QUANTUM LEAP
INSIDE THE TANGLED QUEST FOR THE
FUTURE OF COMPUTING
TIME magazine
February 17, 2014
Two of the great scientific undertakings
of the 20th century – quantum physics
and digital computing
“What would happen if...
Quantum Computers
• Classical computers work with information in bits.
Each bit can be either a 1 or a 0 at any one time. ...
Qubits
• In a superposed state, a quantum bit exists as two
equally probable possibilities.
• If a single quantum bit (or ...
111 000
011 101
110 001
010 100
101
CLASSICAL
QUANTUM
FASTER
CALCULATIONS
Because its data
can exist in multiple
states, a...
D-Wave Two
• The supercooled niobium chip at the heart of the D-
Wave Two has 512 qubits and therefore could in
theory per...
Software
• An adiabatic quantum computer is a totally new
proposition for software development.
• “It’s not about writing ...
A Long Shot?
• NSA has an $80 million quantum-computing project.
(According to an Edward Snowden leaked document)
• In-Q-T...
The Unconvinced
• Outright debunkings have been lobbed from ivory
towers. “They are not qubits, they are just plain old
bi...
“It’s fine,” he says (about the skeptics). “It’s good.
Science progresses by rocking the ship. Things like
this are a nece...
Definitions
• Superposition: A quantum system can be in more
than one state at the same time, and even more than
one place...
Definitions
• Adiabatic Process: A process that occurs without the
transfer of heat or matter between a system and its
sur...
Definitions
• Simulated annealing: a process for a good
approximation of the global optimum of a
given function in a large...
4/17/2014 14jgillis767@aol.com
Veritas?
jgillis767@aol.com
4/17/2014 15jgillis767@aol.com
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Quantum Leap - The Future of Technology

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Quantum physics and digital computing merge. A quantum computer would be vastly more powerful than the computers of today. Excerpted from TIME magazine, 2-17-2014.

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  • p. 28, 29
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  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simulated_annealing http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_annealingp. 33 HarmutNeven, Director of Engineering, Google’s quantum-computing project, says “There you see an exponentially widening gap between simulated annealing and quantum annealing…That’s great news, but so far nobody has paid attention to it.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_annealing
  • Quantum Leap - The Future of Technology

    1. 1. QUANTUM LEAP INSIDE THE TANGLED QUEST FOR THE FUTURE OF COMPUTING TIME magazine February 17, 2014
    2. 2. Two of the great scientific undertakings of the 20th century – quantum physics and digital computing “What would happen if we built a computer that operated under quantum rules instead of classical ones? Could it be done? And if so, how? And more important, would there be any point .” Richard Feynman (in the 1980’s) The Merging 4/17/2014 2jgillis767@aol.com
    3. 3. Quantum Computers • Classical computers work with information in bits. Each bit can be either a 1 or a 0 at any one time. This is the foundation of digital computing as we know it, and it operates only in linear fashion. • Quantum computers operate with bits that can be 1, or 0, or 1 and 0 at the same time. 4/17/2014 3jgillis767@aol.com
    4. 4. Qubits • In a superposed state, a quantum bit exists as two equally probable possibilities. • If a single quantum bit (or qubit) can be in two states at the same time, it can perform two calculations at the same time. • Two qubits could perform four simultaneous calculations; three could perform eight, and so on. The power grows exponentially. 4/17/2014 4jgillis767@aol.com
    5. 5. 111 000 011 101 110 001 010 100 101 CLASSICAL QUANTUM FASTER CALCULATIONS Because its data can exist in multiple states, a quantum computer can perform multiple operations simultaneously instead of one by one. Simultaneous Operations 4/17/2014 5jgillis767@aol.com
    6. 6. D-Wave Two • The supercooled niobium chip at the heart of the D- Wave Two has 512 qubits and therefore could in theory perform 2512 operations simultaneously. • That’s more calculations than there are atoms in the universe, by many orders of magnitude. • “This is not just a quantitative change.” Colin Williams* – D-Wave * Former Stephen Hawking research assistant at Cambridge 4/17/2014 6jgillis767@aol.com
    7. 7. Software • An adiabatic quantum computer is a totally new proposition for software development. • “It’s not about writing recipes or procedures. It’s more about kind of describing ‘What does it mean to be an answer? And doing that in the right way and letting the hardware figure it out.” William Macready, D-Wave’s VP of Software Engineering 4/17/2014 7jgillis767@aol.com
    8. 8. A Long Shot? • NSA has an $80 million quantum-computing project. (According to an Edward Snowden leaked document) • In-Q-Tel is in. (High tech investment arm of the CIA) • Lockheed Martin (Defense contractor) • Draper Fisher Jurvetson (Venture capital, Skype, Tesla Motors) • Jeff Bezos (Amazon) • NASA computing lab (Largely funded by Google) 4/17/2014 8jgillis767@aol.com
    9. 9. The Unconvinced • Outright debunkings have been lobbed from ivory towers. “They are not qubits, they are just plain old bits.” • “…quantum effects…means we are able to store superpositions in such a way that the system retains its ‘fuzziness’ or quantum coherence, so that it can perform tasks that are impossible otherwise. There is no evidence that the D-Wave is using quantum effects.” Christopher Monroe – Joint Quantum Institute – University of Maryland 4/17/2014 9jgillis767@aol.com
    10. 10. “It’s fine,” he says (about the skeptics). “It’s good. Science progresses by rocking the ship. Things like this are a necessary component of forward progress.” Geordie Rose, D-Wave’s co-founder and chief technology officer 4/17/2014 10jgillis767@aol.com
    11. 11. Definitions • Superposition: A quantum system can be in more than one state at the same time, and even more than one place at the same time. • Uncertainty: The more precisely we know the position of a particle, the less precisely we know how fast it is travelling – we cannot know both at the same time. 4/17/2014 11jgillis767@aol.com
    12. 12. Definitions • Adiabatic Process: A process that occurs without the transfer of heat or matter between a system and its surroundings • Quantum Entanglement: when pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently. A quantum state. 4/17/2014 12jgillis767@aol.com
    13. 13. Definitions • Simulated annealing: a process for a good approximation of the global optimum of a given function in a large search space. May be more efficient than exhaustive enumeration. • Quantum annealing: Starts from a quantum- mechanical superposition of all possible states with equal weights. It may outperform simulated annealing under certain conditions. 4/17/2014 13jgillis767@aol.com
    14. 14. 4/17/2014 14jgillis767@aol.com
    15. 15. Veritas? jgillis767@aol.com 4/17/2014 15jgillis767@aol.com

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