Timpurile verbelor

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Timpurile verbelor

  1. 1. TIMPURILE VERBELORModul INDICATIV.....................................................................................................................................................210) Future Continuous............................................................................................................................................1011) Future Perfect Simple.......................................................................................................................................1112) Future Perfect Continuous................................................................................................................................11Modul CONDITIONAL ...........................................................................................................................................1213) Future in the Past Simple = Conditional Present Simple..................................................................................1214) Future in the Past Continuous = Conditional Present C...................................................................................1215) Conditional Past Simple..................................................................................................................................1316) Conditional Past Continuous ...........................................................................................................................13Modul Subconjunctiv...............................................................................................................................................1416. Sunconjunctiv vechi..........................................................................................................................................1417. Subconjunctiv prezent......................................................................................................................................1418. Subconjunctiv perfect.......................................................................................................................................1419. Subconjunctiv analitic sau perifrasic.................................................................................................................14 NOTA: had better / best / rather......................................................................................................................15 - The Present Participle - activ .......................................................................................................................16 - The Present Participle - pasiv........................................................................................................................16 - The Past Participle -activ ..............................................................................................................................16 - The Past Participle - pasiv.............................................................................................................................16 Adjectiv verbal.....................................................................................................................................................16 Forma vb+ed.......................................................................................................................................................16Verbele Modale.......................................................................................................................................................17ORDINEA CUVINTELOR IN PROPOZITIE............................................................................................................19Zilele saptamanii:....................................................................................................................................................21Ora exacta:.............................................................................................................................................................21
  2. 2. Modul INDICATIV1) Present tense simple - forma : I, you, we, they - vb.forma1 He, she, it - vb.forma1+s/esSe traduce: Timpul prezent = Este acea actiune care se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii Ex: Eu aud vb regulate vb neregulate DIATEZA PASIVAA I, you, we, they come stop is come / stopped He, she, it comes stops …………………………………………….I Do I, you, we, they come Does he, she, it come …………………………………………….N I, you, we, they don’t smoke He, she, it doesn’t smoke- adevaruri general valabile sau legi ale naturiiEx. pamantul se invarte = the earth it turns around the sun- instructiuni de folosire a aparatelor, masinilor, echipamentelor, instructiuni de orientare- programe de lucru oficiale ale institutiilor, avioane, dead-line-uri pt proiecte, comentarii sportive, reclame- exprima actiuni permanente sau stari generaleEx. She works in a bankEx. Eu merg … = I walk …- Intocmirea rapoartelor (rapoarte care pe parcursul lunii/anului nu raman definitive)- exprima actiuni/stari viitoareEx. Maine este duminica = Tommorow is Sunday Putem manca cand vei veni = we can eat when you arrive- exprima actiuni sau obiceiuri care se repeta in general.fol. adv.: always, usually, often, seldom (rareori, rar), never, as a rule (mai intotdeauna), whenever (ori decate ori), one ussualy (de obicei), once in a while (din cand in cand)Ex: intodeauna se tine de cuvant, = he always keeps his word adesea se duc la mare = they often go to the seaside Eu beau cafea, fumez = I drink coffee, smoke- comentarii / recenzii sortive / povestiri dramaticeEx. Smythe serves the ball and Lanyon misses it …..NOTA: • dupa when, until, while, as nu se foloseste will si nici Present Perfect. Se foloseste Present Simple.Ex: Putem manca cand vii = we can eat when you arrive.NOTA: In general se folosec adverbele:Every day/week/month/year, usually, sometimes, always, rarely, never, often, in themorning/evening/afternoon, at night, on Monday,
  3. 3. 2) Present tense continuos - forma: – to be + vb.forma1+ingSe traduce: Timpul prezent = Este acea actiune care se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii Ex: Eu aud vb regulate vb neregulate DIATEZA PASIVAA I am coming stopping is being solved You are coming He, she, it is coming We are coming They are coming………………………………………………I Am I coming Are you coming…………………………………………….N I Am not coming You Are not coming- Exprima actiuni/stari repetate frecvent care enerveaza / deranjeaza:Ex. She is always annoying me = Ea ma critica intotdeauna- repetarea unei actiuni in mod constant - fol. adv. : always, constantly, continuallyEx: ei insista mereu asupra acestui lucru = they are constantly insisting on this- Exprima actiuni/stari temporare dar definite ca timpfol. vb.: at the moment, now, in present, all the time, this week/ holiday/winter.Ex. Ea nu vine la birou pt moment, aceasta vara, etc = she is not coming in the office for the moment / this Summer; In vacanta locuieste la hotel = In holiday she is living in hotel. Ea isi petrece saptamana cu mama ei = She is spending the week with her mother- Intocmirea rapoatelor la sfarsitul lunii (rapoarte care raman definitive)- intrebari despre planurile de viitor: Ex. Ce faci diseara = What are you doing tonight- programe fixate in viitorul apropiatEx. Eu ma duc la teatru in aceasta seara = I am going to theatre this evening- exprima actiuni/stari care vor avea loc intr-un viitor apropiatEx. Ei vin diseara = they are coming tonight- actiuni care se petrec in momentul sau in jurul momentului vorbiriiEx. Soarele rasare acum = The sun is shining now El studiaza pentru examene = He is studying for exams El locuieste la tara = he is living in the countryNOTA: - pentru verbele care exprima procese mintale sentimente, stari sufletesti NU SE FOLOSESTEPresent Continuous, decat daca se doreste sa se exagereze ceva in acel moment.Ex: I am wishing to go to ……; I am wanting to say…….. - La acest timp verbele have, be si see isi schimba sensul:Ex. I am having a shower=fac un dus; Are you having problem. are sens de a face, a avea; Have = aavea She is being noisy = Se poarta/comporta zgomotos; are sens de a se purta; Be = a fi I am seeing… = Ma intalnesc … are sens de a merge, a intalni,; See = a vedea, a intelege I am thinking to study Law = ma gandesc sa studies. Are sens de a gandi; Think = a avea o idee It is appearing = are sens de a aparea; Appear = a pare I am tasting a cake = are sens de a gusta, Taste = a avea gust => It tastes a little biter (amar) They are looking .. = are sens de a privi. Look = a arata intr-un felNOTA: In general se folosec adverbele:Now, at the moment, at present, nowadays, today, tonight, always, still…
  4. 4. 3) Present perfect (simple) - forma: - have/has + vb.forma3 / vb+edSe traduce cu: Trecutul – daca actiunea se termina in present Prezentul – daca actiunea contiuna in present Timpul prezent = Este acea actiune care se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii Ex: Eu aud Timpul imperfect = Exprima o actiune desfasurata in trecut, dar care continua si in momentul la care se refera actiunea exprimata de verb. Ex: El venea, descăleca Timpul perfect simplu = Exprima actiunea savarsita in trecut, dar terminata de curand fata de momentul vorbirii. Ex: El veni, descălecă Timpul perfect compus = Exprima actiuni trecute si terminate mai de mult sau de curand, fara a preciza timpul cand au fost savarsite. Ex: Eu am ajuns vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, you, we, they have driven stopped have been stopped He, she, it has driven stopped …………………………………………………………………..I Have I, you, they driven stopped Has he, she, it driven stopped ………………………………………………………………….N I, you, they have not driven stopped He, she, it has not driven stopped ………………………………………………………………….- exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut nedefinita in timp si care se continua si in presentfol adv.: - just, ever, already, never, often, seldom, always, sometimes, already, rarely, frequently, occasionally, generally – se pun in fata vb, ATENTIE la YET - today, this week, month, summer, lately, recently, on late – se pun la sf propozitiei - since, for pt propozitiile care le preced– se pun la sf propozitieiEx: jocul abia a inceput = the game has just began Has she finished paper yet? She has not finished the paper yet.- exprima actiuni incepute in trecut, intamplate intr-un moment nespecificatEx. I have been teacher for 10 years – aici FOR introduce durata = Sunt professor de 10 azi sau since 1993 – aici SINCE introduce momentul- actiuni incepute in trecut deja terminate, avand legatura cu prezentul, cu specificarea sau nu a referintei timpEx. El si-a cumparat o casa = He has bought a house (acum are deja o casa) Abia s-a intors de la Paris = He has just returned from Paris (e mentionata referinta timp = just=abia)- exprima actiuni incepute in trecut si terminate de curandFol: over the last few days/months, monthly, recently, lately.Ex. The dollar has fallen in the last few days Ea si-a vopsit parul negru = She has dyed her hair black- vreau sa ma refer la o actiune inceputa in trecut dar nu mentionez momentul cand s-a intamplat eaEx. Ti-am spus saptamana trecuta ca ti-o trimit = Last week I told you that I have sent you (adica amtrimis-o deja) Ai fost in Turcia vreodata = Have you ever been in Turkey Ai vazut filmul acela = Have you seen that movie- cand se doreste accentuarea unui numarEx. He has seen three films this week She has had four cups of coffee since she woke up.- experinte personale / schimbari care au avut locEx. She has lost weight recently- se foloseste in intrebari legate de durataEx: de cand esti professor? = for how long you have been teacherNOTA: In general se folosesc adverbele:Just, ever, already, yet, always, how long, so far, recently, since, for,
  5. 5. 4) Present perfect continuos – forma: have/has +been+vb.forma1+ingSe traduce cu: Trecutul – daca actiunea se termina in present = am fumat Prezentul – daca actiunea contiuna in present = fumez Timpul prezent = Este acea actiune care se desfasoara in momentul vorbirii Ex: Eu aud Timpul imperfect = Exprima o actiune desfasurata in trecut, dar care continua si in momentul la care se refera actiunea exprimata de verb. Ex: El venea, descăleca Timpul perfect simplu = Exprima actiunea savarsita in trecut, dar terminata de curand fata de momentul vorbirii. Ex: El veni, descălecă Timpul perfect compus = Exprima actiuni trecute si terminate mai de mult sau de curand, fara a preciza timpul cand au fost savarsite. Ex: Eu am ajuns vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I have been driving stopping have been being stopped You have been driving stopping He, she, it has been driving stopping We have been driving stopping They have been driving stopping …………………………………………………………………..I Have I been driving stopping Have you been Has he,she,it been …………………………………………………………………..N I have not been driving stopping You have not been He, she, it has not been ………………………………….- exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut, care se desfasoara si in prezent, in mod continuu si neintreruptEx. Ea nu invata de cand ai plecat, = she has not been learning Ce fac ei de trei ore? = what they have been doing- se foloseste cand vreau sa marchez durata unei actiuni incepute in trecutse fol: for, since, how longEx: Eu conduc de zile = I have been driving for days He has been feeling unwell for days.- se foloseste pt a intreba ceva legat de durata sau in salutEx: ce ai mai facut in ultima perioada = what have you been doing lately- pt a marca aspectul continuu al unei actiuni/stari incepute in trecutEx: ai alergat? = have you been running- actiune inceputa in trecut cu o durata sigura avand efecte/rezultate visibile in prezentEx. He has been running. That’s why he is out of breath.- pentru a exprima furia, iritarea, supararea, explicatia sau criticaEx. She has been using my make-up- se foloseste cand vrem sa exprimam politetea.Ex. I have been wantingNOTA: • dupa when, until, while, as nu se foloseste will si nici Present Perfect. Se foloseste Present Simple.Ex: Putem manca cand vii = we can eat when you arrive.NOTA: In general se folosesc adverbele:Just, ever, already, yet, always, how long, so far, recently, since, for, today, this week / month,
  6. 6. 5) Past tense (simple) - forma : -vb. reg.-vb. Forma1+ed -vb. nereg.-vb. forma2se traduce: Timpul imperfect = Exprima o actiune desfasurata in trecut, dar care continua si in momentul la care se refera actiunea exprimata de verb. Ex: El venea, descăleca Timpul perfect simplu = Exprima actiunea savarsita in trecut, dar terminata de curand fata de momentul vorbirii. Ex: El veni, descălecă Timpul perfect compus = Exprima actiuni trecute si terminate mai de mult sau de curand, fara a preciza timpul cand au fost savarsite. Ex: Eu am ajuns. Timpul mai mult ca perfectul = Exprima actiuni savarsite in trecut si terminate inaintea altei actiuni trecute. Ex: El iesise / decălecase inaintea plecarii lui vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, you, we, they came smoked was stopped He, she, it …………………………………………………………………………….I Did I, you, we, they come smoke (!! vb nu mai are fara ED) he, she, it …………………………………………………………………………….N I, you, we, they didn’t come smoke He, she, it did not-exprima actiuni incepute in trecut (terminate sau continui) pe care le povestim si le percepem ca incheiateEx: I worked within Ropeco, a Romanian company = Am lucrat la Ropeco, o companie romaneasca- obiceiuri sau stari vechiEx. He rode his bike to school every day when he was a child = Cand era copil mergea cu bicicleta…- actiuni sau evenimente incepute in trecut, finalizate care s-au petrecut la un moment din trecut, bine specificatfol.adv.: last year, yesterday, a week ago, last weekEx. She sold her car last week- exprima actiuni incepute in trecut, terminate, fara legatura cu momentul present al vorbirii si care au referinta detimp mentionata sau sugerata sau subinteleasaEx: Statea acolo fara sa se clinteasca = he sited there without budging Shakespeare wrote at least 36 plays (deci el este mort si nu mai poate scrie)- exprima actiuni/secvente incepute in trecut care s-au petrecut imediat una dupa altafol.adv. : sometimes, often, usuallyEx. Am raspuns la telefon si i-am auzit vocea = I answered the phone and I heard his voice She woke up, got out of bed and made a cup of tea Ne duceam uneori acolo = we sometimes went there
  7. 7. 6) Past tense continuous - forma : I, he, she, it -was+vb+ing you, we, they -were+vb+ingse traduce cu: Timpul imperfect = Exprima o actiune desfasurata in trecut, dar care continua si in momentul la care se refera actiunea exprimata de verb. Ex: El venea, descăleca Timpul perfect simplu = Exprima actiunea savarsita in trecut, dar terminata de curand fata de momentul vorbirii. Ex: El veni, descălecă Timpul perfect compus = Exprima actiuni trecute si terminate mai de mult sau de curand, fara a preciza timpul cand au fost savarsite. Ex: Eu am ajuns. Timpul mai mult ca perfectul = Exprima actiuni savarsite in trecut si terminate inaintea altei actiuni trecute. Ex: El iesise / decălecase inaintea plecarii lui vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, He, she, it was coming smoking was being stopped you, we, they were …………………………………………………………………………….I Was I, He, she, it coming smoking Were you, we, they …………………………………………………………………………….N I, He, she, it was not coming smoking you, we, they were not- doua sau mai multe actiuni incepute in trecut, desfasurate simultan si cu o durata siguraEx. I was washing up while he was drying the dishes- exprima o actiune desf. in trecut pe o perioada de timp determinata.- se refera la o actiune inceputa in trecut, care se afla in desfasurare la un moment bine specificatfol.adv.: yesterday, a week ago, last week.Ex. La ora 2, ieri scriam o scrisoare = Yesterday at 2 o clock I was writing a letter De data aceasta sapt trecuta calatoream prin Africa = This time last week I was traveling accross Africa- exprima o actiune trecuta aflata in desfasurare si intrerupata de o alta actiune trecuta.Ex. I was talking a shower when I heard the telephone ringNOTA: • Cand se folosesc 2 Past Tense Continuous in acea propozitie se arata paralelismul actiunilor. Actiuni lungi care se desfasoara in paralel. - folosim When, while, as Ex. Ea citea cand el gatea =She was reading when he was cooking • Cand se folosesc 2 Past Tense Simple in acea propozitie se arata actiuni scurte, una s-a incheiat si a inceput alta Ex. Am inchis usa si am bagat cheia in yala • Cand se folosesc Past Tense Continuous si Past Tense Simple in acea propozitie se arata o actiune lunga (Past Tense Continuous) intrerupta de una scurta (Past Tense Simple) Ex. Ea citea cand telefonul a sunat.= She was reading when the phone rang - actiune scurta actiune lunga • O forma specif timpului Past = viitor apropiat (near future in the past). exprima intentia savarsirii unei actiuni viitoare 1) “to be goig to” =Past Continuos a vb to go + vb infinitiv = a avea de gand, a intentiona, a fi pe punctul de a Ex. Eu voiam sa intreb, eram pe punctul = I was going to ask Vesnic se pregatea sa porneasca dar niciodata nu se urnea din loc = He was always going to go and never going 2) “to be to” =Past Continuos a vb to be + vb infinitiv = a avea de gand, a intentiona, a fi pe punctul de a… cu diferenta ca actiunea a fost planificata / hotarata dinainte Ex. Urmeaza sa vizitam muzeul duminica = We were being to visit the museum on Sunday
  8. 8. 7) Past perfect simple - forma : had+vb forma3se traduce cu: Timpul imperfect = Exprima o actiune desfasurata in trecut, dar care continua si in momentul la care se refera actiunea exprimata de verb. Ex: El venea, descăleca Timpul perfect simplu = Exprima actiunea savarsita in trecut, dar terminata de curand fata de momentul vorbirii. Ex: El veni, descălecă Timpul perfect compus = Exprima actiuni trecute si terminate mai de mult sau de curand, fara a preciza timpul cand au fost savarsite. Ex: Eu am ajuns. Timpul mai mult ca perfectul = Exprima actiuni savarsite in trecut si terminate inaintea altei actiuni trecute. Ex: El iesise / decălecase inaintea plecarii lui vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, you, she he had driven stopped has been stopped It, We, they …………………………………………………………………………….I Had I, you, she he driven stopped It, We, they …………………………………………………………………………….N I, you, she he had not driven stopped It, We, they- actiune trecuta ce se petrece inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute sau inainte de o perioada de timp trecute, binedefinitaEx. Regele era casatorit de mult cand baiatul s-a nascut si a fost botezat = the king had been married for a long time when the boy was born and baptized De abia vazu balonul ca si incepu sa deseneze un ceas pana cand impunse cauciucul si balonul se sparse = He had no sooner seen the balloon than he started drawing a clock on it, until he stung the rubber and the balloon burst. Auzisem vestea inainte de a ajunge acasa = I had heard the rumor before to arrive at home De abia incepusem sa citesc, cand el dadu buzna in odaie = I had scarcely started reading when he rushed into the room Catre ora 11 tradusesera intreaga poezie = They had translated the whole poem by 11 o’clock In preajama celei de-a doua zi de tabara el si-a facut mai multi preieteni= By his second day camp he had made several friends.- actiuni trecute, incheiate care au efecte visibile in trecut => fol.adv.: before, afterEx. She felt safer after she had locked all the doors. = Ea se simti in siguranta dupa ce a incuiat usile- echivalentul trecutului lui Present perfetEx. The room was empty, everyone has gone (Present Perfect: The room is empty, everyone has gone)
  9. 9. 8) Past perfect continuous - forma: had+been+vb+ingse traduce cu: Timpul imperfect = Exprima o actiune desfasurata in trecut, dar care continua si in momentul la care se refera actiunea exprimata de verb. Ex: El venea, descăleca Timpul perfect simplu = Exprima actiunea savarsita in trecut, dar terminata de curand fata de momentul vorbirii. Ex: El veni, descălecă Timpul perfect compus = Exprima actiuni trecute si terminate mai de mult sau de curand, fara a preciza timpul cand au fost savarsite. Ex: Eu am ajuns. Timpul mai mult ca perfectul = Exprima actiuni savarsite in trecut si terminate inaintea altei actiuni trecute. Ex: El iesise / decălecase inaintea plecarii lui vb regulate vb neregulate DIATEZA PASIVAA I, you, she he had been driving stopping had been being stopped It, We, they …………………………………………………………………………….I Had I, you, she he been driving stopping It, We, they …………………………………………………………………………….N I, you, she he had been not driving stopping It, We, they-exprima o actiune trecuta inceputa inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute dar continuand pe timpul duratei celei de adoua actiuni.Ex. Scria de 2 ore cand veni sa o vada cumnata ei = She had been writing for two hours when her sister inlaw came to see her.-exprima o actiune trecuta desf. inaintea unei alte actiuni trecute dar vreau sa insist asupra duratei primei actiuni.fol. adv.: before, after, whenEx. Condusesem pt 6 ore si eram f obosit = I had been driving for 6 hours and I was very tired Past Perfect C Past Tense CNOTA: - • Daca actiunea de referinta este la Prezent ea se coreleaza cu Prezent Perfect= care este actiunea ce se intampla inainte de actiunea de referinta • Daca actiunea de referinta este la Past Tense ea se coreleaza cu Past Perfect = care este actiunea ce se intampla inainte de actiunea de referinta Ex. Aflasem de relatia lor de la John inainte ca ei sa hotarasca sa-mi spuna = I had known about their affair from John before they decided to tell me – actiunea de referinta (Past Tense) • Expresia “Used to” se foloseste numai la trecut, cand vreau sa arat o actiune care o faceam in trecut si nu o mai fac deloc/niciodata Ex. Obisnuiam sa merg cu bicicleta cand eram copil =I used to ride on a bike when I was a child
  10. 10. 9) Future Simple -forma: I, we -shall+vb-forma1 you, he, she,it,they -will+ vb-forma 1se traduce cu: eu – voi fuma - viitor anterior vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we shall come smoke shall be stopped you, he, she, it, they will …………………………………………………………………………….I Shall I, we come smoke Will you, he, she, it, they …………………………………………………………………………….N I, we shall not come smoke you, he, she, it, they will not- exprima ideea unei actiuni/stari viitoare care se va efectua sigur, viitor de porunca, promisiune si hotarare,afirma savarsirea unei actiuni viitoareEx. I will ask = eu voi (neaparat, te asigur) You shall ask = tu vei intreba (pt ca este obligat) I shall help him = il voi ajuta (simpla afirmatie) I will help him = il voi ajuta (sigur, promisiuneNOTA: Will se foloseste numai la exprimarea viitorului care se intampla SIGUR10) Future Continuousforma: I, we -shall+be+vb + ing you, he, she,it,they -will+be +vb + ingnota:se traduce cu: eu – voi fuma vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we shall be coming smoking shall be being stopped you, he, she, it, they will be …………………………………………………………………………….I Shall I, we be coming smoking Will you, he, she, it, they be …………………………………………………………………………….N I, we shall not be coming smoking you, he, she, it, they will not be- exprima o actiune/stari in desfasurare intr-un moment din viitorEx. Tomorrow I shall be working = Maine voi lucra. At five o’clock they will be starting the game= la ora cinci vor incepe jocul
  11. 11. 11) Future Perfect Simple-forma: I, we -shall+have +vb-forma 3 you, he, she,it,they -will+have + vb-forma 3nota:se traduce cu: eu – voi fi fumat - viitor anterior vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we shall have come smoked shall have been stopped you, he, she, it, they will have …………………………………………………………………………….I Shall I, we have come smoked Will you, he, she, it, they have ……………………………………………………………………………N I, we shall not have come smoked you, he, she, it, they will not have- exprima ideea unei actiuni/stari viitoare care se va efectua inaintea unui anumit moment din viitorEx. I shall have returned by ten = ma voi intoarce/ voi fi intors pana la zece- o actiune/stare presupusa referitoare la trecutEx. You will have heard about it= Vei fi auzit/probabil ai auzit despre asta.12) Future Perfect Continuousforma: I, we -shall+have+been+vb + ing you, he, she,it,they -will+have +been +vb + ingnota:se traduce cu: eu – voi fi fumat vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we shall have been coming smoking shall have been being stopped you, he, she, it, they will have been …………………………………………………………………………….I Shall I, we have been coming smoking Will you, he, she, it, they have been …………………………………………………………………………….N I, we shall not have been coming smoking you, he, she, it, they will not have been- exprima ideea unei actiuni/stari viitoare care va incepe inaintea unui alt moment viitor, in timpul careia actiuneava continuaEx. When he returns we shall have been waiting for him for hours together = Cind (in momentul in care)se va intoarce (el) il vom fi asteptat cateva ceasuri in sir.
  12. 12. Modul CONDITIONAL13) Future in the Past Simple = Conditional Present Simple-forma : I, we -should+vb you, he, she,it, they -would+vbnota:se traduce cu: eu – as fuma, voi fuma vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we should / would come smoke should be stopped you, he, she, it, they should / would …………………………………………………………………………….I Should/would I, we come smoke Should/would you, he, she, it, they …………………………………………………………………………….N I, we should/would not come smoke you, he, she, it, they should/would not- exprima o conditie sau o actiune doritaEx. I would go home = As pleca acasa I should go home = Ar trebui sa plec acasa What should I do? = Ce as putea face? You might ask her? = Ai putea sa o intrebi pe ea You could ask her ? = Ai putea …- exprima ideea unei actiuni/stari viitoare raportata la un moment din trecutEx. Mi-a spus ieri ca se va intoarce maine = he told me yesterday that he would return tomorrow Marti John mi-a spus ca miercuri urma sa mergem la film=On Tuesday John told me that Thursdaywe would go to the movie- exprima ideea unei actiuni/stari a carei realizare depinde in general de indeplinirea unei conditiiEx. As cumpara aceasta carte daca o gasesc = I should buy this book if I found it- cu vb care exprima dorinta – wish. Like, wantEx. M-iar placea sa ma duc la mare = I should like to go to the seaside(FFF RAR)14) Future in the Past Continuous = Conditional Present Cforma: - I, we -should+be + vb + ing - you, he, she,it, they -would+be + vb + ingnota:se traduce cu: eu – voi fuma vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we should be coming smoking should be being stopped you, he, she, it, they would be …………………………………………………………………………….I Should be I, we be coming smoking Would be you, he, she, it, they be …………………………………………………………………………….N I, we should not be coming smoking you, he, she, it, they would not be - exprima ideea unei actiuni/stari viitoare fata de un moment in trecut
  13. 13. 15) Conditional Past Simple-forma : I, we -should + have + vb-forma 3 you, he, she,it, they -would + have + vb-forma 3nota:se traduce cu: eu – as fi fumat vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we should/would have come smoked should have been stopped you, he, she, it, they should/would …………………………………………………………………………….I S/W I, we have come smoked S/W you, he, she, it, they …………………………………………………………………………….N I, we S/W not have come smoked you, he, she, it, they S/W not have- exprima ideea unei actiuni/stari a carei realizare a depins in general de indeplinirea unei conditiiEx. Ce-ai fi facut daca ai fi fost acolo = What would you have done if you had been there El te-ar fi sunat = He would have called you El ar fi trebuit sa te sune = He should have called you- cu vb care exprima dorinta – want, wish, like Mi-ar fi placut sa locuiesc la tara =I should have liked to live in the country(FFF RAR)16) Conditional Past Continuousforma: - I, we -should+have been + vb + ing - you, he, she,it, they -would+have beenbe + vb + ingnota:se traduce cu: eu – as fi fumat vb neregulat vb regulat DIATEZA PASIVAA I, we should have been coming smoking should have been being stopped you, he, she, it, they would have been …………………………………………………………………………….I Should I, we have been coming smoking Would you, he, she, it, they …………………………………………………………………………….N I, we should not have been coming smoking you, he, she, it, they would not have beenNOTA:- daca 2 propozitii sunt legate cu AND in ambele propozitii se foloseste acelasi TIMP
  14. 14. Modul SUBCONJUNCTIVExprima actiuni ireale dar realizabila16. Sunconjunctiv vechiSe foloseste vbr la invinitiv fara particula TOEx. It is important that he take part in the discusion = este important ca el sa ia parte la discutie Far be it from me to… = departe de mine gandul de a … Suffice it to say … = E suficient sa spun ca… Long live = Sa traiasca17. Subconjunctiv prezentAre o singura forma la toate persoanele = Past tense = vb la forma forma a 2 a sau vb + edEx. I wish he understood me = as dori sa ma inteleaga It’s time we left = E timpul sa plecamNOTA: Exceptie este vb TO BE care in acest caz are forma WEREEx. If I were you = daca as fi in locul tau If you were me = daca ai fi in locul meu I wish I were him = as vrea sa fiu in locul luiNOTA: In vorbirea colocviala WERE se inlocuieste cu WASEx. I wish he was here = As dori sa fie aici Suppose he were here what would you tell him? = Presupunand ca ar fi aici, ce i-ai spune?18. Subconjunctiv perfect- este identic cu Past Perfect = had been +vb forma a 3 a- exprima o actiune anterioara celei exprimate de verbul din propozitia principala sau o situatie ireala.- se traduce prin conjunctiv perfect sau conditional perfectEx. David wished he had not been so absent-minded = David ar fi dorit sa nu fi fost asa absent If he had been there he would have helped them = Daca ar fi fost acolo i-ar fi ajutat.19. Subconjunctiv analitic sau perifrasic- sunt constructii similare cu subconjunctivul present sau pastShall / should + vb Shall / should have +Vb-ed / a III a formaMay / might + vb May / might have +Vb-ed / a III a formaWould + vb Would have +Vb-ed / a III a formaCould + vb Could have +Vb-ed / a III a forma a) shall / should se folosesc la toate persoanele in propozitii care urmeaza dupa: - verbele: to demand, to insist, to order, to request, to decide, to advise, to expect, to recommend, to suggest, to hurry, sau cu thatEx. We expect that the new school building shall be finished soon The manager ordered that the papers should be delivered in time - constructiile: it …. + to be + adjective … + that It … = it is necessary, it is advisable, it is essential, it is better, it is vital, it is important, it is right, it is fair, it is natural, it is strange, it is odd, it is desirable, it is amazing, it is annoying, it is ridiculous, it is absurd, it is required, it is surprising, it is requested, it is arranged, it is wonderful, it is impossible, it is possible, it is disappointing,,,Ex. It is important that everybody should be present = este important ca toata lumea sa fie prezenta It was strange that they should have lied to us. It was better that you should have finished your work before coming here. It is essential for me that he should come in time - cuvintele: desire, idea, intention, proposal, wish, suggestion, request, agreement, demand, arrangement, lest (ca sa nu), in case, for fear (de frica sa nu), it is (high) time (e timpul sa), even though, however, whatever, as if, as though..Ex. His suggestion is that we should go togheter We hurried lest we should miss the bus The arrangements was that they should have met before going to the meeting I will go there even though you should consider me a fool However difficult it should be, it is worth trying = Oricat de greu ar fi, merita sa incerci Whatever your friends should have told you, you must not give up. = Orice ti-ar fi spus prietenii tai…
  15. 15. - NOTA: constructia: for…+ vb infintiv lung poate fi inlocuita cu subconjunctivEx. It is important to see you = It is important that I should see you b) may / might se folosesc la toate persoanele in propozitii care urmeaza dupa: - in expresii care denota teama, speranta, dorinta, urareEx. May you live long life He was afraid they may not find him at home We hope he may be honestNOTA: Asezat dupa constructiile si cuvintele de mai jos are sens de A SE PUTEA / A FI POSIBIL - constructiile: it …. + to be + adjective … + that It … = it is necessary, it is advisable, it is essential, it is better, it is vital, it is important, it is right, it is fair, it is natural, it is strange, it is odd, it is desirable, it is amazing, it is annoying, it is ridiculous, it is absurd, it is required, it is surprising, it is requested, it is arranged, it is wonderful, it is impossible, it is possible, it is disappointing,,,Ex. I will give you the book so that you should copy the text = Am sa-ti dau cartea ca sa copiezi textulSau: I shall give you the book so that you may copy the text = Am sa-ti dau cartea ca sa POTI copia textul It is important that everybody may be present = este important ca toata lumea sa poata fi prezenta - cuvintele: desire, idea, intention, proposal, wish, suggestion, request, agreement, demand, arrangement, lest (ca sa nu), in case, for fear (de frica sa nu), it is (high) time (e timpul sa), even though, however, whatever, as if, as though..Ex. He put the bottle on the top shelf lest the boy may drink the barndy = El apus sticla pe raftul de sus ca baiatul sa nu poata bea coniacul However hard it may be, you must do it = Oricat de greu ar putea fi, trebuie sa o faci Whatever he might have done, we must help him = Orice ar fi putut face, trebuie sa-l ajutam c) Would - isi pastreaza de cele mai multe ori nuanta de verb modal (A VOI), sau arata ca ceva AR URMA SA SE FACA IN VIITOR. - este folosit in constructiile WOULD RATHER, WOULD BETTER, WOULD SOONER urmate de Verb si are sensul de A PREFERA, AR FI BINE SA, exprimand preferinta personala a vorbitorului.Ex. I wish you would forget it = As vrea sa uiti asta He wishes I would give up smoking = Ar dori sa renunt la fumat I would rather read than watch TV = Mai degraba as citi decat sa ma uit la TV Tom would rather have put on his blue-jeans but his mother advised him not = Tom si-ar fi pus mai degraba blugii dar mama lui l-a sfatuit sa nu o faca Wouldn’t be better stay at home than go out? = Na-r fi mai bines a stai acasa decat sa pleci? d) Could - in construirea subconjunctivului analitic isi pastreaza sensu le verb modal (A PUTEA) - este folosit in general dupa: suppose, imagine, as thought (ca si cand, ca si cum), to wish, so thatEx. Suppose we could be free tomorrow, what would you like to do = Presupunand ca am fi liberi maine, ce-ai vrea sa faci If he could sing he would try to become an opera singer = Daca ar putea sa cante ar incerca sa devina I wish I could have come sooner = As dori sa fi putut veni mai devremeNOTA: had better / best / ratherConstructii idiomatice: had better, had best, had rather, verbul had este la subconjunctiv si se traduce prin: AI /AR FACE MAI BINE SA, AR FI MAI BINE SA si se indica un sfat, un avertisment.Ex. You look ill, so you had better stay in bed = tu arati bolnav, ar fi face mai bines a stai in pat He had better not go out tonight, it is too dangerous = El ar face mai bines a nu iasa afara,,,, You had better go to the Police = ….BETTER = BINERATHER = CURAND
  16. 16. FORMA VB+ING 1) Participiul = forma ing are rol de complement si atribut- The Present Participle - activEx. Coming = venind Writing = scriind Being unable to rise, the girl burst into tears = Nefiind in stare sa se ridice fata a izbucnit .. He sat by the fireplace, reading = sedea langa camin, citind The rain falling day and night ceased = Ploaia care cazuse ziua si noaptea inceta- The Present Participle - pasivEx. Being beaten = fiind batut Being sent = fiind trimis The variety now being cultivated…. = Varietatea care se cultiva acum.. Being written to hastily = fiind sris in graba…. Having lived in our country 2 years, he spoke… = Intrucat locuise in tara noastra 2 ani, vorbea..- The Past Participle -activEx. Having lived in our country 2 years, he spoke… = Intrucat locuise in tara noastra 2 ani, vorbea..- The Past Participle - pasivEx. Having been read = fiind citit, deoarece a fost citit Having been reprimanded = fiind certat, deoarece fusese certat 2) Substantiv verbal – nu au plural, sunt articulate sau nu, pot fi urmate de prepozitia OFEx. Coming = venire, sosire Writing = scriere, actiunea de a scrie Seeing (subiect) is belivieng (nume predicative) = A vedea inseamna a cred 3) Gerundiv – constructie specifica limbii engleze, caracterizata de natura dubla de forma verbala si substantivalaEx. Did you hear of his going there = ai auzit de plecarea lui acolo (ca pleca) He insisted on her coming immediately = El insista (ca ea) sa vina imadiatAdjectiv verbalEx. A running boy = un baiat care alearga An encouraging proposal = o propunere incurajatoare Singing bird = Pasare cantatoareForma vb+edEx. A broken cup =o ceasca Sparta The sentence underlined = propozitia subliniata Imported goods = bunuri importate
  17. 17. VERBELE MODALE - Nu au forma de infinitiv, deci nu se foloseste in fata lor TO - Nu au terminatia –s la pers.III singular, present simplu - Nu primesc terminatia –ing - Formele interrogative si negative se construiesc fara vb “to do” - Vb care urmeaza dupa un vb modal se pune la infinitiv scurt (fara particular to) - Nu au toate timpurile si de aceea sint inlocuite de constructii sinonime.Present Past tense / Conditional Echivalent IntelesCan Could To be able to A puteaMust -- ‘’ -- To have to A trebuieMay Might To be allowed to A putea, a avea voie To be permitted to To be possible to A se puteaShall Should -- ‘’ -- A trebuieWill Would -- ‘’ -- A vreaOught to -- ‘’ -- -- ‘’ -- A trebui, a se cuveni saNeed Needed -- ‘’ -- A fi nevoieDare Dared -- ‘’ -- A indrazniHave Had A trebuieDo Done Subliniaza necesitatea actiuniiBe Been A urma sa, a trebui sa1) CAN – COULD = a putea, a fi in stare sa, a stiExprima posibilitatea fizica de a face o actiune, pentru cere permisiunea (exprima politetea)EX. We can finish our work = putem termina treba noatra Could I smoke a cigarette = pot sa (imi permiteti) sa fumez o tigaraCAN este forma de present la toate persoanele si poate fi intrebuintat cu sens de viitorEx. Can she speak English She can’t be here already.Could este forma pentru trecut (Past Tense) si pt formarea modului conditional si a Future in the Past ca si asubconjuctivului.Ex. He could solve the problem = ar fi putut sa resolve problema When he was a child he could swim = cand era copil putea sa inoate (Past Tense) He could have been a doctor = ar fi putut sa fie doctor (Past Tense) They could help us if they wanted to = Ne-ar fi ajutat daca ar fi vrut (Conditional) John told us that he could come on Monday = John ne-a spus ca ar putea veni Luni (Future in the Past) I wish he could come = Imi doersc sa poata veni (Subconjunctiv)To able to – inlocuitor pt Can - Could = VIITOREx. She can (is able to) understand this as she knows a lot of.. = ea poate inetelege atat timp cat stie… He has never been able to do right things in life = ea nu a putut face ceea ce trebuie in viata I think you could (are able to) solve those problem = cred ca poti rezolva aceste probleme2) Must - --“-- = a trebuiAre o singura forma la present si uneori la tracut si viitor atunci cand contextul este ff clar.- Exprima TREBUIE cu sensul de obligatie sau de posibilitate certa.Ex. They must leave the house = ei trebuie sa paraseasca casa You must Stop = trebuie sa te opresti, oprete-te- Se mai foloseste in propozitiile negative si are sens de interdictieEx. May I go to the seaside. No, you mustn’t , you haven’t recovered yet = Pot sa ma duc pe plaja. NU nupoti, tu nu te-ia refacut inca.- Raspunsul la o interbare ce contine MUST poate fi formulata tot cu MUST cand se arata o impunere, sau cuvb NEEDN”T cand se exprima ideea ca acel lucru nu este necesar.Ex. Must I write the whole exercises = trebuie sa scriu toate exercitiile? Yes, you must, as you can’t spell correctly = da, trebuie, deorece nu scrii corect No, you needn’t , one or two sentences will do = nu trebuie, unul sau doua vor fi OKTo have to inlocuieste pe MUST atunci cand sensul de necessitate sau obligatie este mai putin intens.
  18. 18. Ex. You don’t have to cross the street = Nu e nevoie, nu e necesar sa traversezi strada3) May – Might = a putea, a avea voie, a se putea, a fi posibilMAY - Exprima posibilitatea si o presupunere sugerand ideea de nesiguranta.Ex. You may go in now, the lesson is over = Poti merge inauntru, lectia s-a terminat. May I use your pen? = Pot folosi stiloul tau It may happen = s-ar putea sa se intampleMIGHT – Exprima probabiltaea scazuta de a se intampla ceva, putin probabilEx. It might happen = este f putin probabilsa sa intample She mght be a sleep = s-ar putea sa doarma, dar nu cred He might have had an accident = Ar fi putut avea un accident (dar nu l-a avut)To be allowed to, to be permitted to = cand se acorda permisiuneaEx. You may go in now, the lesson is over = Poti merge inauntru, lectia s-a terminat You are allowed to …….To be possible to = cand exista posibilitateaEx. It may rain today = S-ar pute sa ploua azi It is possible to ……. Don’t go in it may be sleep = Nu intra s-ar putea sa doarma Don’t go in it is possible to…….4) SHALL – SHOULD = a trebuiSe foloseste la viitor, in interogatii in care se ofera ajutorul, cand se doreste accentuarea actiunii si ea necesitaresurse.Ex. Shall be go = merge Shall I help you = sa te ajut, te ajut You shall die = pt mine este fff importat ca tu sa fii mort You should go = tu trebuie sa pleci He should study more = ar fi putut sa invete mai mult He should have studied more = ar fi putut sa fi invat mai mult5) WILL – WOULD = a vrea, a voi, a dori, a-I placeaSe foloseste la viitor, in interogatii in care se doreste accentuarea nuantei de vointa a actiunii (volitie)Ex. I will go = eu voi merge I will go now = voi merge / sa merg acum / as vrea sa merg That will do = Ajunge Accidents will happen = Se intampla, n-ai ce faceWill – PresentWould – PastNota: used to = arata ca o actiune s-a facut in mod frecvent sau o stare a existat in modobisnuit in trecut, daracum s-a incheiatEx. He used to work here = A muncit aici (acum nu) He used to have a dog = Avea un caine (acum nu mai are)6) OUGHT TO = ar trebui, s-ar cuveni, ar fi cazul saExprima o obligatie morala dar si o concluzie logica insa nu certa.Ex. He ought he visit his grandmother more often = S-ar cuveni sa-si viziteze bunica mai des They ought to have arrived by now = Era cazul sa fi venit deja7) Need - Needed = a fi nevoie, a trebui,Se foloseste in propozitii interrogative, negative. In general este raspuns la o intrebare.Ex. He need no fear = Nu e cazul sa-I fie frica Need you go now = E nevoie sa pleci? You needn’t hardly tell me how clever she is = Nici macar nu e nevoie sa-mi spui cat e dedesteapta
  19. 19. 8) Dare – Dared = a indrazni, a avea curajul, a se incumetaSe foloseste in propozitii interrogative, negative si mai rar affirmative. In general este raspuns la o intrebare.Ex. How dare you = cum indraznesti? Dare you tell me such lie = indraznestio sa-mi spui mie o asemenea minciuna She daren’t open the door = Nu s-a incumetat sa deschida usa You daren’t tell him , dare you = N-o sa indraznesti sa-I spui , nu-i asa9) To be going to – se foloseste la viitor pt o actiune pe care am planuit sa o facEx. Eu voiam sa intreb, eram pe punctul = I was going to askTo be to – se foloseste la viitor pt un ordin care obliga sa se efectueze actiuneaEx. You are to go to the authorities =To be on the point of + vb-ing– se foloseste la viitor pt o actiune care e pe punctual de se intamplaEx. I am on the point of crying = sunt pe punctual de a plnageORDINEA CUVINTELOR IN PROPOZITIE 1) Nu exista propozitie fara subiect 2) Partile de propozitie strans legate prin inteles nu trebuie despartiteEx. Mt only beautiful sister bought a cake 3) Accentuarea unui cuvant se face prin asezarea lui pe primul loc Cuvant + auxiliar (modal) + subiect + Vb + ….Ex. Never did he say something like that = Niciodata nu a spus 4) Alta modalitate de accentuare este folosirea urmatoarei constructii: It is / was + subiect + who / that + …..NOTA: IT / THERE au rol de subiect formal deoarece subiectul logic este asezat dupa VbEx. It is Mary who helped me = Mary este cea care m-a ajutat It was London that he liked best = Londra a fost cea care mi=a placut cel mai mult. There comes a day when you begin to feel old 5) Ordinea in propozitia enuntiativa este urmatoarea: Complement circumstantial de timp definit + grupul subiectului + grupul predicatuluiCOMPLEMENT CIRCUMSTANTIAL DE TIMP: - yesterday, last year, next week - este asezat numai LA INCEPUT SAU SFARSITUL PROPOZITIEI.GRUPUL SUBIECTULUI : este format din substantiv + determinanti substantivaliDETERMINANTII SUBSTANTIVALI : - articol, adjectiv, numeral, sau alt substantiv cu rol de atribut = asezati in fata SUBSTANTIV - cand substantivul este insotit de mai multe adjective atunci adjectivul cel mai legat ca inteles de Substantiv este asezat IMEDIAT IN FATA acestuia. Intre aceste adjective nu se pune VIRGULA.Ex. Mary has short brown curly nice hair. = Mary are parul scurt, castaniu, buclat si frumosGRUPUL PREDICATULUI: este format din Vb propriu-zis insotit de auxiliarele necesare si de complementdirect, indirect, prepozitional, circumstantial 6) Articolul NEHOTARAT = a, an Se mai pune dupa: many, rather, quite, such, what, without, as urmat de substantivEx. 7) Pronumele reflexiv se pune dupa verbEx. They washed themselves before breakfast 8) Pronumele de intarire se pune imediat dupa cuvantul pe care il intareste
  20. 20. Ex. John himself repaire dit / he was helped by the teacher himself
  21. 21. ZILELE SAPTAMANII:Luni = MondayMarti = TuesdayMiercuri = WednesdayJoi = ThursdayVineri = FridaySambata = SaturdayDuminica = SundayOra exacta:Quarter to five = 5 fara un sfert15 minutes (Quarter) past Five = 5 si 15 minute

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