Online child victimization: A perspective

1,241 views

Published on

Leila Schilthuis, International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,241
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
27
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Online child victimization: A perspective

  1. 1. Online Child Victimization: A Perspective Roundtable Tallinn, 17 March 2009
  2. 2. Core Functions • Policy Development • International Resource Centre on Child Pornography • International Law Enforcement Training • Financial Coalition against Child Pornography • Creation of regional centers for missing & sexually exploited children • Global Missing Children’s Network
  3. 3. Nature & Scope of Child Pornography
  4. 4. Why Focus on Child Pornography? • Sexual victimization of children is overwhelming in magnitude, yet largely unrecognized and underreported • 200 new images of child pornography are posted daily • 1 in 7 children received a sexual solicitation or approach • It is estimated that fewer than 35% of sexual victimization cases are reported to law enforcement
  5. 5. Total CyberTipline Reports (Since March 98) 658,810
  6. 6. Understanding the Reality of Child Pornography Myth v. Fact
  7. 7. Myth Child Pornography involves adults posing as teenagers
  8. 8. Fact • 19% of arrested child-pornography possessors had images of infants and toddlers under age 3 • 39% had images of children 3 to 5 years old • 83% had images of children 6 to 12 years old
  9. 9. Myth Child Pornography involves harmless nude pictures of children
  10. 10. Fact Of the arrested child pornography possessors: • 92% had images of minors focusing on genitals or showing explicit sexual activity • 80% had pictures showing the sexual penetration of a child, including oral sex • 21% had child pornography depicting violence such as rape, bondage, and torture Most of these images involved children who were gagged, bound, blindfolded, or otherwise suffering sadistic sex 39% had graphic moving images in digital or video format
  11. 11. Myth The children depicted in child pornography images are all girls
  12. 12. Fact Of the arrested child pornography possessors: • 62% had images of girls • 14% had images of boys • 15% had images showing girls and boys in equal numbers
  13. 13. Myth Children are victimized by strangers
  14. 14. Fact Parent 25% Other Relative 11% 5% Neighbor/Family Friend 4% Babysitter/Coach Guardian's Partner Online Enticement 13% Self-produced 28% 8% Victims of Prostitution 2% 4% Unknown to Child
  15. 15. Fact Arrested offenders included: • Students • Doctors • Lawyers • Teachers • Priests • Laborers • Computer specialists • Photographers The “nice guy next door” = It could be anyone
  16. 16. Myth Mere possession is not harmful
  17. 17. Fact • 40% of arrested child pornography possessors were “dual offenders” who sexually victimized children and possessed child pornography* • Each child pornography possession case should be considered a red flag to the possibility of actual child molestation One 1 in 6 investigations of CP possession uncovered “dual offenders”
  18. 18. Reminder • These are crime scene photos • The possession of child pornography stimulates demand for such materials • The child is revictimized as each image is viewed again and again • The child lives in perpetual fear of being discovered
  19. 19. Myth The majority of offenders are older men
  20. 20. Fact 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 17 & younger 50% 18 to 25 40% 26 to 39 30% 40 or older 20% 10% 0% Totals
  21. 21. Myth Child Pornography images only victimize the child being depicted
  22. 22. Fact CP is used to victimize other children • Predators use CP to “GROOM” other children 1. Show child images in which children victims seem to be happy decrease the potential victim’s inhibitions desensitize 2. Convince child that other children participate and enjoy these activities To stimulate child To facilitate an encounter
  23. 23. Global Response: Legislation
  24. 24. International Legal Instruments The U.N. Conventions & Protocols Council of Europe Conventions European Community Law
  25. 25. International Legal Instruments • The U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child (02/09/1990) + • The Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (23/11/2001) + • The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography (18/1/2002) + • Council Framework Decision 2004/68/JHA on combating the sexual exploitation of children and child pornography (22/12/2003) + • Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (25/10/2007) S but not R
  26. 26. Child Pornography: . Model Legislation & Global Review Reviewed national legislation currently in place in the 187 Interpol Member Countries to gain a better understanding of existing legislation and gauge where the issue stands on the national political agenda.
  27. 27. Questions Asked 1. Does national legislation exist with specific regard to child pornography? 2. Does national legislation define “child pornography”? 3. Does national legislation criminalize computer- facilitated offenses? 4. Does national legislation criminalize possession of child pornography, regardless of the intent to distribute? 5. Does national legislation require Internet Service Providers (ISP) to report suspected child pornography to law enforcement or to some other mandated agency? Or are ISPs self regulating?
  28. 28. Model Legislation Template
  29. 29. 2008 Results • Only 29 countries had adequate legislation • 93 Countries have no legislation at all that specifically addresses child pornography Of the remaining Countries that do have legislation specifically addressing child pornography: • 54 Countries do not define child pornography in national legislation • 24 Countries do not provide for computer-facilitated offenses; and • 36 Countries do not criminalize possession of child pornography regardless of the intent to distribute
  30. 30. Meets all criteria  Does not have CP legislation Does not meet criterion 2 Does not meet criterion 4 Does not meet criteria 2 & 4 Does not meet criteria 2 & 3 Does not meet criteria 2, 3 & 4
  31. 31. Estonia
  32. 32. Internet Usage in the European Union Population Internet Users, % Population % Users Usage Growth EU ( 2008 Est. ) Latest Data (Penetration) Europe (2000-2008) Austria 8,205,533 5,601,700 68.3 % 166.7 % 1.9 % Belgium 10,403,951 7,006,400 67.3 % 250.3 % 2.4 % Bulgaria 7,262,675 2,368,000 32.6 % 450.7 % 0.8 % Cyprus 792,604 324,880 41.0 % 170.7 % 0.1 % Czech 10,220,911 4,991,300 48.8 % 399.1 % 1.7 % Republic Denmark 5,484,723 4,408,100 80.4 % 126.1 % 1.5 % Estonia 1,307,605 854,600 65.4 % 133.1 % 0.3 % Finland 5,244,749 4,353,142 83.0 % 125.9 % 1.5 % France 62,150,775 40,128,178 64.6 % 372.1 % 13.5 % Germany 82,369,548 55,221,183 67.0 % 130.1 % 18.6 % Greece 10,722,816 4,932,495 46.0 % 393.2 % 1.7 % Hungary 9,930,915 5,215,400 52.5 % 629.4 % 1.8 % Ireland 4,156,119 2,410,549 58.0 % 207.5 % 0.8 % Italy 58,145,321 28,255,100 48.6 % 114.1 % 9.5 % Latvia 2,245,423 1,324,800 59.0 % 783.2 % 0.4 % Lithuania 3,565,205 2,103,471 59.0 % 834.9 % 0.7 % Luxembourg 486,006 363,900 74.9 % 263.9 % 0.1 % Malta 403,532 95,000 23.5 % 137.5 % 0.0 % Netherlands 16,645,313 13,791,800 82.9 % 253.6 % 4.6 % Poland 38,500,696 20,020,362 52.0 % 615.0 % 6.7 % Portugal 10,676,910 4,249,200 39.8 % 70.0 % 1.4 % Romania 22,246,862 7,430,000 33.4 % 828.8 % 2.5 % Slovakia 5,455,407 2,705,882 49.6 % 316.3 % 0.9 % Slovenia 2,007,711 1,300,000 64.8 % 333.3 % 0.4 % Spain 40,491,051 27,028,934 66.8 % 401.7 % 9.1 % Sweden 9,045,389 7,295,200 80.7 % 80.2 % 2.5 % United 60,943,912 43,221,464 70.9 % 180.7 % 14.6 % Kingdom
  33. 33. Children and Internet Safety in Estonia EE v. EU
  34. 34. Internet Use for Children Under 18
  35. 35. Mobile Phone Use for Children Under 18
  36. 36. Internet Usage for Children Under 18
  37. 37. Parents’ Concerns about Online Risks
  38. 38. When Children ask for Help from Parents
  39. 39. Supervising Children’s Use of the Internet
  40. 40. Supervising Children’s Use of the Internet
  41. 41. Supervising Children’s Use of the Internet
  42. 42. Supervising Children’s Use of the Internet
  43. 43. Supervising Children’s Use of the Internet
  44. 44. Supervising Children’s Use of the Internet
  45. 45. Setting Rules for Children’s Use of the Internet
  46. 46. Setting Rules for Children’s Use of the Internet
  47. 47. The Use of Filtering & Monitoring Software
  48. 48. Reasons for Not Using Filtering & Monitoring Software
  49. 49. Reporting Illegal or Harmful content
  50. 50. Sources of Information about Internet Safety and Use
  51. 51. Sources of Information about Internet Safety and Use
  52. 52. Suggested Actions • Provide a definition for child pornography • Criminalize the offenses listed in international instruments for all children under the age of 18 regardless of the age of sexual consent • Enhance sanctions against offenders • Establish a Hotline (with a view of joining the Inhope network) • Creation of awareness nodes (under the EC’s Safer Internet program) • Improve systematic dissemination of prevention information related to online child sexual abuse to parents and children alike • Encourage the Central Criminal Police to join Interpol’s International Network of Experts on Child Sexual Abuse Images • Improve data collection • Incorporate extensive child Internet safety in school curricula; • The media needs to become an educated partner in the fight against child pornography
  53. 53. It Takes a Global Village to Protect a Child Government Parents 1. Legislators & 2. Police Care Givers 3. Prosecutors 4. Judges 5. Social Services Teachers & Industry CHILD Healthcare 1. Telecommunications Professionals 2. Internet Service Providers (ISP) 3. Financial Institutions 4. Tourism Industry Civil Society 1. NGOs 2. INGOs 3. Volunteers 4. Media International Children 5. Etc. Community
  54. 54. Conclusion Remember, you are NOT alone! But, without you ... They are
  55. 55. Contact Leïla Schilthuis, J.D. Policy Director for the EMEA Region International Centre for Missing & Exploited Children (ICMEC) Phone: +32.4.86.31.58.41 (Brussels, Belgium) Email: lschilthuis@icmec.org Websites: www.icmec.org www.missingkids.com

×