Power Point on Jacqueline Casey


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Power Point on Jacqueline Casey

  1. 1. Practice Critical Thinking Critical thinking is one of the most effective academic skills you can apply
  2. 2. Learning Steps: • Apply problem solving skills • Apply conflict resolution skills
  3. 3. Problem Solving… • There are five critical steps in the Problem solving process: 1. Clarify the Problem 2. Gather information 3. Identify alternatives 4. Weigh the alternatives and decide 5. Implement your action plan
  4. 4. 1. Clarify the Problem Ask open ended questions to find out what caused the situation. You can start the questions with: Who What Where When Why How Focus on the main problem at this stage and avoid letting smaller ones get in the way.
  5. 5. 2. Gather Information • Consult the people who have interest in the problem • Read information that relates to the problem in your company newsletter or occupational journal
  6. 6. 3. Identify Alternatives • Make a list of at least four problem solving alternatives: 1. The obvious solution - the solution that first comes to mind 2. The copied solution - the solution other people have chosen and worked for them 3. The found solution -the solution that could accomplish what you want 4. The improved solution -the solution that takes any of the above ones and makes them better
  7. 7. 4. Weigh the Alternatives & Decide Important factors to consider when weighing alternatives: -Your emotions: Which choices to you like/dislike? -Ease: Will it be possible to carry out these choices? -Requirements: Will these choices actually solve the problem? -Consequences: What could possibly go wrong? -Plus/Minus: What are the pluses or minuses in this choice? -Review: Are you able to state the reasons for your choice?
  8. 8. 5. Implement your Action Plan In this step you put the problem solving process into operation. How can you put your action plan into operation? -Identify the steps -Identify time lines -Identify results -Identify the follow-up procedures One way of effectively putting your action plan into operation is to create a Problem Solving Action Plan
  9. 9. Problem Solving Action Plan • Action Step (in order) • Time it should take (months, days, hours) • Results I expect (clearly stated) • Follow-up I will Implement (usually after final step) Make the steps as specific as you can
  10. 10. Who's got the answer?! 1. What is the first step in the problem solving process? 2. Can you describe an “improved solution”? 3. Which step out of the five step problem solving process has to do with making good choices? 4. Working with a group gives you lots of input and can be an advantage. Can you name some possible disadvantages?
  11. 11. Conflict Resolution Solving conflict can lead to personal and professional growth
  12. 12. Two main areas of focus: • The causes of conflict • The common ways of dealing with conflict
  13. 13. Five Major Causes of Conflict • Because of Date • Because of Relationships • Because of Values • Because of Structures • Because of Interests Why the conflicts have arisen in the first place:
  14. 14. Because of Data These conflicts occur when: • people lack the necessary information to make wise decisions • People are misinformed • People disagree over what information is relevant • People interpret information differently than others
  15. 15. Because of Relationships • These conflicts occur because people have trouble saying what they mean or can’t correctly interpret what others are saying • These conflicts can be made worse by people’s own emotions • Relationship conflicts are usually more difficult to resolve than data conflicts
  16. 16. Because of Values • These conflicts occur when two or more people deal with each other and find they have different beliefs of what is right and wrong • Good communication skills are key when trying to resolve these conflicts
  17. 17. Because of Structures • These occur between you and another employee when one of you is not able to comply with company policy • Structural conflicts are very common in the work place
  18. 18. Because of Interests • These usually occur when the people involved have different needs • An example can be when a co-worker wants to play music in the staff room while you prefer to have it quiet • If people understand others needs these conflicts can be resolved relatively easily
  19. 19. Dealing with Conflicts Once you know why the conflict has occurred, you are ready to consider some resolutions. There is no one way of dealing with conflicts that will suit each person involved. For this reason, it is a good idea to use the five ways to deal with conflict
  20. 20. Five Ways to Deal with Conflicts Avoidance Competing Compromising Accommodating Collaborating
  21. 21. Avoidance Method -can be a comfortable tactic initially, and may be used until the people involved get used to each other -can be used until others can be consulted Advantages/Disadvantages -may prevent the conflict from being resolved -can be seen as not taking the conflict seriously or not caring if it is resolved
  22. 22. Competing Method -can get the conflict over with quickly or lead to total victory for one side Advantages/Disadvantages -can lead to resentment for the other person -if the other person uses this approach as well it can lead to stalemate
  23. 23. Compromising Method -natural and easy for most people -seems fair since both people see themselves as winning and losing Advantages/Disadvantages -Can possibly result in agreements that neither person likes
  24. 24. Accommodating Method -appropriate if one person thinks the other is right -can work when you feel the relationship is worth more then being on the “winning side.” Advantages/Disadvantages -Can cause you to be labeled as “soft.” -Can lead to the habit of giving in on important issues
  25. 25. Collaborating Method -both people involved can say they “won.” -important relationships can be built up and maintained Advantages/Disadvantages -can be time consuming -people who use the competing style may see collaborating is weakness
  26. 26. Notes on Dealing with Conflicts - When possible, try to use the collaborating style to deal with a conflict. - Collaborating is the style most likely to give everyone involved some satisfaction. -It is essential to listen and try to understand the other person’s point of view. - Three guiding principals to remember: Be calm, Be patient, Be respectful
  27. 27. Who’s Got the Answer?! 1. Can you name the causes of conflict? 2. Can you name the five conflict resolutions? 3. What is the best conflict resolution style?
  28. 28. References: Alder, Ronald, B., & Towne, Neil. (1994). Managing interpersonal conflicts. Looking out Looking in: Interpersonal Communication (8th ed.), (pp. 431-436). Fort Worth: Holt Rinehart & Winston, Inc. Zenger-Miller Inc. (1995). Resolving issues with others. Working: Personal Leadership Skills. San Jose, CA: Zenger-Miller, Inc. Web pages: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTMC_00.htm http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_81.htm