Answer the question below, making detailed reference to examplesfrom your case study material to support points made in your answer.Q. Discuss the ways in which media products are produced and distributed to audiences, within a media area, which you have studied. Jan 2009
Understanding the question Key words / phrases Meaning• ‘media products’ • Films (the film industry)• ‘produced’ • Made (from script to screen)• ‘distributed’ • Delivered (cinema, DVD, TV, streaming)• ‘audiences’ • Viewers (home and abroad)
Mark SchemeTo get a top mark (level 4 out of 50) you need to do the following:1. Explanation/analysis/argument (16-20 marks)Shows excellent understanding of the taskExcellent knowledge and understanding of institutional/audience practices – factual knowledge is relevant andaccurateA clear and developed argument, substantiated by detailed reference to case study materialClearly relevant to set question2. Use of examples (16-20 marks)Offers frequent evidence from case study material – award marks to reflect the range and appropriateness of examplesOffers a full range of examples from case study and own experienceOffers examples which are clearly relevant to the set question3. Use of terminology (8-10 marks)Use of terminology is relevant and accurate4. Expression and coherence of argumentComplex issues have been expressed clearly and fluently using a style of writing appropriate to the complex subjectmatter. Sentences and paragraphs, consistently relevant, have been well structured, using appropriate technicalterminology. There may be few, if any, errors of spelling, punctuation and grammar.This candidate got a HIGH LEVEL 3 which just scrambles into an A grade for this question.
Some Key Concepts for Film Industry Questions1. Convergence - ‘The key agent of change’ … ‘technologies coming together’2. Impact of Digital Technologies – ‘digital technology is transforming the audio-visual experience of film’3. Piracy4. Synergy – ‘media industries are diversifying so they produce and distribute across several media’5. Audience fragmentation – ‘convergence, user-generated content and social networking have transformed the audience’ – cinema vs DVD6. UK vs Hollywood - Case Studies – large vs small, indie vs studio, low budget vs big budget, social realism/heritage drama vs romcom/action-adventure
Basic Essay Structure1. Introduce your answer including the casestudies you intend on using…‘A clear and developed argument’‘Clearly relevant to set question ’
Basic Essay Structure2. Compare and Contrast your Case Studiesshowing• ‘detailed reference to case study material’• ‘frequent evidence from case study material’• ‘a full range of examples from case study and own experience’• ‘Excellent knowledge and understanding of institutional/audience practices’.• Making sure your ‘factual knowledge is relevant and accurate’.
Basic Essay Structure3. Conclude your essay summarising yourargument proving• ‘Sentences and paragraphs, consistently relevant, have been well structured, using appropriate technical terminology’• ‘Complex issues have been expressed clearly and fluently ’.
What does the Film Industry include?Production: funding and making films.Distribution & Marketing films and getting them into cinemasand out on DVD as well as any spin offs/related media products.Exhibition: people paying at the cinema, renting or buyingDVDs and downloading and purchasing related products.Audiences: in the cinema, on TV, DVD/Blu-ray, on the Internet,NetFlix/LoveFilm.This questions expects you to write about production anddistribution & marketing and the audience.
What are the case studies in this essay and how are they used? Case Study 1 Case Study 2• Warp Films • Working Title Films• Small independent British • Large internationally production company owned conglomerate• Films co-funded with • Funded by Universal big National Lottery, Hollywood studio Film4/BBC Films • Mid to large budgets ‘The• Small budgets ‘This Is Duchess’ (2008) £13 England’ (2006) £1.5 million million • Typical genre• Typical genre – social Romcom/Heritage Drama realism • Target US and UK• Target largely UK audiences - multiplex audiences and arthouse
Key Concepts in Film Production• Budgets – ‘In 2011, 62% of all UK films had budgets of less than £500,000’ vs Hollywood• What makes a film British?• Closing the UKFC – changing to BFI…• The Special Relationship with Hollywood – importance of the US market - High Concept Cinema – Indiewood (Lost in Translation (2003))• Growth in the DVD market - improvement in the hardware for watching films in the home - Digital cinema - growth of IMAX and 3D films• Case Study - Lionsgate Entertainment
Film Budgets• Micro budget – National Lottery/BFI/ Film London (Shifty £100k) and Vertigo Films (Monsters £500k)• Small Budget – Warp Films, BBC Films, Film4• Mid Budget – Indiewood (Focus Features, Fox Searchlight etc), Working Title.• Big Budget – Hollywood Studios.
Key Concept - Synergy in Production• Synergy can be defined as a strategy of actively forging connections between directly related areas of entertainment.• What example is given in the essay?• What examples of Synergy can you think of?
Key Concepts in Distribution• How is the Internet changing things? Web 2.0 – YouTube vs MySpace – Marketing Cloverfield?• Audience Fragmentation – ‘With broadband speeds increasing, smartphone and tablet ownership on the rise and internet-enabled television sets becoming more commonplace the period of digital transition is by no means complete. The ways in which we choose and watch films has undergone an enormous change in the last decade and the next one is likely to be no different.’• Classification• DVD vs VoD – ‘DVD/Blu-ray remains the most important element of the film value chain’ (but not for long?)• UK Market Only 5 Major Distributors in the Uk – owned by Hollywood – ‘the top 10 distributors had a 94% share of the market’ – is this a problem?• Case Study - United International Pictures (UIP)
Key Concept - Impact of Digital Technologies on Production• ‘Smaller, lighter, quicker, easier, cheaper, more effective’• HD-DV – much cheaper than 35mm film – do you remember the problem with Prints?• HD-DV still excellent quality.• Lighter cameras mean easier for women to access film production.• Allows easier addition of CGI.• Increasing use of electronic, moving image storyboards
Piracy and Audiences• Think of the issues surrounding film piracy at the moment including your own experience.
Impact of Digital Technologies on Distribution & Marketing• ‘Smaller, lighter, quicker, easier, cheaper, more effective’• Digital distribution - developing use of direct- to-theatre satellite and/or the Internet to distribute.• What other examples can you think of?
Homework• Case Study – Warp Films• Find out what you can about Warp Films• http://warp.net/films• Look for information on how they produce films, what kind of films they make (genre) and who distributes their films.• Research Four Lions (2010)• http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1341167/?ref_=sr_1• Find out production companies, distributors in the UK, the budget, any interesting aspects to the marketing campaign – start here…• http://warp.net/films/four-lions/four-lions-up-for-best-dvd- campaign• Choose ONE other Warp Films production and research the production, distribution and marketing of your film.