The MAX IV LaboratoryAndreas Lassesson, 8 May 2013
The MAX IV Laboratory● A national laboratory at Lund University● Financed by the Swedish Research Council● Annual budget of €11M● Consists of present MAX‐lab and the MAX IV project● Nearly 1000 users each year ● Materials Science
What is a synchrotron facility?● An accelerator of electrons● Produce electromagnetic radiation from infrared to hard X‐rays● Used for materials science
What properties can be studied?StructureChemistryProtein structureNanomaterialsPolymersCompositesImaging (at MAX IV)...Trace elementsOxidation statesReactions...
What materials can be studied?● Biomaterials: bone, implants, prosthesis etc.● Biomolecules: proteins etc.● Semiconductors● Liquids: oil, emulsions etc. ● Polymers: plastics etc.● Chemicals: catalysts etc. ● Fossils
MAX‐lab● Three synchrotron rings: MAX I –III● Producing radiation from infrared to hard X‐rays● 15 Beamlines for various experiments
2016: The MAX IV facility● Largest research infrastructure project in Sweden ● Will form a world leading centre for Materials Science in Lund together with ESS ● Will attract researchers and companies from the entire world
Linac (300m) ‐ 20141.5 GeV ring (96m) ‐ 20163 GeV ring (528m) ‐ 2015The layout of MAX IV
What is so special about MAX IV?● Constructed using novel accelerator technology developed in Lund● Will be the brightest source of soft X‐rays in the World● Enables:– Very fast measurements– Dilute samples– Very small samples– Imaging– Etc.
MAX IV and ESS ● Will form a Materials Science hub in Southern Sweden● The Science Village will be built around the facilities● Thousands of researchers visiting annually● Cross‐road between academic research and industrial R&D
The MAX IV budget● Total cost for buildings: €250M ● Costs for accelerators €150M provided by four organisations:– Swedish Research Council– VINNOVA ‐ Sweden’s Innovation Agency– Lund University– Region Skåne● The first seven beamlines (€60M):– Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation– Swedish Universities● 8th beamline “FinEst” funded by Estonia and Finland (€3M)● Additional beamlines under negotiation within Sweden and internationally
What properties can be studied?● Largest research infrastructure in Sweden ● Will attract researchers world‐wide to Lund● Constructing the MAX IVThe first 7 beamlines at MAX IV
● FemtoMAX: ultrafast chemical reactions● NanoMAX: 10 nanometer resolution, nanomaterials● Balder: chemical processes, trace elements● BioMAX: structures of biomolecules● VERITAS: sub‐nanometer and femtosecond dynamics● ARPES: nanosystems, new materials, semiconductors etc.● HIPPIE: surface science, catalysis, corrosion, semiconductor research, et.The first 7 beamlines at MAX IV
| 17Macromolecular Crystallography (MX)X‐raydiffractiondiffractionpatternprotein crystalprotein structureMore than 70 000 protein structures resolved with MX
New clues for treatments of heart disease● Muscle cells are controlled through rising and falling levels of Calcium ions within the cell● Calcium controlled by a membrane protein (SERCA)● Reduced functionality of the SERCA pump associated with heart disease● Researchers investigated SERCA at MAX‐lab ● Published in Nature in March 2013
Novo NordiskUnderwood et al., The Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 285, pp. 723–730Blue ribbon: Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1)GLP-1 stimulates insulin production in the humanbody• Reduces and controls blood sugar• Reduces body weightStructure of GLP-1 together with receptor GLP-1Rsolved using the MX beamline at MAX-labThe GLP-1 analog Liraglutide is marketed as thetype-2 diabetes drug Victoza by Novo Nordisk.
XAS (X‐ray Absorption Spectroscopy)X‐raysSample: • Liquid• Solid• Biomaterial• Polymer• Wood• ...Sensitive to the chemical surroundings of transition metals:• Oxidation states• Coordination number• Bond lengths• ...
Imaging at MAX IVMethod: Imaging in 2D & 3DScientific scope:• Physiological and morphological characterization of tissue samples and entire organs• micro‐localization of toxic elements and tumor‐targeting molecules in tissue• in‐vivo imaging of small animals Sectors:Life science, biological science incl. food, wood and plant science
| 23Industry usage per sector (2012)More than 1000 hours of commercial beamtime, but less than 2% of the total beamtime ...
13/05/201324An Industry Liaison Office for MAX IVIndustrial Liaison OfficeCompanyBeamline scientists• Discussing initial problem• Negotiating legal agreement• Introductions to scientific staff• Quotes for beamtime• Science LinkTechnicians etc.Also working towards general public and industry, e.g. visiting industry fairs etc. • In‐depth scientific discussions• Planning beamtime• Sample preparation• Tutoring company users• Performing experiments• Data analysis