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Review Portfolio A Life Of War And Death

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Review Portfolio A Life Of War And Death

  1. 1. Review PortfolioA Life Of War AND DEATHPSY492<br />By: Michelle Denise Williams<br />
  2. 2. Abstract<br />Child abuse in today’s society is growing at a rapid rate, so is mental health issues, divorce, and drug and alcohol abuse in adults. We never take seriously into consideration the effects that childhood sexual abuse could take on our growing adults. In this paper we look at some of the problems that can occur in adults who have been sexually abused as children. We note that some become abusers, others drug and alcohol abusers, and some develop mental or health issues as adults in early or later in life. There are other researchers who have studied this hypothesis and in this paper we will look at their views in the vast and devastating rise of sexual abuse in children and how it affects adults. <br />
  3. 3. A Life Of War And Death<br />The world has become a breeding ground for men and women that prey on children. We often see the media state that a male has just been convicted of sexual abuse to a child in some type of way. The main thing is that women are just as bad as the males now a days. I really doesn’t matter what age the offense is committed, it is still a life long battle for the victim. Children who have been victims of sexual abuse regardless of age in some cases soon grow up to become adults with possibilities of mental or psychological disorders, and in many cases they become the very thing that they hate, a predator. Although, others are able to use it for the better others, are often hindered from growing and living a successful live in this world. <br /> The reason for this research is to inform you on the affects that takes place psychologically and physically to a person who has suffered from abuse at different stages of life. We will discuss the mental state of an abused person, the psychological aspect of the trauma and what disorders are associated with it, and then we will find out why it is termed War of Life and Death. There will be a short view on the statistics that have been collected from different cases.<br />
  4. 4. A LIFE OF WAR AND DEATH<br />In many studies memory is the most targeted psychological issue that arises in adults who have been sexually abused as a child. Repression is one that Freud describes as the dynamic and compulsive but completely unconscious forgetting of unbearable, threatening, or disturbing experiences and what Knafo and Feiner (2006) designated as “unconscious fantasy” (Colangelo, J. p. 105). Dissociation tends to be more creative ways of coping with memories, it could last a short time or in long durations, there could also be a loss of memory for a variable amount of time (p 108). <br />. <br />
  5. 5. A WAR OF LIFE AND DEATH<br />In the study in clinicians research digest it states that regression analysis indicate that a significant relationship between this history of abuse and several HIV-risky behaviors, including trending sex for money or drugs, having a large number of sexual partners, and having unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse, woman with a history of childhood abuse only or in childhood or adolescent abuse were more likely to engage in these type behaviors, than woman who experienced abuse only in adolescence. The question is asked when an adult who have had been sexually abused as a child is able to now remember the sexual abuse but couldn’t at a younger stage is it true or false memory. Holmes (1974) reported evidence that repression did not exist and that there was no justification for the behavior, then others like Goldberg (1979) and Kline (1972) contradicts Holmes’s review, with offerings with evidence of repression confirmed by objective and scientific psychological research (p 106). Repression and dissociation is very much evident in cases of CSA. In the study of the APA Panel Addresses Controversy Over Adult Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse, it concludes that forgotten memories can be remembered, but that pseudo-memories can also be constructed and no method exist to tell them apart (p 1) In this study it also gives the guidelines on how to properly go through a counseling session with CSA victims.<br />
  6. 6. A Life OF WAR AND DEATH<br />Another subject hot in psychology is whether the association with health related problems is due to childhood sexual abuse. The study performed by Goodman and Rogers concluded that strong support for the hypothesized link between child abuse- both sexual and physical- HIV-related risky behavior among low-income, urban woman with serious mental disorders (p. 80). This study also noted that it was related to adult sexual and physical assault, abuse of alcohol and cocaine, and prostitution, and was associated with knowingly having sexual intercourse with high-risk partners (p 80). This health assessment study shows the dangers that are associated with adults who were sexually abused as a child. Cocaine abusers are associated in the health related field of CSA many men and women in the Dunlap, Golub, Johnson, and Benoit studies where New York inner city crack users (2009) indicated that they (half of the studies) reported being beaten, sexually abuse, neglected, victims of household dysfunction, and etc. They also indicated that from other researchers’ that childhood abuse could result in a range of negative outcomes for adulthood, including drug abuse, alcohol abuse, mental illness, and physical illness, posttraumatic stress disorders, depression and anxiety disorders. This study also noted that many of the children who are born since the 1970’s have seen the damage that crack brought to individuals and their communities have shunned its use (22). This may be the cause of high use of lesser drug related methods.<br />
  7. 7. A LIFE OF WAR AND DEATH<br />In the study of Wilson (2009) notes that all CSA victims cannot be stereotyped, there are some who become outspoken advocates for societal change. It’s the others that adopt a risky life style that we want to let know that recovery is possible. In this study it was noted from a previous study by Golding (1999) that the odds of having poor health were 1.63 times greater if sexually abused as a child, regardless of gender or ethnicity (p. 57). In this study it referenced a study done by George (1996) that concluded that adults who had experienced sexual abuse were twice as likely to suffer from mental health disorders when compared to their counter parts who were not abused (p 57). Also in this study it showed that a history of CSA has been linked to fear, anxiety, depression, insomnia, obesity, self-destructive behavior, headaches, aggression, anger, hostility, poor self esteem, substance abuse, suicide attempts, and sexual maladjustments (p 57). In this study it states that many children who have been sexually abused are associated with obesity in adulthood. This study represents the increasing need for intervention in children who have been sexually abused. These children if have early intervention could be helped though therapy and counseling, it could alleviate if not cure most or all of these medical ailments due to CSA. <br />
  8. 8. A LIFE OF WAR AND DEATH<br />Out of all the disputes that have been recognized thus far the main concern in today’s society is prevention. We would rather that a child never becomes a victim of this sort of crime. Therefore, studies have been conducted on weather a person who has been sexually abused will when reach adulthood will become a sexual abuser. This is the reason I titled this paper as, “A War of Life and Death”. This cycle is continuing and killing off more and more of the childhood population and their abilities to grow into normal successful adults. There is also a study that shows that children who have been sexually abused have a high drop out rate in college. This is one reason that many studies reveal that these few become potential predators of other children. In the study that the United States General Accounting Office in The General Government Division (1996), stated that in it’s findings that they have come to realize that this pattern is consistent with social learning theories-which posit that children learn those behaviors that are modeled for them-and also with psychodynamic theories-which suggest that abusing others may help the victimized individual to overcome childhood trauma (p 2). 7 percent to 26 percent of sexually abused children in these studies were found to be sex offenders as adults (3). Although in many studies such as this one there is no concrete evidence that sexually abuse children grow up to be sexual abusers, there is a rough notion that we can conclude that its occurrence even in these studies is still too high. Even if 1 out of 10 sexually abused children develop this cycle that’s still too many for the vast growing number of occurrences of sexually reported cases. <br />
  9. 9. In conclusion we have read over studies that implicate that there are many factors that are associated with childhood sexual abuse and how it traumatizes in many ways these children as they grow into adulthood. Weather it be mentally, physically, emotionally, or psychologically causing maladaptive behaviors, it needs to be resolved. All of the adults who have been victimized as a child will probably come out more if they are only given an opportunity to do so, without the fees being to out of cost rage. This would also mean that we would have to come up with better treatment strategies to deal with the children who have been sexually abused that they will overcome the studies provided here today. <br /> The question is not really how do we reverse pain, but How can we prevent the pain from starting? If we could have a study that would ask this question as it relates to why predator’s prey, we could help save children from the pain and trauma of this type of abuse. This will also produce a better intervention method for parents, which would help take their children out of the risk of sexual abuse. <br />
  10. 10. REFERENCES<br />Cambell, Rebecca., Greeson, Megan R., Bybee, Deborah, and Raja, Sheela (2008). The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Meditational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes. Michigan State University and Mt. Sinai Hospital Medical Center and University of Illinois at Chicago. Journal of Counseling and Clinical Psychology 2008 Vol. 76. No. 2, 194-207. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Colangelo, James J. (2009). The Recovered Memory Controversy: A Representative Case Study. Long Island University, Fresh Meadows, New York, USA. Journal of Child Abuse, 18:103-121. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Dunlap, E., Golube, A., Johnson, B.D., and Benoit, E. (2009). Normalization of Violence: Experiences of Childhood Abuse by Inner-Crack Users. National Development and Research Institutes, New York, New York. Journal Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 8:15-34. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Farbaberman, Rhea K. (1996). APA Panel Addresses Controversy Over Adult Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Concludes That Forgotten Memories Can Be Remembered, But That Pseudo-memories Can Also Be Constructed and No Method Exist To Tell Them Apart. American Psychological Association. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />General Accounting Office (GAO), (1996). Cycle of Sexual Abuse: Research Inconclusive About Wheather Child Victims Become Adult Abusers. United States General Accounting Office. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Goodman, Ph.D, Lisa A., and Fallot, Ph.D, Roger D. (1998). HIV Risk-Behaviors In Poor Urban Women With Serious Mental Disorders: Association With Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 68(1). January 1998. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Lamoureux, Brittain E., Hobfoll, Steaven E. (2007). Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Adult Interpersonal Relationships. Kent State University. American Psychological Association 2007 Convention Presentation. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Parillo, K.M., Freeman, R.C, Collier, K. and Young, P. (2001). How Does Sexual Abuse History Affect Women’s Adult Sexual Behavior? Association between early sexual abuse and adult HIV-risky behaviors among community-recruited women. Child Abuse and Neglect, 25, 335-346. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Wilson, PhD, MSN, RN, IBCLC, AHN-BC, CHT, Debra Rose (2010). Health Consequences of Childhood Abuse. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care Vol. 46, No. 1, January 2010. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />Wherry, Jefferey N., Neil, Debra A., and Taylor, Tamara N. (2009). Measurement Issues: Pathological Dissociation as Measured by the Child Dissociative Checklist. Abilene Christian University, Abilene, Texas, USA. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 18: 93-102, 2009. Retrieved March 10, 2010 on Argosy Online Research EBSCO Database at http://search.ebsco.com/login.aspx<br />
  11. 11. Happy Children Lead To A Successful Adulthood. <br />

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