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5/20/2013 2jgillis767@aol.com
Scotland
• Scotland includes the northern portion of the Island of Great
Britain, which is divided from England by the Che...
Post Roman Scotland
• When the Romans left Britain, there were 4 groups within the
borders of what is now Scotland. In the...
Scottish Catholics
• In 563 the expatriate Irish monk Columba settled on the
island of Iona with 12 companions, and starte...
Origin of Dalriada
• There are several stories about the origins of Dalriada. Fergus
mac Erc is reputed to have come from ...
Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata)
was a Gaelic overkingdom on the
western coast of Scotland
(then Pict-land) and part ...
Map of Dál Riata at
its height (in green),
c. 580–600.
Pictish regions are
marked in yellow.
Morar
5/20/2013 8jgillis767@a...
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Post Roman Scotland
• Scotland was largely converted to Christianity by Irish-Scots
missions associated with figures such ...
The Kingdom of Alba
• Conversion to Christianity may have speeded a long term
process of gaelicisation of the Pictish king...
The Kingdom of Alba
• When he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900,
Donald II was the first man to be called King o...
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Were the Scots Irish?
By Ewan Campbell
• The author (Ewan Campbell) says the claimed migrations of
the Irish into Argyll a...
Were the Scots Irish?
By Ewan Campbell
• In the mid-9th century, these Scots of Dál Riata took over the
Pictish kingdom of...
The name derives from the
deposed Stuart monarch,
James II of England and VII
of Scotland.
The Jacobites
• Jacobitism refe...
Jacobite Rebellion
• The Jacobite rising of 1745, "The 'Forty-Five,” was the attempt
by Charles Edward Stuart to regain th...
The Battle of Culloden, the last battle on Scottish soil
5/20/2013 18jgillis767@aol.com
Scottish Catholics
• The failed Jacobite risings in 1715 and 1745 further damaged
the Catholic cause in Scotland.
• But a ...
The Sands at Morar (Scotland)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMiIo3JtQ-A
Video of Loch Morar
http://www.youtube.com/watch?...
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Glenaladale
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Morar
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Morar
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Morar
The End of Clan Rule
• The Jacobite Risings brought British government efforts to
curb the clans, culminating after the 17...
Highland Clearances
• What became known as the Clearances were considered by
the landlords as necessary "improvements". Th...
Highland Clearances
• Another wave of mass emigration came in 1792, known as the
"Year of the Sheep" to Scottish Highlande...
A romanticized early Victorian
depiction of a member of Clan
MacAlister leaving Scotland for
Canada, by R. R. McIan.
The E...
Scottish Highlands
• Emigration was a universal phenomenon in the mid-to-late
18th century (1750 – 1800). It was said to b...
Scottish Highlands Emigration
• There were two prospects for potential emigrants from the
Scottish Highlands: the Low Coun...
Sir Archibald Grant (in Aberdeen)
• 1764 – “I have been convinced, that America will at a periode,
I don’t presume to say ...
John MacDonald of Glenaladale
• Captain John MacDonald (1742-1810) was born in
Glenaladale, Scotland, about half the dista...
John MacDonald of Glenaladale
• The voyage of the Alexander resulted in the transplantation to
Tracadie Bay, on the north ...
5/20/2013 34jgillis767@aol.com
Nova Scotia in 1774
• Nova Scotia is a 270-mile-long promontory lying parallel to
the mainland across the Bay of Fundy and...
5/20/2013 36jgillis767@aol.com
Isthmus of Chignecto
• The Isthmus of Chignecto was one of the principal
battlegrounds on which the French and the English...
Isthmus of Chignecto
• Fort Beausejour (Fort Cumberland the English called it), lies
on the western end of a 16 mile neck ...
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Antigonish
Sydney Mines
Tracadie Bay
Pictou
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Isthmus of Chignecto
Louisbourg
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Nova Scotia
Coat of Arms
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Tracadie
• The Black Loyalists who moved to Chedabucto from Port
Mouton got fed up with being landless. In 1787, their
rep...
Antigonish County
• The County of Sydney was created in 1784.
• In 1836 Sydney County was diminished in size when Guysboro...
Bibliography
• Bernard Bailyn. The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British
North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, ...
5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 54
veritas
Origins of scotland_and_nova_scotia_08242014_jga
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Origins of scotland_and_nova_scotia_08242014_jga

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The history of how Scotland and Nova Scotia came to be. The origins of the Scots, and their migration to Nova Scotia.

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Origins of scotland_and_nova_scotia_08242014_jga

  1. 1. 5/20/2013 2jgillis767@aol.com
  2. 2. Scotland • Scotland includes the northern portion of the Island of Great Britain, which is divided from England by the Cheviot Hills, the River Tweed, and certain smaller streams. The chief physical feature of the country is its mountainous character, and only about a quarter of the total acreage is cultivated. • Scotland was known by the Romans as Caledonia, and the Caledonians came to be called Picts. • The name of Scotland came into use in the 11th century, when the race of Scots, originally an Irish colony which settled in the western Highlands,* attained to supreme power in the country. *This story is disputed. See Cells 30-31 5/20/2013 3 jgillis767@aol.com
  3. 3. Post Roman Scotland • When the Romans left Britain, there were 4 groups within the borders of what is now Scotland. In the east were the Picts, with kingdoms between the river Forth and Shetland. In the west were the Gaelic speaking people of Dál Riata with their royal fortress at Dunadd in Argyll, with close links with the island of Ireland, from whom comes the name Scots.[8] In the south was the British Kingdom of Strathclyde, descendants of the peoples of the Roman influenced kingdoms of "The Old North.” [9] Finally, there were the English or "Angles", Germanic invaders who had overrun much of southern Britain and held the Kingdom of Bernicia, in the south-east.[10] 5/20/2013 4jgillis767@aol.com
  4. 4. Scottish Catholics • In 563 the expatriate Irish monk Columba settled on the island of Iona with 12 companions, and started a monastery. • In the 6th century three Irish brother-chieftains crossed over from Ireland and founded the little Kingdom of Dalriada, which developed into the Kingdom of Scotland. They were already Christians, and with them came Irish missionaries, who spread the Faith throughout the western Highlands.* • A thousand years later, Catholicism and the Catholic Mass were outlawed when the Scottish Reformation broke with the Pope and named the Presbyterian Church as the Church of Scotland in 1560. *This story is disputed. See Cells 30-31 5/20/2013 5jgillis767@aol.com
  5. 5. Origin of Dalriada • There are several stories about the origins of Dalriada. Fergus mac Erc is reputed to have come from northern Ireland to the west coast of Scotland to establish the kingdom of Dalriada. Or did the three brothers go north together to settle Scotland, as history claims, or did Fergus join Angus and Lorne already settled in this area? • Dalriada was originally the name for the land in Northern Ireland founded by Cairbre Riadia who settled in this area, and later, the name was applied to the Scottish area where Angus, Lorne and Fergus settled. Angus was the seafaring brother, having Jura and Islay as his lands. 5/20/2013 6jgillis767@aol.com
  6. 6. Dál Riata (also Dalriada or Dalriata) was a Gaelic overkingdom on the western coast of Scotland (then Pict-land) and part of Ulster. In the late 6th and early 7th century it encompassed roughly what is now Argyll and Bute and Lochaber in Scotland and also County Antrim in Northern Ireland.[1] Morar Lochaber 5/20/2013 7jgillis767@aol.com
  7. 7. Map of Dál Riata at its height (in green), c. 580–600. Pictish regions are marked in yellow. Morar 5/20/2013 8jgillis767@aol.com
  8. 8. 5/20/2013 9jgillis767@aol.com
  9. 9. Post Roman Scotland • Scotland was largely converted to Christianity by Irish-Scots missions associated with figures such as St. Columba, from the 5th to the 7th centuries. These missions tended to found monastic institutions and collegiate churches that served large areas.[13] Partly as a result of these factors, some scholars have identified a distinctive form of Celtic Christianity, in which abbots were more significant than bishops, attitudes to clerical celibacy were more relaxed and there was some significant differences in practice with Roman Christianity, although most of these issues had been resolved by the mid-7th century.[14][15] 5/20/2013 10jgillis767@aol.com
  10. 10. The Kingdom of Alba • Conversion to Christianity may have speeded a long term process of gaelicisation of the Pictish kingdoms, which adopted Gaelic language and customs. Historians debate whether it was a Pictish takeover of Dál Riata, or the other way around. This culminated in the rise of Kenneth MacAlpin in 840, which brought to power the House of Alpin.[16] • In AD 867 the Vikings seized the southern half of Northumbria, forming the Kingdom of York. They then conquered much of England except for a reduced kingdom of Wessex,[17] leaving the new combined Pictish and Gaelic kingdom almost encircled.[19] 5/20/2013 11jgillis767@aol.com
  11. 11. The Kingdom of Alba • When he died as king of the combined kingdom in 900, Donald II was the first man to be called King of Alba.[20] The term Scotia was increasingly used to describe the kingdom between North of the Forth and Clyde and eventually the entire area controlled by its kings was referred to as Scotland.[21] 5/20/2013 12jgillis767@aol.com
  12. 12. 5/20/2013 13jgillis767@aol.com
  13. 13. Were the Scots Irish? By Ewan Campbell • The author (Ewan Campbell) says the claimed migrations of the Irish into Argyll are elite origin myths with no support in archaeology. He asks how the Iron Age populations of Argyll established and changed their personal and group identity? • Historical accounts of the origin of the Scottish kingdom state that the Scots founded the early kingdom of Dál Riata in western Scotland after migrating there from Antrim, in northeastern Ireland. They displaced a native Pictish or British people from the area of modern Argyll. 5/20/2013 14jgillis767@aol.com
  14. 14. Were the Scots Irish? By Ewan Campbell • In the mid-9th century, these Scots of Dál Riata took over the Pictish kingdom of eastern Scotland to form the united kingdom of Alba, later to become known as Scotland. The peoples of Ireland were known as Scotti, a derogatory term meaning something like 'pirates'. The name was used by early medieval writers in Latin for all speakers of Gaelic, whether in Ireland or Scotland. 5/20/2013 15jgillis767@aol.com
  15. 15. The name derives from the deposed Stuart monarch, James II of England and VII of Scotland. The Jacobites • Jacobitism refers to the political movement in Great Britain and Ireland to restore the Stuart King James II of England to the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland (Jacobus is the Latin form of James). The Jacobites believed that parliamentary interference with monarchical succession was illegal. • Catholics also hoped the Stuarts would end recusancy.* • In Scotland, the Jacobite cause became entangled in the last throes of the warrior clan system. *in recusancy: the state of those who refused to attend Anglican services and were punished for it. 5/20/2013 16jgillis767@aol.com
  16. 16. Jacobite Rebellion • The Jacobite rising of 1745, "The 'Forty-Five,” was the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the Scottish throne for the exiled House of Stuart. Stuart, commonly known as "Bonnie Prince Charlie,“ sailed to Scotland and raised the Jacobite standard at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands. • The Jacobites had an initial victory near Edinburgh. They then marched to Carlisle, in England. Britain recalled divisions from the Continent, and the Jacobite army retreated north to Inverness where the last battle on Scottish soil took place on a nearby moor at Culloden. The Battle of Culloden was the final defeat of the Jacobite cause, and Charles Edward Stuart fled with a price on his head. 5/20/2013 17jgillis767@aol.com
  17. 17. The Battle of Culloden, the last battle on Scottish soil 5/20/2013 18jgillis767@aol.com
  18. 18. Scottish Catholics • The failed Jacobite risings in 1715 and 1745 further damaged the Catholic cause in Scotland. • But a few thousand indigenous Scottish Catholics remained, mainly in a small strip from the north-east coast to the Western Isles. Significant strongholds included Moidart, Morar, South Uist and Barra. • The two most Catholic parts of Scotland are: (1) the southern- most islands of the Western Isles, especially Barra and South Uist, populated by Gaelic-speaking Scots of long-standing; and (2) the eastern suburbs of Glasgow, populated mostly by the descendants of Irish immigrants.13 5/20/2013 19jgillis767@aol.com
  19. 19. The Sands at Morar (Scotland) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMiIo3JtQ-A Video of Loch Morar http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=endscreen&v=LoabQ8i1MRA&NR=1 Video of Loch Morar This is where the Clan MacDonald Gillis families are from 5/20/2013 20jgillis767@aol.com
  20. 20. 5/20/2013 21jgillis767@aol.com Glenaladale
  21. 21. 5/20/2013 22jgillis767@aol.com Morar
  22. 22. 5/20/2013 23jgillis767@aol.com Morar
  23. 23. 5/20/2013 24jgillis767@aol.com Morar
  24. 24. The End of Clan Rule • The Jacobite Risings brought British government efforts to curb the clans, culminating after the 1746 Battle of Culloden with brutal repression. The Act of Proscription of 1746 required all swords to be surrendered to the government and prohibited the wearing of tartans or kilts. • The Heritable Jurisdictions Act removed the virtually sovereign power the chiefs held over their clans. • The enforcement of the prohibitions related to a clan's support of the government during the rebellion, but overall led to the destruction of the traditional clan system and of the social structures of small agricultural townships. 5/20/2013 25jgillis767@aol.com
  25. 25. Highland Clearances • What became known as the Clearances were considered by the landlords as necessary "improvements". They are thought to have been begun by Admiral John Ross of Balnagowan Castle in Scotland in 1762. • MacLeod of MacLeod (i.e. the chief of MacLeod) began experimental work on Skye in 1732. Chiefs engaged Lowland, or sometimes English, factors with expertise in more profitable sheep farming, and they "encouraged,” sometimes forcibly, the population to move off suitable land. 5/20/2013 26jgillis767@aol.com
  26. 26. Highland Clearances • Another wave of mass emigration came in 1792, known as the "Year of the Sheep" to Scottish Highlanders. They were moved to farms in coastal areas where farming could not sustain the communities who were expected to take up fishing. • Others were put directly onto emigration ships to Nova Scotia (Antigonish and Pictou counties and later Cape Breton) There may have been a religious element in these forced removals since many Highlanders were Roman Catholic. This is reflected by the majority representation of Catholics in areas and towns of Nova Scotia such as Antigonish and Cape Breton. 5/20/2013 27jgillis767@aol.com
  27. 27. A romanticized early Victorian depiction of a member of Clan MacAlister leaving Scotland for Canada, by R. R. McIan. The Emigrants Statue commemorates the flight of Highlanders during the clearances, but is also a testament to their accomplishments in the places they settled. Located at the foot of the Highland Mountains in Helmsdale, Scotland. 5/20/2013 28jgillis767@aol.com
  28. 28. Scottish Highlands • Emigration was a universal phenomenon in the mid-to-late 18th century (1750 – 1800). It was said to be a madness, an epidemic that gripped the minds of ordinary people. • The lives of the Highlanders had been badly dislocated by the destruction of the clan system after the suppression of the Jacobite rebellion of 1745, and by the increasing rationalization* of agricultural production. * industrialization, commercialization 5/20/2013 29jgillis767@aol.com
  29. 29. Scottish Highlands Emigration • There were two prospects for potential emigrants from the Scottish Highlands: the Low Country of Scotland, or America. • Peasants and cotters (poor country daily wage farmers) couldn’t afford the latter, so they removed to the Low Country to work in manufacturing. • Small tenants, though living wretchedly, had stock (cattle) to sell to earn the passage and first settlement in America, plus they didn’t like the Low Country, and disdained the culture of the low country Scots. 5/20/2013 30jgillis767@aol.com
  30. 30. Sir Archibald Grant (in Aberdeen) • 1764 – “I have been convinced, that America will at a periode, I don’t presume to say when, be the grand seat of empire and all its concomitants.” • Every country, “and especially [the Scottish] highlands, have people [who are] ambitious, avaricious, or some how uneasy or whimsical”; most often they “ramble [off] to the army, or somewhere abroad” – and where better could they go than to Britain’s own new colonies? • In the north he would recommend “something on either or both sides of the Bay of Fundy, especially on or new St. Johns River, and opposite to Hallifax or the Istmus [of Chignecto].” 5/20/2013 31jgillis767@aol.com
  31. 31. John MacDonald of Glenaladale • Captain John MacDonald (1742-1810) was born in Glenaladale, Scotland, about half the distance from the southwest end of the Loch Shiel to the northeast end where sits the Glen Finnan monument to Bonnie Prince Charlie. • Prince Charlie spent the night with the MacDonalds before raising the fateful flag the next day at Glenfinnan. • John, who led his entire clan to Canada 27 years later was a young boy at the time, who grew to be a devout Catholic. • Glenfinnan is 27 kilometers from Morar (16.67 miles). 5/20/2013 32jgillis767@aol.com
  32. 32. John MacDonald of Glenaladale • The voyage of the Alexander resulted in the transplantation to Tracadie Bay, on the north shore of St. John (now called Prince Edward Island), of over 200 Scotch Highlanders, both Catholic and Protestant in 1772.* • The expedition was unusually well supplied – one of the best equipped at the time – partly because the church invested heavily in providing for the indigent Catholics, and partly because the rest of the passengers recruited by Glenaladale were relatively prosperous. • They arrived in St. John (PEI) in good season, opened up small farms in the virgin larch forests inland of Tracadie Bay, but had a sense of foreboding in their new forested wilderness. 5/20/2013 33jgillis767@aol.com * The Hector sailed in 1773 (Pictou)
  33. 33. 5/20/2013 34jgillis767@aol.com
  34. 34. Nova Scotia in 1774 • Nova Scotia is a 270-mile-long promontory lying parallel to the mainland across the Bay of Fundy and attached to the mainland at the north by a 17-mile-wide isthmus (the Isthmus of Chignecto). • Nova Scotia is extended in two directions by closely adjacent islands: Cape Breton, which reaches 110 miles east into the Atlantic, and St. John (now Prince Edward) Island, a narrow crescent that nestles close to Nova Scotia’s northern shore in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. • Comprising in all a land area of 22,500 square miles (over 14 million acres), Nova Scotia and the adjacent islands had a total population of less than 18,000 in early 1774. 5/20/2013 35jgillis767@aol.com
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  36. 36. Isthmus of Chignecto • The Isthmus of Chignecto was one of the principal battlegrounds on which the French and the English fought for the possession of a continent. It was there that the two armies took their stand with the Missaguash River in between. To the south of the river the English built Fort Lawrence, to the north the French built Fort Beausejour. In 1755, an English army crossed the river, defeated the French, and took the fort as its own. • In 1758, the English took Louisbourg; in 1759, Quebec; in 1760, Montreal. With the taking of Montreal, the question as to who was to have possession of North America was settled. 5/20/2013 37jgillis767@aol.com
  37. 37. Isthmus of Chignecto • Fort Beausejour (Fort Cumberland the English called it), lies on the western end of a 16 mile neck of land which attaches Nova Scotia to the continent. If it were not for this isthmus, Nova Scotia would be but an island in the Atlantic Ocean. • Fort Cumberland was a military base for the English, one of four forts to be found in Nova Scotia at war's end along with Halifax, Fort Edward, and Fort Anne. • In Cape Breton, there was no military presence at all, given that the great stone French fortress at Louisbourg, as the war was closing, had been reduced to rubble by British sappers. 5/20/2013 38jgillis767@aol.com
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  40. 40. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 41
  41. 41. Antigonish Sydney Mines Tracadie Bay Pictou 5/20/2013 42jgillis767@aol.com Isthmus of Chignecto Louisbourg
  42. 42. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 43
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  47. 47. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 48
  48. 48. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 49 Nova Scotia Coat of Arms
  49. 49. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 50
  50. 50. Tracadie • The Black Loyalists who moved to Chedabucto from Port Mouton got fed up with being landless. In 1787, their representative, Thomas Brownspriggs, presented a petition to the government signed by seventy-four people requesting land. By September of that year, 74 Black Loyalist families were granted 3000 acres in Tracadie, around the mouth of Tracadie Harbor, in what was then called Sydney County and is now Guysborough and Antigonish Counties. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 51
  51. 51. Antigonish County • The County of Sydney was created in 1784. • In 1836 Sydney County was diminished in size when Guysborough County was established out of what had been part of it. • In 1863 the name of the County of Sydney was changed to Antigonish County. • The word Antigonish is of Mi'kmaq origin, possibly derived from Nalegitkoonecht meaning “where branches are torn off.” It is said that there were bears in the area that broke down branches to get beech nuts. • The town of Antigonish is home to Saint Francis Xavier University. Antigonish County is also home to Pomquet Village, a small Acadian village dating back to 1774. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 52
  52. 52. Bibliography • Bernard Bailyn. The Barbarous Years: The Peopling of British North America: The Conflict of Civilizations, 1600 – 1675 (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 2012). • Bernard Bailyn with Barbara DeWolfe. Voyagers to the West: A Passage in the Peopling of America on the Eve of the Revolution (New York, NY: Random House, Vintage Books, 1986). • Bernard Bailyn. The Peopling of British North America: An Introduction (New York, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986). • Google and Wikipedia references are typed into the Notes section of each applicable Power Point Cell. 5/20/2013 53jgillis767@aol.com
  53. 53. 5/20/2013 jgillis767@aol.com 54 veritas

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