Communication

1,331 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Communication

  1. 1. Sc ale ino aT or Michelina Viggiani
  2. 2. Communication (coming from the Latin word "communis", meaning to share) IS a process in which people exchange information, news, ideas, feelings and also create and share meaning through an accepted code of symbols.• in general is a means of connecting people or places• in business is a key function of management Michelina Viggiani
  3. 3. Methods of communicationOne-way communication • Information flows only in one direction –from the sender to the receiver with no feedback (memo, fax, email, letter) • A much common way of communication because it is faster and easier for the sender and there is no trouble from disagreement. • There may be mistakes in transmission of information. Two-way communication • A process in which information flows in two-directions – the receiver provides feedback and the sender receptive to the feedback. (Phone call, in person ) • It is more accurate and fewer mistakes in transmission. • But it is time-consuming and more difficult for the senderCollaborative communication • Team meetings, consulting, decision making, group problem solving Michelina Viggiani
  4. 4. What are the most common ways we communicate? Sp ok en Wo ages rds l Im V isua n t io ic a n un tio mm ica un l co m rba om e lc n-v arb NoVe s rd Wo Bo en dy itt Wr La n gu ag e Michelina Viggiani
  5. 5. NONVERBAL - VERBAL COMMUNICATION• Nonverbal Communication - all elements of communication that donot involve words.Four basic types: Proxemics - an individual’s perception and use of space Kinetics - study of body movements, including posture Facial & Eye Behaviour - movements that add cues for the receiver Paralanguage - variations in speech, such as pitch, loudness, tempo, tone, duration, laughing, & crying • Verbal Communication - The encoding of messages into words, either written or spoken Michelina Viggiani
  6. 6. Communication Process encode decode Sender Medium Receiver FeedbackThe communication process is the guidetoward realizing effective communication. Michelina Viggiani
  7. 7. Communication Key Elements• Source/Sender – an individual, group, or organization who initiates the communication and is initially responsible for the success of the message• Message – what information to communicate• Encoding – sender translates the message into symbols or language• Medium/Channel – pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiver Michelina Viggiani
  8. 8. • Decoding - The processing stage where the receiver interprets the symbols sent by the sender, translates the message and tries to make the symbols meaningful• Receiver – the individual or group to whom the message is directed• Feedback - is initiated by the receiver who decides what message to send to the original sender ( Feedback eliminates misunderstandings, allows the sender to evaluate the effectiveness of the message)• Noise – refers to anything that interferes at any stage of the communication process Michelina Viggiani
  9. 9. Communication Key Elements• Source/Sender – an individual, group, or organization who initiates the communication and is initially responsible for the success of the message• Message – what information to communicate• Encoding – sender translates the message into symbols or language• Medium/Channel – pathway through which an encoded message is transmitted to a receiver Michelina Viggiani
  10. 10. Characteristics of effective communicationsEffective communication requires the message to be:• Clear and concise• Accurate• Relevant to the needs of the receiver• Timely• Meaningful• Applicable to the situation Michelina Viggiani
  11. 11. Communication Barriers • Physical separation • Status differencesFactors that block or • Sex differencessignificantly distort • Cultural diversitysuccessful • Languagecommunication • Educational level • Attitude • Timing • Understanding of message Noise • Trust Michelina Viggiani
  12. 12. Michelina Viggiani
  13. 13. Communication media• Written communication media: (Letters ,Memos, Reports, Forms , Notice boards and Internal magazines or (Letters ,Memos, Reports, Forms , Notice boards and Internal magazines or newspapers, E-mail, Faxes, notices ,Circulars, Newsletters, Reports, Proposals, Research papers, Bulletins, Brochures, Manuals, In-house journals )• Oral communication media (Face-to-face discussions, telephone conversations, formal presentations, meetings, seminars, group discussions, interviews (employment/press), video conferences, voice conferences etc.)• Electronic communication media (Paging devises, laptop computers, E-mail, fax machines, electronic notice boards etc.) Michelina Viggiani
  14. 14. Information Richness of Communication Media Michelina Viggiani
  15. 15. Communication MediaFace-to-Face :• Has highest information richness• Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals• Provides for instant feedback• Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talksto workers• Video conferences provide much of this richness and reduce travel costs andmeeting timesSpoken Communication Electronically Transmitted• Has the second highest information richness• Telephone conversations are information rich with tone of voice, sender’semphasis, and quick feedback, but provide no visual nonverbal cuesPersonally Addressed Written Communication• Has a lower richness than the verbal forms of communication, but still isdirected at a given person.• Personal addressing helps ensure receiver actually reads the message—personal letters and e-mail are common forms Michelina Viggiani
  16. 16. New Technologies for Communication• Informational databases• Electronic mail systems• Voice mail systems• Fax machine systems• Cellular phone systems Michelina Viggiani
  17. 17. Tips for Effective Use of NewCommunication Technologies Provide social interaction opportunities Strive for message Build in completeness feedback opportunities Michelina Viggiani
  18. 18. “Communication is not only the essence of being human, but also a vital property of life.” John A. Piece  Michelina Viggiani
  19. 19. Michelina Viggiani

×