changes in procedure. In the course of the dissuasion conflict hostility stress and frustrations may be purposely generated for they later on become motivations for growth as well as food for learning. In the short laboratory training aims at achieving behavioral effectiveness in transactions with one‟s environment. Autonomy training: One of the latest approaches to management training called autonomy training is aimed at developing the individual‟s ability to manager his own training. It involves leaving the trainee almost entirely on his own. He has first to work out what he would like to learn and then teach himself. The concept on which this method rests is that with the tremendous speed at which new knowledge is replacing the old it is impossible for a standardized course to cater to the mars of individual training needs. So the managers must be trained to teach themselves new skills as they go along. Page | 36UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  39. 39. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.2.5 METHODS OF TRAINING There are number of training programmes available. Some of them are newmethods, while others are improvements over the traditional methods. The commonlyused training programmes are discussed below; On-the-job training method: This is the most commonly used method. Under this method the individual is placedon a regular job and taught the skills necessary to perform that job. On-the- job trainingmethods includes the following; a. Job Rotation b. Job instruction c. Coaching a. Job Rotation: This type of training involves the movement of the trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his supervisors in each of the different job assignments. b. Job Instruction: Under this method which is also called training through step by step the trainer explains to the trainee the way of doing the job, job knowledge, and skills and allows him to do the job. c. Coaching: The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who provides feedback to the trainee on his performance and offers him some suggestions for improvements. Off-the-job training methods: Under this method, the trainee has no connection with the job and his attention isfocused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. The followingare the widely used methods; Page | 37UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  40. 40. Training and Development Programme in KAL a. Role Playing b. Vestibule Training c. Lecture Method d. Discussion e. Programmed Instruction a. Role Playing: This method of training involves action, doing and practice. The participants plat the role of certain characters such as the production manager, mechanical engineer and the like. This method helps in developing inter-personal interactions and relations. b. Vestibule Training: This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The training method consists of stimulating the actual work conditions in a class room. The training period ranger from days to a few weeks. c. Lecture Method: This method is the most effective method for giving to trainees the basic information on specific subject. The instructor gives the information in the form of a talk. This method is direct and reduces cost and time involved in training. d. Discussion: The advantage of discussion over the lecture method is that it provides two way communications and hence feedback is provided. This method is used to train the clerical, professional and supervisory personnel. The success of this method, however, depends on the leadership qualities of the person who leads the group. e. Progammed Instruction: The subject matter is presented in a series of units from simple to more complex levels of instruction. The trainee goes through these units by answering the questions or filling the blank. This method is both expensive and time consuming. Page | 38UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  41. 41. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.3 ROLE OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGERS AND DIRECTORS Human Resources Generalists, Managers and Directors, depending on the size ofthe organization may have overlapping responsibilities. In larger organizations, theHuman Resource Manager, and the Director have clearly defined roles in HRmanagement with progressively more authority and responsibility in the hands of theManager, the Director, and ultimately, the Vice President who have lead severaldepartments including administrations. HR directors, and occasionally HR managers, may head several differentdepartments that are each led by functional or specialized HR staff such as the trainingmanager, the compensation manager, or the recruiting manager. HR staff members areadvocates for both the company and the people who work in the company. Consequently,a good HR professional performs a constant balancing act to meet both needssuccessfully.3.4 TRAINING VS DEVELOPMENT Training often has been referred to as teaching specific skills and behavior. Examplesof training are learning to fire a rifle, to shoot foul shots in basketball and to type. It isusually reserved for people who have to be brought up to performing level in somespecific skills. The skills are almost always behavioral as distinct from conceptual orintellectual. Development, in contrast, is considered to be more general than training and moreoriented to individual needs in addition to organizational needs and it is most often aimedtoward management people. There is more theory involved with such education andhence less concern with specific behavior than is the case with training. Usually, theintent of development is to provide knowledge and understanding that will enable peopleto carry out non-technical organizational functions more effectively, such as problemsolving, decision-making and relating to people. Page | 39UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  42. 42. Training and Development Programme in KAL 3.4.1 DISTINCTIONS BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Learning Training Development dimensionMeant for Operatives ExecutivesFocus Current job Current and future jobsScope Individual employee Work group or organizationGoal Fix current skill deficit Prepare for future work demandsInitiated by Management The individualContent Specific job related information General knowledgeTime-frame Immediate Long term 3.4.2 A CHECKLIST TO AVOID TRAINING PITFALLS  Attempting to teach too quickly: Trying to teach too quickly results in frustration. It is not wise to push employees beyond their learning limits.  Trying to teach too much: There are limits to the amount that one can learn. It is recommended to teach segments of the job in sequential fashion in order to develop a greater appreciation and understanding of the whole job.  Viewing all trainees as the same: All employees are different. This must be recognized when it comes to training. Since some workers learn faster or slower than others, these differences must be accounted for in the training programme.  Not providing time to practice: Practice makes perfect. There is no such thing as natural-born skilled workers. Adequate practice time must be provided for employees to develop their skills.  Providing a pat on the back: It is always a good idea to reinforce employees during the learning process. Encouragement, praise, and reward are highly recommended.  Not frightening the employee: As a supervisor, it is possible to know the job for which the employee is training so thoroughly that a new employee may feel inadequate or intimidated. Page | 40 UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  43. 43. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.5 LEARNING PRINCIPLES: THE PHILOSOPHY OF TRAINING Training is essential for job success. It can lead to higher production, fewermistakes, greater job satisfaction and lower turnover. These benefits accrue to both thetrainee and the organization, if managers understand the principles behind the trainingprocess. To this end, training efforts must invariably follow certain learning-orientedguidelines. Modelling Modelling is simply copying someone else‟s behavior. Passive class roomlearning does not leave any room for modeling. If we want to change people, it would bea good idea to have videotapes of people showing the desired behavior. The selectedmodel should provide the right kind of behavior to be copied by others. A great deal ofhuman behaviour to be copied by others. A great deal of human behaviour is learned bymodeling others. Children learn by modeling parents and older children, they are quitecomfortable with the process by the time they grow up. As expert put it “managers tendto manage as they were managed!” Motivation For learning to take place, intention to learn is important. When the employee ismotivated, he pays attention to what is being said, done and presented. Motivation tolearn is influenced by the answers to questions such as: How important is my job is tome? How important is the information? Will learning help me progress in the company?etc. People learn quickly when the material is important and relevant to them. Learning isusually quicker and long-lasting when the learner participates actively. Most people, forexample, never forget how to ride a bicycle because they took an active part in thelearning process! Reinforcement If a behavior is rewarded, it probably will be repeated. Positive reinforcementconsists of rewarding desired behaviors. People avoid certain behaviors that invitecriticism and punishment. A bank officer would to do a post graduate course in finance, ifit earns him increments and makes him eligible for further promotions. Both the externalrewards (investments, praise) and the internal rewards (a feeling of pride andachievement) associated with desired behaviors compel subjects to learn properly. To be Page | 41UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  44. 44. Training and Development Programme in KALeffective, the trainer must reward desired behaviors only. If he rewards poorperformance, the results may be disastrous: good performers may quit in frustration,accidents may go up, and productivity may suffer. The reinforcement principle is alsobased on the premise that punishment is less effective in learning than reward.Punishment is a pointer to undesirable behaviors. When administered, it causes pain tothe employee. He may or may not repeat the mistakes. The reactions may be mild orwild. Action taken to repeal a person from undesirable action is punishment. Ifadministered properly, punishment may force the trainee to modify the undesired orincorrect behaviours. Feedback People learn best if reinforcement is given as soon as possible after training.Every employee wants to know what is expected of him well he is doing. If he is off thetrack, somebody must put him back on the rails. The errors in such cases must berectified immediately. The trainee after learning the right behaviour is motivated to dothings in a ‟right‟ way and earn the associated rewards. Positive feedback (showing thetrainee the right way of doing things) is to be preferred to negative feedback (telling thetrainee that he is not correct) when we want to change behaviour. Spaced Practice Learning takes place easily if the practice sessions are spread over a period oftime. New employees learn better if the orientation programme is spread over a two orthree day period, instead of covering it all in one day. For memorizing tasks, „massed‟practice is usually more effective. Imagine the way schools ask the kids to say the Lord‟sPrayer aloud. Can you memorize a long poem by learning only one line per day? Youtend to forget the beginning of the poem by the time you reach the last stanza. For„acquiring‟ skills as stated by Mathis and Jackson, spaced practice is usually the best.This incremental approach to skill acquisition minimizes the physical fatigue that deterslearning. Whole Learning The concept of whole learning suggests that employees learn better if the jobinformation is explained as an entire logical process, so that they can see how the variousactions fit together into the „big picture‟. A broad overview of what the trainee would bedoing on the job should be given top priority, if learning has to take place quickly. Page | 42UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  45. 45. Training and Development Programme in KALResearch studies have also indicated that it is more efficient to practice a whole task all atonce rather than trying to master the various components of the task at different intervals. Active Practice „Practice makes a man perfect‟: so said Bacon. To be a swimmer, you shouldplunge into water instead of simply reading about swimming or looking at films of theworlds‟ best swimmers. Learning is enhanced when trainees are provided ampleopportunities to repeat the task. For maximum benefit, practice sessions should bedistributed overtime.3.6 AREAS OF TRAINING The areas of training in which training is offered may be classified into the followingcategories: Knowledge: Here the trainee learns about a set of rules and regulations about the job, the staff and the products or services offered by the company. Technical Skills: The employee is taught a specific skill (e.g., operating a machine, handling computer, etc.) so that he can acquire that skill and contribute meaningfully. Social Skills: The employee is made to be learning about himself and others, and to develop aright mental attitude towards the job, colleagues and the company. The principal focus is on teaching the employee how to be a team member and get ahead. Techniques: This involves the application of knowledge and skill to various on- the-job situations. In addition to improving the skills and knowledge of employees, training aims at moulding employee attitudes: when administered properly, a training programme will go a long way in obtaining employee loyalty, support and commitment to company activities. Page | 43UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  46. 46. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.7 PROCESS OF TRAINING Training Evaluation Training Need Analysis Training Training Design Implementation3.7.1 Training Need Analysis (TNA)/ Training Need Identification An analysis of training need is essential requirement to the design of effective training. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. Training Need arises at three levels: Organizational Level Individual Level Operational Level Page | 44UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  47. 47. Training and Development Programme in KAL Corporate need and training need are interdependent because the organizationperformance ultimately depends on the performance of its individual employee and itssub-group. Training Need Organizational Level Individual Level Operational Level Organizational Level Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning, businessneed and goals. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organizationsuch as procedures, structures, policies, strength and weaknesses and externalenvironment such as opportunities and threats. After doing the SWOT analysis,weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, while strengths can further bestrengthened with continued training. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areaswhere training is required. And, opportunities can be exploited by balancing it againstcosts. For this approach to be successful, the HR department of the company requires tobe involved in strategic planning. In this planning, HR develops strategies to be sure thatthe employees in the organization have the required Knowledge, Skills and Attributes(KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirement at each level. Individual Level Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual inthe organization. At this level, the organization checks whether an employee isperforming at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the differencebetween the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive, thencertainly there is a need of training. However, individual competence can also be linkedto individual need. The method that is used to analyze the individual need is; Appraisal and performance review Page | 45UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  48. 48. Training and Development Programme in KAL Peer appraisal Competency assessments Subordinate appraisal Client feedback Customer feedback Self-assessment or self-appraisal Operational Level Training need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is beingassigned to the employees. The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job isclearly understood by an employee or not. He gathers this information through technicalinterview, observation, psychological test, questionnaires asking the closed ended as wellas open ended questions, etc. Today, jobs are dynamic and keep changing over the time.Employees need to prepare these changes. The job analyst also gathers information on thetasks that will be required in the future. Based on the information collected, TrainingNeed Analysis is done.BENEFITS OF NEED ASSESSMENT Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs.There are many benefits of need assessment. a. Trainers may be informed about the broader need of the trainees. b. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. c. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities, which make the training program easier to sell to line managers. 3.7.2 Training Design The design of the training program can be undertaken only when a clear trainingobjective have been produced. The training objective clears what goal has to be achievedat the end training program i.e., what the trainees are expected to be able to do at the endof their training. Training objectives assist trainers to design the training program. Page | 46UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  49. 49. Training and Development Programme in KAL Organizational resources, practices, priorities, etc Trainer Training Trainee climate Trainer’s skills Trainee’s learning style MTraining Training Training Support Program Oobjective strategies tactics facilities design N I TTerminal Training topics On/Off the job Oobjectives R &Enabling Breakup program contents into Cobjectives subtopics or modules O N T Categorize contents into RLesson objectives information, knowledge, skills & O attitudes L Sequence the contents Determining learning outcomes for each topic Constraints Page | 47 UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  50. 50. Training and Development Programme in KAL  The Trainer: Before starting a training program, a trainer analyzes his technical, interpersonal, judgement skills in order to deliver quality content to trainers.  The Trainees: A good training design requires close scrutiny of the trainees and their profile. Age, experience, needs and expectations of the trainees are some of the important factors that affect training design.  Cost of Training: It is one of the important considerations in designing a training programme. A training programme involves cost of different types. These may be in the form of direct expenses incurred in the training, cost of training material to be provided, arrangement of physical facilities and refreshment, etc. Besides these expenses, the organization has to bear indirect cost in the form of loss of production during training period. Ideally, a training programme must be able to generate more revenues than the cost involved.  Training Climate: A good training climate comprises of ambience, tone, feelings, positive perception for training program, etc. Therefore, when the climate is favorable nothing goes wrong but when the climate goes unfavorable, everything goes wrong.  Trainees’ Learning Style: The learning style, age, experience, educational background of trainees must be kept in mind in order to get the right pitch to the design of the program.  Training Strategies: Once the training objective has been identified, the trainer translates it into specific training areas and modules. The trainer prepares the priority list of about what must be included, what could be included.  Training Topics: After formulating a strategy, trainer decides upon the content to be delivered. Trainers break the content into headings, topics and modules. These topics and modules are then classified into information, skills, knowledge and attitudes. Page | 48UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  51. 51. Training and Development Programme in KAL  Sequence the Contents: Contents are then classified in the following manner;  From simple to complex  Topics are arranged in terms of their relative importance  From known to unknown  From specific to general  Dependent relationship  Training Tactics: Once the objectives and the strategy of the training program becomes clear, trainer comes in the position to select most appropriate tactics or methods or techniques. This method selection depends on the following factors;  Trainees‟ background  Time allocated  Style preference of trainer  Level of competency of trainer  Availability of facilities and resources, etc  Support Facilities: IT can be segregated into printed and audio visual. The various requirements in a training program are white boards, flip charts, markers, etc.  Constraints: The various constraints that lay in the trainers mind are;  Time  Accommodations, facilities and their availabilities  Furnishing and equipments  Budget  Design of the training, etc 3.7.3 Training Implementation To put training program into effect according to definite plan or procedure iscalled training implementation. Training implementation is the hardest part of the systembecause one wrong step can lead to the failure of the whole training program. Even thebest training program will fail due to one wrong action. Training implementation can besegregated into: Page | 49UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  52. 52. Training and Development Programme in KAL  Practical administrative arrangements  Carrying out of the training Once the staff, course, content, equipment, topics are ready, the training isimplemented. Completing training design does not mean that the work is done becauseimplementation phase requires continual adjusting, redesigning and refining. Preparationis the most important factor to taste the success. Therefore following are the factors thatare kept in mind while implementing training program; The Trainer: The trainers need to be prepared mentally before the delivery of the content. Trainer prepares materials and activities well in advance. The trainer also set grounds before meeting with participants by making sure that he is comfortable with course content and is flexible in his approach. Physical set-up: Good physical set-up is pre-requisite for effective and successful training program because it makes the first impression participants. Classrooms should not be very small or big but as nearly square as possible. This will bring people together both physically and psychologically. Also, right amount of space should be allocated to every participant. Establishing rapport with participants: There are various ways by which a trainer can establish good rapport with trainees by:  Greeting participants- simple way to ease those initial tense moments  Encouraging informal conversation  Remembering their first name  Pairing up the learners and have them familiarized with one another  Listening carefully to trainees comments and opinions  Telling the learners by what name the trainer wants to be addressed  Getting to class before the arrival of learners  Starting the class promptly at the scheduled time  Using familiar examples  Varying his instructional techniques Reviewing the agenda: At the beginning of the training program it is very important to review the program objective. The trainer must tell the participants the goal of the program, what is expected out of trainers to do at the end of the Page | 50UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  53. 53. Training and Development Programme in KAL program, and how the program will run. The following information needs to be included:  Kind of training activities  Schedule  Setting group norms  Housekeeping arrangements  Flow of the program  Handling problematic situations3.7.4 Training Evaluation The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. Trainingevaluation checks whether training had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensuresthat whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respectiveworkplaces, or to the regular work routines.Purposes of Training Evaluation The main five purposes of training evaluation are;  Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.  Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of knowledge at the workplace and training.  Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective, then it can be dealt with accordingly.  Power Games: At times, the top management (higher authority employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits.  Interventions: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. Page | 51UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  54. 54. Training and Development Programme in KAL 3.8 Models of Training Training is a sub-system of the organization because the departments such as marketing and sales, HR, productions, finance, etc., depends on training for its survival. Training is a transforming process that requires some input and in turn it produces output in the form of knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs).THE TRAINING SYSTEM The three models of training are; a) System Model b) Transitional Model c) Instructional System Development Model Page | 52UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  55. 55. Training and Development Programme in KAL3.8.1 System Model Training The system model consists of five phases and should be repeated on a regular basis to make further improvements. The training should achieve the purpose of helping employee to perform their work to required standards. The steps involved in system model are as follows; FEEDBACK Evaluate Execute Develop Design Analyze FEEDBACK1) Analyze and identify the training needs i.e., to analyze the department, job, employees requirement, who needs training, what do they need to learn, estimating training cost, etc. The next step is to develop a performance measure on the basis of which actual performance would be evaluated. Page | 53UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  56. 56. Training and Development Programme in KAL2) Design and provide training to meet identified needs. This step requires developing objectives of training, identifying the learning steps, sequencing and structuring the contents.3) Develop- This phase requires listing the activities in the training program that will assist the participants to learn, selecting delivery method, examining the training material, validating information to be imparted to make sure it accomplishes all the goals and objectives.4) Implementing is the hardest part of the system because one wrong step can lead to the failure of whole training program.5) Evaluating each phase so as to make sure it has achieved its aim in terms if subsequent work performance. Making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. 3.8.2 Transitional Model Transitional model focuses on the organization as a whole. The outer loop describes the vision, mission and values of the organization on the basis of which training model i.e., inner loop is executed.  Vision – focuses on the milestones that the organization would like to achieve after the defined point of time. A vision statement tells that where the organization sees itself few years on the line. A vision may include setting a role model, or bringing some internal transformation, or may be promising to make some other deadlines.  Mission – explains the reason of organizational existence. It identifies the position in the community. The reason of developing a mission statement is to motivate, inspire and inform the employees reading the organization. The mission statement tells about the identity that how the organization would like to be viewed by the customers, employees and all other stakeholders.  Values – is the translation of vision and mission into communicable ideals. It reflects the deeply held values of the organization and is independent of current industry environment. For example, values may include social responsibility, excellent customer service, etc. Page | 54UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  57. 57. Training and Development Programme in KAL Vision Mission Implement Evaluate Plan Objective Realization Value Unstructured Experimentation The vision, mission and values precede the objective in the inner loop. This modelconsiders the organization as a whole. The objective is formulated keeping these threethings in mind and then the training model is further implemented.3.8.3 Instructional System Development (ISD) Model ISD was made to answer the training problems. This model is widely used now-a-days in the organization because it is concerned with the training need on the job performance. Training objectives are defined on the basis of job responsibilities and job description and on the basis of the defined objectives individual progress is measured. This model also helps in determining and developing the favorable strategies, sequencing the content, and delivering media for the types of training objectives to be achieved. The Instructional System Model (ISD) comprises of five stages: Page | 55UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  58. 58. Training and Development Programme in KAL Analysis – This phase consist of training need assessment, job analysis and target audience analysis. Planning – This phase consist of setting goal of the learning outcome, instructional objectives that measures behaviour of a participant after the training, types of training material, media selection, method of evaluating the trainee, trainer and the training program, strategies to impart knowledge i.e., selection of contents, sequencing of content, etc. Development – This phase translates design decision into training material. It consists of developing course material for the trainer including handouts, workbooks, visual aids, demonstration props, etc., course material for the trainee including handouts of summary. Page | 56UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  59. 59. Training and Development Programme in KAL Execution – This phase focuses on logistical arrangements, such as arranging speakers, equipments, benches, podium, food facilities, cooling, lightning, parking and other training accessories. Evaluation – The purpose of this phase is to make sure that the training program has achieved its aim in terms of subsequent work performance. This phase consists of identifying strengths and weaknesses and making necessary amendments to any of the previous stage in order to remedy or improve failure practices. The ISD model is a continuous process that lasts throughout the training program. It also highlights that feedback is an important phase throughout the entire training program. In this model, the output of one phase is an input to the next phase. Page | 57UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  60. 60. Training and Development Programme in KAL CHAPTER -4 Data analysis and interpretation Page | 58UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013
  61. 61. Training and Development Programme in KAL GENERAL ANALYSIS4.1 AGE WISE PROFILE OF RESPONDENTSTable 4.1: Age wise profile of respondents.Age Number of respondents Percentage(%)Below 25 years 4 4%25-35 years 4 4%35-45 years 20 20%Above 45 years 72 72%Total 100 100Figure 4.1 Age wise profile of respondents 120 100 100 80 72 60 40 40 40 20 20 0 below 25 years 25-35 years 35-45 years above 45 years totalInference:The figure 4.1 the age wise profile of respondents. From the figure it is noted that among100 employees in KAL, 4% of employees were in the age below 25 and age in between25-35 years. 20% of employees were in age group 35-45 and 72% were above 45 years. Page | 59UIT Neyyattinkara 2010-2013